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COWARD, WILLAM,) was born at religion; and that if there were, he was Winchester, in the year 1656 or 1657, heartily sorry, and ready to recant the He completed his education at the

The house, however, came to University of Oxford, where he gra- the resolution, that Dr. Coward's books duated B.A. in 1677; and, in 1680, was contained doctrines and positions conchosen probationer fellow of Merton trary to the doctrine of the church of College." He graduated M. A. in 1683 ; England, and tending to the subversion and commencing upon the study of of the Christian religion, and ordered physic, took his degrees of bachelor' and them to be burnt by the common hangdoctor in that faculty, in 1685 and This proceeding, as might be 1687, successively. He practised his expected, only excited a greater inprofession first at Oxford, Northampton, terest with respect to his doctrines ; Ipswich, and London; but it is in the and he, in consequence, published a new character of a metaphysician alone, that edition of his Second Thoughts, which he has become celebrated. His chief was followed by a treatise, entitled The metaphysical work appeared in 1702, Just Scrutiny, or a Serious Inquiry into under the title of Second Thoughts the Modern Notions of the Soul.' Dr. concerning the Human Soul; demon- | Coward's other publications are, a tract, strating the nature of the human soul, as entitled Opthalmiatria, in which the believed to be a spiritual, immortal sub- theory of vision is treated of by him in stance, united to a human body, to be a a very scientific manner; The Lives of plain heathenish invention, and not Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, an heroic consonant to the principles of philoso- poem; Licentia Poetica ; and Critical phy, reason, or religion; but the ground Observations on the Principal Ancient only of many absurd and superstitious and Modern Poets. He died some time opinions, abominable to the reformed in the year 1725, at Ipswich. churches, and derogatory, in general, to true Christianity. This gave rise to DALE, (SAMUEL,) was born in 1660, a controversy between Dr. Čoward and and practised as an apothecary at various writers, of whom Mr. Broughton Brainiree, in Essex, until about the year and Mr. Turner appear to have been the 1730, when he became a licentiate of most formidable. He answered them the College of Physicians, and a fellow both in separate pamphlets, and after- of the Royal Society. He attained wards repeated his doctrines in a work much celebrity as a medical and boranientitled The Grand Essay, or a Vindica- cal writer, and died in June, 1739. His tion of Reason and Religion against the principal work was published in 1693, Impostures of Philosophy. He was now under the sanction of the College of considered an avowed enemy of revela- Physicians, and entitled Pharmacologia, tion, and his works contained so much seu Manuductio ad Materiam Medicam. that was at variance with the general It went through several editions in opinion, that they were presented to London, and four on the continent, and the house of commons, a committee of procured for the author a very high rewhich was directed to examine into putation." This work," says Pulteney, their contents, and to discover the may be said to have been one of the author, printer, and publisher.. Dr. earliest rational bouks on the subject; Coward, having acknowledged himself and between the first and last editions, to be the writer, was called before the an interval of forty years, much of that house, when he declared that he never credulity which had obtained respecting intended any thing against religion ; the powers of simples, had abated. that there was nothing contained in his He also edited Silas Taylor's Antiquibooks, either contrary to morality or ties of Harwich and Dover Court, and


was the author of ten papers, principally made for the Observatory at Greenrelating to natural history and phar- wich, was the original from which the macy, in the Philosophical Transactions. best foreign instruments were

structed by English artists. Dr. BradHARRIS, (John) was born about ley's sector, by which he discovered two the year 1670, and received his educa new motions in the stars, was of Gration at St. John's College, Cambridge, ham's invention and make ; and our where he graduated B. A. in 1687, and modern orreries are all founded on the M.A. in 1691. He took orders in the model of one constructed by the subject church, and obtained some considerable of our memoir. He died in 1751; at preferments, the last of which was a which time he was a fellow of the prebend of Rochester. He took his Royal Society, to whose Transactions doctor's degree in 1699, and, about the he communicated several ingenious and same time, became a fellow of the Royal | important discoveries, relating chiefly Society, of which he became secretary to astronomical and philosophical suband vice-president.

