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culations was, unfortunately, lost in an et des Angles, being an extension and attempt to work coal and salt mines at explanation of Cotes's Harmonia MenBarrowstones, on the Duke of Hamil- surarum; Theoire du Mouvement des ton's estate. He passed the last twenty Aspides; De Inæqualitatibus Motuum years of his life wholly dependent on a Lunarium ; and An Explanation of the small annuity granted him by his cre- Apocalypse. He died at Bath, where ditors, and died on the 17th of July, he had the misfortune to lose several 1794. He was a fellow of the Royal valuable manuscripts during the time of Society, to whose Transactions he com- the riots, in the year 1797. municated several philosophical papers, besides being the author of two political RUSSELL, (PATRICK,) was born at pamphlets.
Edinburgh, in February, 1726; and
after having received both his classical MUDGE, (JOHN,) son of the cele- and medical education in that city, brated Rev. Zachariah Mudge, was born joined his brother at the English factory in Devonshire, in 1720, and practised in Aleppo, and succeeded him as phyas a physician, for many years, at Ply- sician there, in 1755. During his resimouth, where he died of the gout, on dence there, he was much respected, the 26th of April, 1793. He became both for his abilities and behaviour, and very celebrated in his profession, both was allowed, by the Bashaw of Aleppo, as a practitioner and writer, and was a to wear a turban, a mark of distinction fellow of the Royal Society, whose seldom conferred upon an European. Transactions he enriched by an account In 1759, he wrote several letters reof a mode he had discovered for im- specting some remarkable shocks of an proving the formation of reflecting earthquake, at that time felt in Syria, telescopes. As a medical writer, he which were published in the Philosodistinguished himself by the following phical Transactions for the following publications :-Dissertation on the In
About 1772, he returned to oculated Small Pox, &c.; A Radical England, and settled, as a physician, in and Expeditious Cure for a Recent and London, where he remained till 1781, Catarrhous Cough, &c., which reached when he accompanied a younger broa third edition; a paper On Removing ther to Vizagapatam, in the East Indies; the only Defect in the Lateral Opera- and, in 1785, was appointed, by the tion for the Stone, inserted in the governor of Madras, naturalist to the Philosophical Transactions ; and An East India Company. In this capacity, Experienced and Successful Method of he wrote a small work, illustrated with Treating the Fistula in Ano, inserted figures, on the serpent, in order to in the fourth volume of The Medical enable persons to distinguish between Memoirs.
the poisonous and harmless species of
that animal, copies of which were transWALMESLEY, (CHARLES,) was mitted to all the subordinate settleborn in 1722, and educated for the ments and military stations. In 1789, Roman catholic church, in which he he returned to England ; and, two years arrived at the dignity of bishop in his afterwards, published his Treatise on thirty-fifth year. He was also vicar the Plague, in two volumes, quarto ; a apostolic of the western district, and a work which had been the result of his doctor of theology in the Sorbonne. observations of that disease at Aleppo He is entitled to notice, in this work, as during the years 1760, 1761, and 1762. the last survivor of those eminent ma- In 1794, he published a second edition thematicians whose regulations of the of The Natural History of Aleppo, by chronological style in England, pro- Alexander Russell, to which he had duced a change of the style in the year made so many important additions, that 1752. He was a fellow of the Royal | it was looked upon almost as a new Society, and contributed to the Philo. work. In 1796, the East India directors sophical Transactions some ingenious published, at their own expense, his astronomical essays. He also published work on Snakes; and also, in 1803, his several separate works, both on mathe- | work, in two volumes, folio, entitled matics and theology; among which are Descriptions and Figures of Two Hunhis Analyse des Mesures des Rapports dred Fishes, collected on the coast of
Coromandel. He was also the author work, entitled Experiments on Vegeof some papers in the Philosophical tables, discovering their great power of Transactions, in addition to those already purifying the common air in sunshine, mentioned, and of a paper on the Small but injuring it in the shade, or night. Pox and Measles, in the Medical and It was highly esteemed by all the exChirurgical Transactions. He died, un- perimental philosophers of the time, married, on the 2nd of July, 1805, and was translated into the French and making it a request that he might not German languages. His other publibe buried within the walls of a church, cations are to be found in the sixtyas he thought dead bodies, deposited fifth, sixty-sixth, sixty-eighth, sixtythere, were prejudicial to the living. ninth, seventieth, and seventy-second
