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dear Mr. Pope, whom I love as my own you after twenty years, you always soul, if you survive me, as you certainly joined a violent desire of perpetually will, if a stone should mark the place of shifting places and company, with a my grave, see these words put upon it:- rooted laziness, and an utter impatience Life is a jest, and all things shew it :
of fatigue. A coach and six horses is I thought so once, but now I know it.
the utmost exercise you can bear, and
this only when you can fill it with such " If anybody," he adds, “ should ask company as is best suited to your taste.” how I could communicate this after In addition to the works before-mendeath, let it be known, it is not meant tioned, he had finished, a short time so, but my present sentiments in life." | before his decease, bis sonata of Acis He continued to reside with the Duke and Galatea, and his opera of Achilles ; and Duchess of Queensberry till his last and, about twenty years afterwards, came moments, and expired at their house in out a comedy, called The Distressed Wife, Burlington Gardens, London, on the and a humorous piece, entitled The 4th of December, 1732. He was buried | Rehearsal at Grantham, of which he near Chaucer's tomb, in Westminster was said to be the author. His ballads Abbey, where a monument was erected of Black-eyed Susan, and 'Twas when to his memory, with the well known the Seas were Roaring, are among the epitaph by Pope, commencing- most pleasing instances of his poetry;
but his fame principally rests on his of manners gentle, of affections mild; la wit, a man; simplicity, a child,
Fables and Beggars' Opera, which will
never cease to be admired. The moThe character of Gay is not strongly rality of the latter has been a subject of marked; he appears to have been an much controversy; and, in 1773, Sir indolent and amiable man, with more John Fielding is said to have written to abilities than ambition; the disappoint- Garrick, remonstrating with him on the ment of which, however, he had neither impropriety of acting The Beggars' the foresight to avoid nor the fortitude Opera; as it was never represented on to sustain. At the instigation of Pope the stage without creating an additional and others, he sought the smiles of power number of thieves. Herring, Archwith an assiduity and patience destruc-bishop of Canterbury, preached a sermon tive equally of his happiness and his against it: whilst in the opinion of independence. « Oh that I had never Dean Swift," it hath, by a turn of known what a court was !" he exclaims, humour entirely new, placed vices of all in one of his letters to Pope.“ What a kinds in the strongest and most odious barren soil have I been striving to pro- light, and thereby done eminent service duce something out of!" His indolence both to religion and morality." It is, is well described by Swift, who always however, probable, that whilst it exposes wrote to him with sincerity, and for and satirizes many follies, it has neither whom Gay is said to have had an awful promoted virtue nor increased vice, but regard, as if he had been his father and maintains its reputation on account of preceptor, “ You pretend," says the its being the first and best ballad opera dean, in one of his epistles to the subject produced on the English stage, and of our memoir, " to preach up riding and because the most beautiful of our old walking; yet, from my knowledge of melodies are enshrined in it.
This eminent novelist, the son of a mentioning. He was at first intended jo per, who had carried on business in for the church, in consequence of his London, was born in Derbyshire, in sedate and serious disposition, but the year 1989; but the exact place of his father not possessing sufficient his birth, says Mrs. Barbauld,' he, for means to send him to the university, some reason or other, always avoided he was ultimately destined to trade, and
never obtained any education beyond for those who had not the talent of inthat of a common school. It appears, diting for themselves.
“ He began," froin his own statement, that he was says Mrs. Barbauld; “ but letter procarly a general favourite with females, ducing letter, it grew into a story, and and that, at the age of thirteen, being was given to the public under the title made the confidant of three young of The History of Pamela" Such was women in their love secrets, he was the fluency of his pen and his easiness employed by them to write draughts of of invention, that the two volumes, of letters to their lovers; and such was his which the work at first consisted, and fidelity and discretion, that not one of beyond which it should not have been them suspected him to be the secretary prolonged, were completed, amidst other of the o:ners.