The chief works jects. by which he distinguished himself are, A Treatise on the Theory of the Earth ; THRELKELD, (CALEB.) was born A Treatise on Algebra ; A Translation at Kirkoswald, in Cumberland, on the of Pardie's Geometry into English; 31st of May, 1676. In 1698, he graAstronomical Dialogues, which went duated M. A. in the University of Glasthrough three editions ; and his Lexicon gow; and, shortly afterwards, settled Technicum, or an Universal Dictionary at Low Huddiesceugh, in the character of Arts and Sciences, in two volumes, of a dissenting minister. Having, howfolio. This work entitles the author to ever, acquired, while at the former place, honourable notice, as the one on which a taste for physic and botany, he turned all subsequent dictionaries of science, his attention to the study of them; took and cyclopædias, have been based. Dr. his degree of M.D. at Edinburgh, in Harris also printed several sermons, and 1712; and removed to Dublin, where, left unfinished A History of Kent, which for about a year, he acted both as divine was published after his death. This and physician. Finding his practice took place on the 7th of September, increase, he dropped his character of 1719, after a life more distinguished by the former; sent for his family to join the brightness of his intellectual, than him; and occupied, with much success, the excellence of his moral, qualities. his whole time as a practitioner in me“Dr. Harris," says Mr. Gough, in his dicine, till the period of his death, British Topography, “died an absolute which occurred on the 28th of April, pauper, at Norton Court, and was

1728. The only work he published buried in Norton Church, at the ex- appeared the year previous to his depense of John Godfrey, Esq., who had cease, under the title of Synopsis Stir. been his very good friend and bene- pium Hibernicarum, alphabetice disfactor."

positarum; sive, Commentatio de Plantis

Indigenis, præsertim Dubliniensibus GRAHAM, (GEORGE,) was born at Instituta, with an appendix, by Dr. Gratwick, in Cumberland, in 1675, and, Molyneux. He dedicated it to the in 1688, was apprenticed to a watch - Archbishop of Armagh, and described it maker, in London. Before the expira- as "the first essay of the kind in the tion of his apprenticeship, he was taken kingdom of Ireland.”. The preface is into the family of the celebrated Tom- remarkable for the quaint style in which pion, who treated him with parental it is written, but proves him to have affection as long as he lived. Mr. been a man of some erudition in the Graham soon became the most eminent science of botany; although, according among his profession ; his time-pieces to Dr. Pulteney, he was "better acwere ihe most accurate that had ever quainted with the history of plants, before been invented ; and several as. than with plants themselves.” Among tronomical instruments, which he im other curious observations in the work, proved and contrived, contributed he


“ The Irish grammarians regreatly to the advancement of that mark, that all the names of the Irish science. The mural arch, which he letters, are names of trees." He intro

duced, also, into the work, some severe, of ventilators for renewing the air in and rather coarse, strictures on Dila mines, prisons, hospitals, and the holds lenius, who, however, thought them too of ships; a plan which he subsequently contemptible to answer; and only no- applied to the cleansing and preserticed them in a letter, wherein he ob vation of corn. In 1753, he was elected serves of Threlkeld, that “there was a foreign member of the French Acabut one plant recited in the book which demy of Sciences; and, on the death of was not known before as a native of Frederick, Prince of Wales, he was Ireland.” He appears to have been an made clerk of the closet to the princess amiable man, and very popular among dowager. A canonry of Windsor was the poor, to whom he was a great bene also offered him; but he refused it on factor, both in his professional and account of its probable interference moral relation to them.