volumes of the Philosophical TransWITCHELL, (GEORGE,) was born actions, and relate entirely to scientific in 1728, and so early as his fourteenth subjects: the most important of which year, appears to have made some pro- are, Experiments on the Torpedo; on gress in the science of astronomy, as at the Electrophorus : New Methods of that time he communicated a paper on Suspending Magnetic Needles; and the subject to The Gentleman's Diary. Considerations on the Influence of the In 1764, he published a map exhibiting Vegetable Kingdom on the Animal the passage of the moon's shadow over Creation. He died on the 7th of SepEngland in the great solar eclipse that tember, 1799, at Bowood, the seat of took place on the 1st of April; the the Marquess of Lansdowne, where he exact correspondence of which to the was on a visit. He was very fond of observations gained him great reputa- exhibiting his scientific experiments to tion. In the following year, he com his frierids, particularly to young people; municated, to the commissioners of and is said to have been a man of great longitude, a plan for calculating the kindness and simplicity of manners, effects of refraction and parallax, on the though he disgusted Jenner, by the moon's distance from the sun or a star, arrogant and supercilious tone in which to facilitate the discovery of the longi- he opposed him in the vaccine question. tude at sea. He was, for many years, one of the most eminent mathematical HUDSON, (William,) born in teachers in London ; and, in 1767, was Westmoreland, about the year 1730, appointed head master of the Royal was apprenticed to an apothecary in Academy at Portsmouth. He had been Panton Street, Haymarket, where he elected a fellow of the Royal Society practised that profession after the death some years previous to his death, which of his master, and continued to reside occurred in 1785. Several of his com- during the greater part of his life. He munications will be found both in The was principally distinguished for his Lady's and Gentleman's Diary, and a botanical knowledge, and, as being one few, also, in The Gentleman's Maga- of the earliest English disciples of Linzine.
næus, the study of whose writings, pro
bably, gave his mind “that correct and INGENHOUZ, (John,) born at scientific turn, which," in the words of Breda, in 1730, came to England, in his biographer, "caused him to take the 1767, for the purpose of obtaining in- lead as a classical English botanist." In formation respecting the Suttonian me- 1762, he published, with an elegant thod of inoculation for the small pox. Latin preface by Stillingfleet, his Flora In the following year he went out, on Anglica, to which he added a second the recommendation of Sir John Pringle, edition in 1778; the first one having to inoculate the royal family at Vienna, then become so scarce, that twenty for which he was made body physician times its original price was demanded and counsellor of state to the emperor and given for a copy. In this work, and empress, and received a pension taking Ray's Synopsis as a groundfor life of £600 per annum. After in- work for his plan, he adopts the Linoculating the Grand Duke of Tuscany, næan system and nomenclature, to he returned to England in 1779, in which are superadded descriptions of which year he was elected a fellow of new or rare plants, and the synonyms the Royal Society, and published a of the principal authors subsequent to
Ray and Dillenius. By this publi- sidered much inferior in beauty to a cation he gained considerable reputa- French article, which, about, 1760, was tion, both in his own country and on imported into this country, in considerthe continent. It was considered, in able quantity. A turn, however, was every way, superior to the Flora Scotica given to the market, in 1763, by Mr. of Mr. Lightroot, and derived no small Wedgewood's invention of a species of advantage from a comparison with Mr. ware, which united so many excellencies Hill's attempt of the same kind. In for the table, that it was patronised by 1783, his house being burnt down, he the queen and nobility, and, under the lost not only a considerable quantity of name of queen's ware, came into very property, in default of insurance, but general use. Its materials consisted of also all his collection of manuscripts, the whitest clays from Devonshire and which he had intended to publish under Dorsetshire, mixed with ground flint, the title of Fauna Britannica. He bore and coated with a vitreous glaze. A his misfortune with singular equanimity variety of subsequent experiments of mind ; and, having removed to enabled the inventor to produce several Jermyn Street, gave up practice, and other species of earthenware and pordevoted himself to his favourite sub- celain, io which his own taste, and that ject of botany, to the time of his death, of his partner, Mr. Bentley, imparted a which occurred on the 23rd of May, classical elegance, that not only fur1793. He was, in 1761, admitted a
nished models for a variety of articles fellow of the Royal Society, and of the in other materials, but exercised a conLinnæan Society, in 1791; he also, for siderable influence over the national some time, took the lead in the affairs taste. Nor was the fame of his potof the Apothecaries' Company, and was, teries confined to England : services of for many years, their botanical demon- queen's ware were to be seen on the strator in the Chelsea garden. He cor- tables of the remotest countries in responded frequently with Linnæus and Europe. Mr. Wedgewood also carried Haller, who were both of much service on the pursuits of science with success ; to him in his studies, which were ex- and chemistry is indebted to him for tended "not only to botany, in all its the invention of a very useful hydrocryptogamic minutiæ, but to insects, meter, adapted to the mensuration of shells, and other branches of British high degrees of heat. Its principle is zoology."
