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linsonia. Mr. Collinson died, highly its completion, he dedicated to the respected, in August, 1768, whilst he Duke of Newcastle. He had scarcely was on a visit to Lord l'etre, in Essex. finished it when he was attacked by an
asthma, which, in conjunction with his DEERING, (CHARLES,) was born in poverty and dependence, brought on a Saxony, about 1695; and, after having complicated state of distress and disease, taken his degrees in physic, at Leyden, and put an end to his existence on the cime to England in the train of a foreign 12th of April, 1749. He was buried at ambassador, some time in the year the expense of two of his principal cre1720, and commenced practice, as an ditors, who administered to his effects, accoucheur. Being skilled in botany, and published, in 1751, his posthumous he soon after became a member of the work, entitled Nottinghamia Vetus et society established by Dillenuis and Mr. Nova. He left, in manuscript, An Martyn. In 1736, he married, and, on hortus siccus, consisting of upwards of the recommendation of Sir Hans Slvane, six hundred species of plants, in eight removed to Nottingham, where, by his quarto volumes; and a Latin treatise on successful treatment of the small-pox, midwifery. He seems to have been a he brought himself into some reputa
born to misfortune, and used tion; "but incurred," says Dr. Pul- himself often to speak of the adverse teney, “the censure of the faculty, by fatality which always attended him liis pretensions to a nostrum.” In the By some means, however, he made year after his arrival in the town, he many friends; and, but for the violence published, in a letter to Sir Thomas of his temper and want of prudence in Parkyns, Bart., An Account of an im- his conduci, would probably have risen proved Method of treating the Small- to high eminence and esteem in his pox; by which it appeared that his profession. success was owing to his use of antiphlogistic medicines, and prescriptions STILLINGFLEET, (BENJAMIN,) of cool regimen, which, at that time, was born in the county of Norfolk, in few ventured to recommend. His 1702, and received his education at the reputation, as a physician, suddenly grammar-school of Norwich, and at declining, he turned his attention to Trinity College, Cambridge; on leaving botany; and, in 1738, published a work, which, with the degree of B. A., he beentitled A Catalogue of Plants naturally came tutor to the sou of Ashe Windham, growing and commonly cultivated in Esq., and, in 1737, accompanied his divers parts of England, more especially pupil on a tour to the continent. In about Nottingham, &c. The number 1743, he returned to England, and, of plants arranged by him is about eight being allowed a pension of £100 per hundred and fifty, of which he treats annum, by Mr. Windham, he devoted twenty-seven as nondescripts, and his time to literary pursuits, and to the mentions ten not to be met with in the study of natural history, of which he third edition of Ray's Synopsis. Some was passionately fond. In 1760, he of his discoveries were considered as was appointed, through the influence of new, by that celebrated botanist, who Lord Barrington, then secretary at war, corresponded with him from Oxford, barrack-master at Kensington; and, in and had a high opinion of his knowledge the following year, he appears to have and assiduity. Dillenius, also, in his received a visit from Gray, the poet, history of Musci, mentions him with who thus speaks of him in a letter of honour. " After his failure in physie,” that date :- have lately made acsays the authority before quoted, " his quaintance with this pbilosopher, who friends attempted several schemes to lives in a garret in the winter, that he alleviate his necessities." He first be- may support some near relations wlo came an officer in the regiment raised | depend upon him. He is always emat Nottingham on account of the re- ployed, consequently, according to my bellion ; but this bringing him more old' maxim, always happy, always honour than profit, le commenced cheerful, and seems to me a worthy writing A History of Nottingham, from
His present schame is to materials furnished him by Johın Plum- send soine persons, properly qualified, tree, Esq., and others; and which, on to 'reside a year or two in Aitica, to
make themselves acquainted with the magazine, which was given up after clinate, productions, and natural his- fourteen volumes had been completed. tory of the country, that we may understand Aristotle, Theophrastus, &c., HARRIS, (JAMES,) was born at who have been hea: hen Greek to us so Salisbury, in 1709, and received his many ages ; and this he has got pro- education at the grammar-school of posed to Lord Bute, no unlikely person that city, and at Wadham College, Oxto put it into execution, as he himself ford. He came into an independent is a botanist." He died on the 15th of fortune, by the death of his father, in December, in this year, at his lodgings his twenty-fourth year, and thenceforth in Piccadilly, and was buried in St. devoted himself to scientific and antiJames's Church. He appears to have quarian studies. In 1744, he published been a man of the most virtuous habits, a volume containing three treatises On extensive acquirements, and great and Art, On Music and Painting, and On varied talents. His proficiency, both Happiness, which displayed great exin classics and mathematics, as well as tent of reading and a closeness of thinkin the art of music, is acknowledged to ing, well adapted to the illustration of have been very considerable ; whilst abstract and speculative topics. The his few productions in verse, justly, it most celebrated of his works appeared is said, entitle him to a place beside in 1751, under the title of Hermes, or some of the most adınired of our poels. a Philosophical Inquiry concerning It is, however, as a naturalist and a Universal Grammar, and at once placed botanist that he is chiefly distinguished. ihe author, in general opinion, in the Besides an octavo volume of travels, first rank of profound and erudite and some poetical pieces, he published dialectitians. In 1761, he entered parThe Calendar of Flora; Miscellaneous liament as member for the borough of Tracts on Natural History; and On the Christchurch; and, in the course of the Principles and lower of Harmony. His next two years, was made, successively, life has been written by the Rev. W. one of the lords of the admiralty, and a Coxe.