with his usual plan of spending his

time. He died at Teddington, in JanuHALES, (STEPHEN,) was born at ary, 1761, having passed through life Beckesbourn, in Kent, in 1677, and without an enemy; "and, perhaps," educated at Bennet College, Cambridge, says Dr. Aikin, " the records of bioof which he became a fellow, in 1702. graphy cannot produce a character more During his residence at the university, marked by the union of blamelessness he studied, besides divinity, various with active benevolence.”. Pope menbranches of science and natural philo- tions “plain parson Hale," as a model sophy, and constructed a planetarium of sincere piety; and Haller calls him upon the Newtonian system of astro “ pious, modest, indefatigable, and born nomy. Having graduated M. A., and for the discovery of truth.” He comentered into holy orders, he was, in municated several papers, besides those 1710, presented to the perpetual curacy already mentioned, to the Transactions of Teddington, in Middlesex; and, not of the Royal Society; and published, long after, he vacated his fellowship by anonymously, A Friendly Admonition accepting the living of Portlock, in to the Drinkers of Gin, Brandy, and Somersetshire, which he exchanged for other Spiritous Liquors, which has that of Faringdon, in Hampshire. In been several times reprinted, and dis1717, he was elected a fellow of the tributed gratis. Royal Society; and, in the following year, communicated to that body an LONG,(Roger,) was born in the year account of some experiments concern 1679, and educated at the University of ing the effect of the sun's heat in raising Cambridge, where he became master the sap in vegetables. On this subject, of Pembroke Hall, and Loundes's pro. he published a work, in 1727, under fessor of astronomy. He is known to the title of Vegetable Statics, &c., which the scientific world, by a valuable treais esteemed a model of experimental tise on this science, and also as the investigation, and has been very highly inventor of a curious astronomical mapraised by Haller. A second edition chine. This was a hollow sphere, of appeared of it in 1731 ; and, in 1733, eighteen feet diameter, in which more the author published a kind of sequel than thirty persons might sit conto it, under the title of Statical Essays, veniently; and within side the surface, containing Hymastatics, or an account which represented the heavens, were of some Hydraulic and Hydrostatical painted ihe stars and constellations, Experiments made on the Blood and with the zodiac, meridians, and axis Blood-vessels of Animals, &c. He had, parallel to the axis of the world, upon in the meantime, been appointed one which it was easily turned round by a of the trustees for settling a colony in winch. He died on the 16th of DeGeorgia, and presented by the Uni-cember, 1770, having previously, graversity of Oxford with the degree of duated D. D., and been twice chosen D.D. In 1739, he obtained the gold vice-chancellor of the university. medal of the Royal Society, for a paper is said to have been a very ingenious containing An Account of some Expe- and facetious person ; but his pretenriments on Sea Water, &c., and on the sions to the latter character are scarcely Solution of the Stone in the Bladder. supported by the following anecdote : In 1741, he communicated his invention -As he was walking, one dusky even


ing, with a Mr. Boufoy, through the him, in 1712, to make a voyage to streets of Cambridge, that gentleman, Virginia, where he remained seven on coming to a short post fixed in the years, occupied in collecting its various pavement, took it for a boy, saying, in productions. He returned to England å hurry, "Get out of my way, boy.” in 1719, but, at the suggestion of Sir “ That boy, sir," said the doctor, “ is Hans Sloane, and other eminent natua post-boy, who turns out of his way ralists, almost immediately reimbarked for nobody." The relator of this anec- for America, with the professed purpose dote adds, “ Of late years, he has left of describing, delineating, and collecting off eating flesh-meais; in the room the most curious natural objects in that thereof, puddings, vegetables, &c; country. He resided chiefly in Carolina, sometimes a glass or two of wine." whence he made excursions to Georgia,

Florida, and the Bahama islands; and, HADLEY, (John,) was born about on his return to England, in 1726, he the year 1680, and was elected a fellow began to prepare for publication the of the Royal Society, in 1717. He con- result of his researches, which appeared tributed various papers to the Philoso- in iwo volumes, folio, under the title of phical Transactions ; but he is chiefly The Natural History of Canada, Florida, celebrated for his account of the reflect- and the Bahaman Islands. The work ing instrument for taking angles, com- came out, originally, in numbers, and monly called Hadley's quadrant, or was considered by far the most splendid sextant. The first idea of this excel. that had been then executed in Englent instrument was suggested by Mr. land. A reprint of it took place in 1754 Hooke, and Sir Isaac Newton is said to and 1771 ; and, to the last edition, a have brought it to completion. It con- Linnæan index has been added. Mr. sists of an octant, or the eighth part of Catesby died in 1749, having been prea circle ; an index, speculum, two hori. viously elected a fellow of the Royal zontal glasses, four screens, and two Society, to whose Transactions he consight vanes. Two sorts of observations tributed a paper assertive of the migramay be made with it: the back ob- tion of birds on his own observation. servation, when the back of the ob- A plant of the tetrandous class has server is turned towards the object; been called, after him, Catesbea, by and the fore observation, when the face Gronovius. of the observer is turned towards the object. Navigation is much indebted COTES, (ROGER,) was born at to this instrument for the very great Burbage, in Leicestershire, of which and rapid advances, which it has made place his father was rector, on the 10th of late years. Angles may be taken by of July, 1682. He received the rudiit, with equal facility at the mast head ments of his education at Leicester as upon deck; and, supposing many School, where he displayed such ability islands to be visible from the former, for the mathematics, that his uncle, the and only one from the latter, no useful Rev. Mr. Smith, requested him, as a observation can be made by any other pupil, in his own house. He was afterinstrument. One of its most invaluable wards sent to St. Paul's School, and properties, in making marine observa- from thence, in 1699, to Trinity College, tions, is, that it is not affected by the Cambridge, of which he was chosen a ship's motion; for, provided the mariner fellow in 1705, being at the time tutor can see distinctly the two objects in the to the sons of the Marquess (afterwards field of his instrument, no motion nor Duke) of Kent, to whose family he was oscillation of the ship will injure his related. In January, 1706, he was apobservation. Mr. Hadley, to whom we pointed Plumian professor of astronomy are indebted for the first description, and experimental philosophy, being the but not for the invention of the quadrant first upon that foundation. In the same that bears his name, died on the 15th year, he graduated M. A.; took orders of February, 1744.