the property of very pure clays, when
thoroughly dried, of undergoing conWEDGEWOOD, (JOSIAH,) was born traction on exposure to fire, which conin July, 1730. He was the younger tinues in regular prog sion up to the son of a Staffordshire potter; and, being highest heat procurable by furnaces. destined for the same business, learnt He wrote several papers on this subnothing more in the way of education ject, which were published in the Phithan reading, writing, and arithmetic. losophical Transactions for 1782, 1784, But the great powers of mind which he and 1786. Mr. Wedgewood died, at his possessed, gave him ideas superior to house in Staffordshire, to which he had his station, and enabled him to make given the name of Etruria, in January, such improvements in that branch of 1795. His death excited universal business, to which he was brought up, regret in the neighbourhood, the popuas not only gained him a handsome lation and wealth of which had been fortune, but considerable reputation, prodigiously increased by the fame of also, in the scientific world. The Stat- his potteries, and his own liberal profordshire potteries had produced no motion of all improvements which could article superior to common earthenware, tend to the advantage of the country. until the introduction of glazing, by two Good roads were constructed, through Dutchmen of the name of Euler, and his means, in several parts of the potthe subsequent discovery, by a Mr. teries ; and he had the chief share in Astbury, of mixing calcined flint with the measure for carrying through parthe clay of Devonshire. A mechanic, liament the act for the grand Trunk of the name of Alsager, afterwards im- canal, connecting the Trent and the proved the construction of the potler's Mersey, in opposition to a powerful wheel, yet the Staffordshire was con- landed interest. For his private cha
racter, no eulogy seems too high, whilst and Biographia Literaria, of which one his dealings with mankind, and his volume only was published. He is said, manners in society, were such as to also, to have been the author of several bespeak him the gentleman, in the metrical and prose witticisms, and of a most dignified and estimable sense of translation of Count Tessin's letters to the word.
the King of Sweden. BERKENHOUT, (John,) was born MASERES, (FRANCIS, Baron,) deat Leeds, in 1730; and, after having scended from a French family, which received the rudiments of education, settled in England on the revocation of went to Germany, for the purpose of the edict of Nantes, was born on the studying the continental languages. He 15th of December, 1731, in Broad afterwards made the tour of Europe; Street, Soho, where his father practised and, on his return to Berlin, instead of as a physician. Having been educated going into trade, as his father had in at Kingston-upon-Thames, he tended, became a cadet in the Prussian moved to Clare Hall, Cambridge, where service. In 1756, on the breaking out of he graduated B. A. in 1752, M. A. in the war with France, he was appointed 1755, and obtained a fellowship. In captain in an English regiment, in which 1758, he published A Dissertation on he served till the peace of 1760 ; when, the Negative Sign in Algebra, containbeing of an active disposition of mind, ing a demonstration of the rules conand finding his half pay insufficient cerning it, in which he argued strongly for his comfortable support, he went to against the received doctrine of negative Edinburgh, and commenced the study quantities. Having removed to the of medicine. While at the university, Inner Temple, he was, in due time, he published his Clavis Anglica Linguæ called to the bar, and went the western Botanicæ; "a book," says Hutchinson, circuit, where his practice was ex“ of singular utility; being the only tremely limited. He was, however, in botanical lexicon in our language, and a short time, appointed attorney-general particularly expletive of the Linnæan of Quebec, where he performed his system." About 1764, he removed to duties with a strict regard to the inLeyden, and took there his degree of terests of the province; and, on his M. D. in the following year. On his return, he, in August, 1773, received return to England, he settled at Isle the appointment, which he held till his worth, in Middlesex; and, shortly after- death, of cursitor baron of the Exchewards, published his Pharmacopæia quer. He also became agent to the proMedici, which reached a third edition testant settlers in Quebec; and, in in 1782. In 1778, he was sent, by 1779, deputy-recorder of London. In government, with the commissioners, the following year, he was elected senior to America, and was, for some time, judge of the sheriff's court in the same imprisoned at Philadelphia, on city, where he presided till 1822, when picion of having been sent as a spy by he resigned the office. In 1784, when Lord North. For the dangers he had Dr. Hutton was displaced from the incurred, he was rewarded, on his Royal Society, he warmly espoused his arrival in England, with a pension, till cause; and, with a few others of the the period of his death, which occurred same party, retired with him from the in 1791. In addition to the works institution, when he