lord of the treasury. He went out of
office in 1765 ; but, in 1774, was apMARTIN, (BENJAMIN,) said to have pointed secretary and comptroller to the been the son of a farmer, was born at queen, a place which, together with his Worplesdon, Surrey, in 1704. After seat in parliament, he held till his death. having acted as a schoolmaster, at In 1775, he published Philosophical Chichester, he commenced lectures in Arrangements, part of a plan which he experimental philosophy, which he de- had formed for the illustration of the livered in the metropolis and various Peripatetic logic. His last work apparts of England. He finally settled, peared in 1780, entitled Philological as an optician and globe-maker, in inquiries, a short time before his de. Fleet Street, but becoming bankrupt, cease, which took place at the close of made an ineffectual attempt to destroy that year. His character, as a writer, himself, though his death shortly fol- says Dr. Aikin, is so identified with the lowed, in February, 1782. He distin- credit of the Grecian learning and guished himself by no remarkable in- philosophy, that it must share the same ventions or discoveries, but wrote useful fate. Those to whom the names of books on almost all of the mathematical Aristotle, and the other ancient dialecand philosophical sciences. They are tirians, are still the highest authorities, too numerous to be all particularized will continue to prize the efforts of here, but among the principal are, The Harris, Monbodio, and others, to Philosophical Grammar; Description revive and elucidate their doctrines; and Use of both the Giobes, &c. ; The while those who have formed them. Young Trigonometer's Guide ; System selves upon later models of thinking of the Newtonian Philosophy; Natural and reasoning, will probably consider History of England : Mathematical In- such exertions as laborious trifling. stitutions ; Biographia Philosophica; Two quarto volumes of Mr. Harris's The Young Gentleman and Lady's works were published in 1801, by his Philosophy, &c. &c.
He also con- only son, the Earl of Malmesbury, who ducted, for several years, a scientific paints the private character of his father
in the most pleasing, colours. The burgh, in 1710; and, in consequence of his reputation of Hermes has been much indigence and loss of both parents, was lessened by Horne Tooke's subsequent admitted, at the age of ten, into Heriot's inquiries respecting language ; and it Hospital, where he shewed proofs of a must be confessed that the ignorance of mechanical genius, in the unassisted Mr. Harris in the oriental and northern construction of various articles. On his tongues, and his prejudices in favour of removal to the high school, he made the Greeks, rendered his view of the such proficiency in the classics, that he subject partial and circuinscribed. was destined for the church ; but afier
having attended a few theological lecBLAIR, (Patrick,) a medical practures, he gave up divinity for mathetitioner at Dundee, in Scotland, became matical pursuits, and became a pupil of of note about the year 1710, by his ac the celebrated Maclaurin. In 1732, he count of the anatomy of an elephant, improved the Gregorian telescope, by which appeared in the Philosophical giving larger apertures to the specula; Transactions. Having had an oppor- and, in 1736, his fame procured him an tunity of dissecting that animal, he was invitation from the queen, to become enabled to give a most accurate descrip. the mathematical instructor of William, tion of its various parts, particularly of Duke of Cumberland. He was, at the the proboscis and its muscles ; and, ac same time, elected a fellow of the Royal cording to Haller, he confirmed the Society; and, shortly afterwards, acopinion formerly held, that the elephant companied the Earl of Morton, in a has no gall-bladder. In one of the survey of the Orkney Islands. Having volumes of the publication above-men-established himself as an optician, in tioned, he also gave a description of the London, he was, in 1743, commissioned, ossicula auditus, accompanied with ex by Lord Spencer, to make a reflector planatory engravings. “At the time of of twelve feet focus, for which he rethe rebellion in 1715, he was suspected ceived six hundred guineas. He made of disaffection to government, and was, several others of the same focal disfor a short time, confined in prison. On tance, with higher magnifiers; that for his release, he proceeded io London, the King of Spain, completed in 1732, where he published, in quarto, his and for which he received £1,200, has Anatomy of the Elephant ; and, in only been surpassed by the reflectors 1718, produced a volume of Miscel- of Herschel. "Mr. Short, who was laneous Observations on the Practice of equally eminent as an artist and amiable Physic, Anatomy, Surgery, and Botany. as a man, died at Newington Butts, In 1720, he increased his reputation in 1766. by the publication of a work, entitled Botanical Essays; in which, says one ELLIS, (John,) was born in Lonof his biographers," he treats of the don, in 1710, and brought up to comsexes of plants, confirming the argu mercial pursuits, which, however, a ments adduced in proof of thein by taste for natural history soon induced sound reasoning, and some new expe