in 1713; and, shortly afterwards, pub

lished the second edition of Sir Isaac CATESBY, (MARK,) was born about Newton's Principia, with an admirable 1680, and early imbibed a taste for the preface, in which he expressed the true study of natural history, which induced method of philosophizing, shewed the foundation on which the Newtonian Opium; and A Case of Extravasated philosophy was built, and refuted the Blood in the Pericardium. But his objections of the Cartesians and all other most popular and valuable work was philosophers against it. The author did published ten years after his death, niot long survive the high reputation containing an account of his Lectures which this work obtained for him: he on the Materia Medica, which must be died, regretted as an irreparable loss to considered, however, more as a history science, on the 5th of June, 1716. of its past, than an account of its present, Newton is recorded to have said, “ If state. In 1743, he communicated to the Cotes had lived, we had known some- Royal Society what he then cailed A thing." He left several valuable works Paradoxical Discovery, respecting the behind him, which were published by power of quick-lime, in which he fancied his relation, and successor in the


he had discovered a property that would fessorship, Dr. Robert Smith. They preserve it from exhaustion under are entitled, Harmonia Mensurarum; repeated effusions of water. This opiHydrostatical and Pneumatical Lec- nion was contested by his friend and lures; and A Compendium of Arith- colleague, Dr. Whyte; during his conmetic, of Dioptrics, and the Nature of troversy with whom, he published A Curves. In the Philosophical Trans- Dissertation on Quick-lime and Limeactions, are published his Logometria, water; which, however, tended more and An Account of the great Meteor, to confirm his adversary's opinions than which was seen in 1715.

to support his own. Alstonia, in bo

tany, a genus of plants of the class ALSTON, (Charles,) a native of polyandria, and order monogynia, is Scotland, was born some time in the called after his name. year 1683; and, having procured the patronage of the Duchess of Hamilton, COLLINSON, (PETER,) was born while pursuing his studies at Glasgow, in 1694, and brought up, by his father, was enabled, with her assistance, to who was a Quaker, to the business of a gratify his inclination for following the wholesale man's mercer. He carried profession of physic. About 1718, he on this business in London, in partneraccompanied his friend, the celebrated ship with a brother, devoting all his Alexander Monro, to Leyden, whence, leisure to the pursuit of natural history, after studying for three years under to which his attention had been turned Boerhaave, he proceeded to Edinburgh, at an early age. He communicated and gave lectures on botany and ma- several papers to the Philosophical teria medica. His talents, in conjunc- | Transactions, and was made a member tion with those of Rutherford, Monro, of the Royal Society in 1728; he was Sinclair, and Plummer, laid the founda- also a member of the Society of Antition of the school of physic ai Edin- quaries. On the establishment of the burgh, where he died, on the 22nd of subscription library at Philadelphia, he November, 1760. Dr. Alston is prin. undertook the direction of its purchases cipally held in estimation as a botanical in London for more than thirty years ; writer, in which character he published, and it was through his means that the besides Index Plantarum, and celebrated Dr. Franklin was first inIndex Medicamentorum, for the use of cited to the pursuit of electrical expehis pupils, a work called Tyrocinium riments. He maintained a corresponBotanicum Edinburghense, 1753. It dence with scientific men in almost was written in opposition to the system every part of the world; and few learned of Linnæus, whose arguments on the foreigners came to London without sexes of plants he strove hard to invali. paying him a visit. Horticulture was date ; and, “ if the Swede's doctrine," his favourite pursuit, and his botanical said Dr. Pulteney, “ could have been collection at Mill Hill, near Enfield, easily shaken, the learning and abilities was, at the time, one of the most conof Alston were sufficient to have effected siderable in England. Linnæus, with his purpose.” Dr. Alston's medical pa- whom he formed an intimacy, has perpers appear in The Edinburgh Medical petuated his name among botanists, by Essays, entitled A Dissertation on 'Tin giving it to an American plant of the as an Anthelmentic; A Dissertation on diandrous class, under the title of Col


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