was deprived of above-mentioned, he published Outlines his office of foreign secretary. In 1800, of the Natural History of Great Britain he published Tracts on the Resolutions and Ireland, a work which established of Affected Algebraic Equations, by his reputation as a naturalist, and was, Dr. Halley, Mr. Raphson, and Sir for some time, out of print; An Essay Isaac Newton; and continued to pubon the Bite of a Mad Dog; Sympto- | lish various works, till the period of his matology, "a book," says Hutchinson, death, which took place at Reygate, " which is too universally known to Surrey, on the 19th of May, 1824. The require any recommendation;" First most celebrated of the baron's writings Lines of the Theory and Practice of is his Scriptores Logarithmici, which Philosophical Chemistry; A Continua- appeared at intervals, in six quarto tion of Campbell's Lives of Admirals; volumes, between the years 1791 and
1807. His or her works relate princi- there an extensive seminary; but the pally to subjects connected with law, great success with which a lecture depolitics, or history. He also wrote nu- livered by him, on astronomy, in that merous articles in the Philosophical town, had been attended, induced him Transactions, and A View of the Ancient to give up his school. His reputation, Constitution of the English Parliament, as an astronomical lecturer, was soon for the second volume of The Archæolo- extended, by his visits, in that capacity, gia. His character was highly estimable, to the principal cities and towns; and though marked by a few peculiarities. at lengih, in 1778, by the advice of Dr. He would live, sometimes the year Priestley, he took the Haymarket round, at his chambers in the Temple; | Theatre, in London, for the display of and, though he dined at Rathbone his abilities. His success was such as Place, where he had an establishment, to induce him to settle in the metrohe never slept there. He patronised lite- polis; and, having taken a house in rature with great liberality; and, on George Street, Hanover Square, he one occasion, advanced £1,500 to bring continued to read a course of lectures out some particular work.
He was every winter; ailending. at intervals, held in great esteem by the scientific Westminster, Eton, Winchester, and world, and round his table were fre. other great foundation schools. His quently to be found the first mathema- lectures were accompanied by the exhiticians of the day. He was of such an bition of an eidouranian, or transparent even temper, that a celebrated chess-orrery, in which, as in many others of player declared he was the only man his own invention, he displayed conhe had seen whose countenance did not siderable mechanical skill. Several indicate whether he was winning or works also came from his pen, which losing, at that game; and so averse was amply sustained his reputation as a he to a do:matising spirit, that, after man of science, up to the period of his seeing Dr. Johnson, he expressed a wish death, which took place on the 11th of that he might never be again in that February, 1821. His scientific writings man's company."
are, A Treatise on the Cause and Cure
of Smoky Chimnies; Philosophical EsuiWALKER, (ADAM,) the son of a mate of the Causes, Effects, and Cure of woollen manufacturer, was born in Unwholesome Air'in Cities; A System Westmoreland, in 1731. Almost before of Familiar Philosophy in Lectures ; A he could read, he was put to his Treatise on Geography and the Use of father's business, but this did not hinder the Globes ; besides various papers in him froin indulging his taste for me- the magazines, Philosophical Transchanics. During his leisure hours, he actions, Young's Annals of Agriculeonstructed models of corn mills, paper ture, &c. Mr. Walker was also the mills, fulling mills, &c., which he erected, author of Ideas suggested in an Exin miniature, on a small brook near his cursion through Flanders, Germany, home, and he is said to have built himself Italy, and France ; and, Remarks made a hut in the neighbouring thicket, where in a Tour to the Lakes of Westmorehe used to retire for the purpose of land and Cumberland, in the Summer reading. At the age of fifteen, he be- of 1791, to which is annexed a Sketch came usher to a school at Ledsham, in of the Police, Religion, Arts, and Agrithe West Riding of Yorkshire ; and, culture of France, made in an excursion three years afterwards, was appointed to Paris, in 1785, mathematical tutor to the free school at Macclesfield. Here, also, he engaged WALES, (WILLIAM,) was born in in trade; but so unskilfully, or unsuc- 1734, and, in 1769, visited Hudson's cessfully, that he became bankrupt. A Bay, for the purpose of making obromantic notion now entered into his servations on the transit of Venus, an head of passing the remainder of his account of which he published. He life as an anchorite, in one of the islands was, in consequence, appointed to acof Lake Windermere; and the ridicule company Capiain Cook in his two first of his friends alone deterred him from voyages of discovery, of which he kept carrying his scheme into effect.
Re- a journal, afterwards printed under the moving to Manchester, he established title of Astronomical Observations in