him to abandon. His principal disriments of the manner of fecundation, coveries relate to the nature of coralof the circulation of the sap," &c. lines, which he suspected to belong to About 1722, he removed to Boston, the animal kingdom, as had been sug. and, in the following year, published a gested by Jussieu. To ascertain this part of his work, entitled Pharmaco fact, he visited the isle of Sheppy, in botanologia, or an alphabetical and | 1752, and afterwards Brighton, assisted classical dissertation on all the British by the celebrated artist, Ehret. He indigenous and garden plants of the published the result of his observations, London Dispensary, introducing some in 1755, under the title of An Essay new plants discovered by himself. towards a Natural History of the CoralAnother part appeared in 1728, but the lines, &c., a very exact and curious work did not proceed beyond the letter work, which was received with great H, its continuance being prevented by applause, and translated into several the death of the author.
foreign languages. Mr. Ellis made
several communications on the same SHORT, (James,) was born at Edin- subject to the Royal Society, of which
body he was a member; besides a variety of, by Haller, as a valuable contributor of
papers relative to the barnacle, the to physiological science. cochineal, the polypes, &c. His botanical inquiries were also extensive ; STANHOPE, (Philip, Earl of,) son and, in a letter to Linnæus, he printed of James, Earl of Stanhope, was born accounts of two new American genera on the 15th of August, 1714, and sucof plants and other discoveries. In ceeded to his title, on his father's death, 1768, he received the Royal Society's in 1721. He was educated by his gold medal for two papers, one on the guardian, the celebrated Earl of ChesAnimal Nature of the Genus of Zoo- terfield, who prohibited him from the phytes, called Corallina ; the other, on pursuit of mathematical studies, to the Actinia Sociata. As a compensation which, from his infancy almost, he had for his renunciation of trade, he was manifested a strong partiality. These, made agent for West Florida and Do- | however, he continued to pursue with minica, some time before his death, such indefatigable ardour, that he is which occurred in 1776. A posthumous said to have become one of the first work, published by his daughter, in mathematicians of the age. At the 1786, entitled Natural History of many same time, he made such progress in curious and uncommon Zoophytes, is the classics, that he could, without the esteemed the best systematic account of smallest hesitation, repeat the whole of that class which has appeared.
the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer in
the original language; whilst his proNEEDHAM, (JOHN TURBERVILLE,) ficiency in the modern languages enwas born in London, in 1713, and edu- abled him to maintain a conversation cated in the Roman catholic religion, in many of them with as much Auency at Douay. After having taken priest's as if they had been his vernacular tongue. orders, he travelled about for several His attention, however, continued to years, in the capacity of tutor. He is be principally occupied by his investigasaid to have been the first catholic tion of theorems in the higher and more priest who was admitted a member of sublime branches of geometry; but it is the Royal Society, to which his philo- to be regretted that he never found time sophical reputation procured his ad- to publish the result of his researches. mission, as well as to the French | Earl Stanhope resided, for many years, Academy of Sciences,
He died at at Geneva, whence he came to London Brussels, in 1781, at which time he was to give his vote, on important occasions, rector of the Academy of Sciences and in the house of lords." He always ad Belles Lettres of that city. He is prin- vocated liberal measures, and was con. cipally celebrated for his experimental sidered one of the most patriotic and labours and speculations concerning the independent noblemen in parliament. formation of organized bodies. His He died on the 7th of March, 1786, papers containing an account of these, leaving behind him one son and a have been published, both in French widow, to whom he had been united and English. He supports Buffon's forty-one years. This lady died at notion of spontaneous generation by the advanced age of ninety-six; and it organical particles, in opposition to the is recorded of her, that a year or two doctrine of evolution; and is said to have previous to her death, she cut a set of assisted that philosopher in the com- new teeth, and had her hair renewed. position of his Natural History. Mr. Earl Stanhope was a most munificent Needham also published a tract, en- patron of learning and science ; and titled De Inscriptione quondam Ægyp- ihough he published no works himself, tiaca Taurini inventa, in which he we are indebted to him for the most attempted to prove that the Chinese complete and magnificent edition of the were descended from the Ægyptians. works of Archimedes, the posthumous Voltaire having represented his opinions works of Dr. Simson, &c. Among as favourable to materialism, the sub- other works dedicated to hiin were ject of our memoir published a declara- Dodson's Logarithms, and the third tion of his orthodoxy; indeed, he ap- volume of Priestley's Experiments on pears to have been almost superstitious air. The following anecdote is told of in his religious opinions. He is spoken him by his biographer :–His lordship,
whose dress always corresponded to BISSETT, (CHARLES) was born in the simplicity of his manners, was once Perthshire, in Scotland, in 1717; and, rather rudely prevented from going into after having completed his medical eduthe house of peers by a door-keeper cation at Edinburgh, went out, in 1740, who was unacquainted with his person. as second surgeon to the military hosLord Stanhope persisted in endeavour-pital at Jamaica. Here he acquired a ing to get into the house, without stop- knowledge of the different diseases preping to explain who he was, and the valent in the torrid zone, and remained door-keeper, determined also on his till 1745, when ill health compelled him part, made use of these words, “Honest to resign his situation and return to man, you have no business here : England. In the following year, his honest man, you can have no business enterprising spirit induced himn to purin this place."
chase an ensigncy in the army, which
he accompanied to Flanders, and there LEWIS, (William,) was born some distinguished himself as an officer in the time after the commencement of the engineer brigade, uill the termination last censury; and, after having taken of the war, in 1748. The skill he had his medical degree, practised at Kings- evinced in that capacity, during different ton, in Surrey. He became a fellow of sieges, encouraged him to cultivate the the Royal Society, and a member of the study of fortification ; the result of Royal Academy of Stockholm, and dis- which was a work published by him in tinguished himself by several valuable 1751, entitled An Essay on the Theory works on pharmacy and chemistry. and Construction of Fortifications. In His celebrity in the latter science oc 1752, he resumed the medical profescasioned his being engaged to read a sion, and commenced practice at Skel. course of lectures, before the Prince of ton, in Yorkshire ; obtained, in 1765, Wales, at Kew, and the Duke and his diploma of M. D. from the Univer: Duchess of Gloucester, at Kingston ; sity of St. Andrews; and, after distinthe manuscripts of which were sold guishing himself by a few medical pubafter his death, which occurred in lications, died at Knayton, near Thirsk, January, 1781. He was the first who on the 14th of June, 1791. In addition communicated to the English reader, to the work already mentioned, he the chemical knowledge of the German wrote A Treatise on the Scurvy; An chemists and metallurgists, in his Trans- Essay on the Medical Constitution of lation of the Chemical Works of Gasper Great Britain; and a volume of MediNeuman, with large additions, contain: cal Essays and Observations, a second ing the latter discoveries and improve- volume of which he deposited, in manuments made in chemistry and the arts script, a few years before his death, at depending thereon. He was also one the infirmary in Leeds. He also pub. of ihe first promoters of the Society for lished a few political papers ; a small the Improvement of Arts; from which, tract on the naval art of war; and prein 1767, he obtained the gold medal, for sented to the Prince of Wales, a treatise An Essay on Pol-ashes. In addition to on fortification. the work before mentioned, he published A Course of Practical Chemistry; ROEBUCK, (John,) was born at Experimental History of the Materia Sheffield, in 1718, and engaged in the Medica, a work of a comprehensive practice of a physician at Birmingham, scientific knowledge, and of great utility, after having taken his degree of M. D., and of which a third edition was pub at Leyden. Chemical researches, howlished by Dr. Aikin, and a translation ever, occupied more of his time than appeared in German. He also wrote the practice of his profession, which he Commercium Philosophico-technicum, at length relinquished for the exclusive or the Philosophical Commerce of the pursuit of science. A manufactory of Arts; A System of the Practice of sulphuric acid, which he established at Medicine, from the Latin of Frederic Preston Pans, proved very profitable to Hoffman, besides a few others; and was himself and his partner, a Mr. Garbet, the author of two papers published in in conjunction with whom he also the Philosophical Transactions.
instituted the iron foundry of Carron. The property he acquired by these spe