engagements, within two months. The In 1706, he was put apprentice to Mr | reception it met with from the public Wilde, a printer, in Stationers' Hall; a was unparalleled; it was recommended business of his own chousing, in order from the pulpit by more than one to gratify his thirst for reading. He, eminent divine; Pope declared it would however, found i his not so easy; for his do more good than many volumes of master,
says, being one who grudged sermons; and, indeed, all parties conevery hour to him that tended not to curred in finding it a work of moral his profit, he was obliged to steal from entertainment, calculated to serve alike the hours allotted to rest and recrea the cause of virtue, religion, and motion, his times for mental improvement. rality. The two additional volumes So conscientious was he on these oc were written in consequence of the apcasions, that he always purchased his pearance of a spurious continuation of own candle, and he was, at the same the story, called Pamela in High Life; time, so diligent in his proper business, and are, as Mrs. Barbauld justly obthat his master used to call him the serves, superfluous and dull, and filled pillar of his house. After the expira- with heavy sentiment instead of incition of his apprenticeship, he worked as dent and passion. a journeyman and corrector in a print In 1748, he published the two first ing office, until 1719, when he took up volumes of Clarissa, which at once bis freedom, and set up for himself in placed hinı in the first rank of novelists. a court in Fleet Street, whence he sub- This, as was the case with Pamela, was sequently removed to Salisbury Court. translated into Dutch, German, and His exertions were not confined to his French, and procured for him a reputabusiness ; he not only printed but wrote tion, both at home and abroad, which for the booksellers, in composing for no novelist perhaps has ever before or them indexes, prefaces, and, as he styles since enjoyed. The female character them, honest dedications. His reputa had hitherio been the object of his pen tion for honourable and generous deal to exalt, and he now determined to give ings soon made his trade profitable, the world an example of a perfect man. and, about 1723, he was employed to Accordingly, in 1753, he produced The print the Duke of Wharton's True History of Sir Charles Grandison :- how Briton, and afterwards, The Daily far his attempts succeeded will be noJournal, The Daily Gazetteer, and The ticed after the remaining occurrences of Journals of the House of Commons, of his life have been related. It should, which he completed twenty-six volumes. however, here be stated, that, while the Mr. Speaker Onslow, through whose work was printing, the author underinfluence he obtained this last employ went great vexation from the piracy of ment, offered, it is said, to promote him the Dublin booksellers, who bribed his to some station at court, but Richardson servants to steal the sheets while they declined quitting his business. At this were under the press. They even broke time he appears to have been married, open locks to get at the manuscripts; but subsequently lost his wife, who was sent over what was prepared for pubthe daughter of his first master, in 1731. lication; and the booksellers, almost
In 1739, he received an application all of whom concurred in this act of from two booksellers to write for them a robbery, came out with a cheap edition volume of letters upon various supposed of several of the volumes before the occasions, which might serve as models author's English one.
In 1754, Richardson, who was amass more, threw no taint upon his indeing a handsome fortune, from his works pendence, and the acquaintance of his and his business, was made master of superiors he never deemed of sufficient the Stationers' Company ; on which value to court. In company, he was occasion one of his friends told him that silent and reserved, and never altothough he did not doubt his going very geiher got over that bashfulness inci. well through every other part of the dent to a man of sensibility who has duty, he feared his habitual abstemious- risen to notice beyond what his original ness would allow him to make but a rank in society could claim. very poor figure at the city feasts. In As an author, his fame rests on 1760, he purchased a moiety of the Clarissa and Grandison ; had he written patent of law printer to the king, and, Pamela only, he would have been reabout the same time, he removed from membered as a novelist, but nothing his country residence at North End, more. Exquisitely as is the character Hammersmith, to a house which he had of the heroine portrayed, up to the built for himself at Parson's Green. time she resists the licentious overtures Here he passed the latter part of his of her master and admirer, the moment life, surrounded by his family, and an she becomes his wife, a death-blow is amiable and accomplished circle of given to the consistency of her chavisitors, principally females, to whom racter and the moral tendency of the he used to read his works in the pro work. But the author has made amends gress of composition. “ In this mental for this fatal error in Clarissa ; Loveseraglio, as it may be called," says Mrs. lace is not superior in villiany to the Barbauld, " he had great facilities for husband of Pamela, and yet the hand that knowledge of the female heart of Lovelace is disdained; the one offers which he has so eminently shown in his marriage to his victim in the character works; but it cannot be denied that it of an unsatiated violator, the other in had a tendency to feed that self-in that of a foiled seducer; both despicable portance which was perhaps his reign- enough it must be owned ; and by such ing foible." A paralytic disorder at a woman as Richardson professed to length terminating in apoplexy, de represent, both should have been reprived him of live, on the 4th of July, jected. Richardson is more highly 1761; previously to which he had l estimated by the French than by his own added to his reputation by the publica- countrymen; and Rousseau has obtion of Familiar Letters, being the served of Clarissa, " that no book was scheme he had laid aside for Pamela ; ever written equal toit in any language." an edition of Æsop's Fables; and Nuin It is, indeed, a masterly and original ber Ninety-seven in the Rambler; be- production of genius; and Mrs. Barbauld sides some fugitive pieces in different justly remarks, that it will transmit his periodical publications. By his first name to posterity as one of the first wise, Richardson had one daughter and geniuses of the age in which he lived. five sons; and by his second, a Miss In this novel, observes his female bioLeake, one son and five daughters: the grapher, “ it was reserved for Richardformer children all died young; and of son to overcome all circumstances of the latter, he was survived by four dishonour and disgrace, and to throw a daughters.
splendour round the violated virgin The character of Richardson did not more radiant than she possessed in her disappoint the expectation of those who first bloom." Dr. Johnson, in coinlooked to the author of Clarissa and paring the Lothario of Rowe with the Grandison for example as well as pre Lovelace of Richardson, says, that the cept. He was virtuous, friendly, bene one was probably taken from the other; volent, humane, and hospitable; and it but gives the preference, for moral is an amiable picture, observes Dr. effect, to our author, observing that Aikin, that one of his correspondents | Lothario retains too much of the spectadraws of him, when he says, “ I think tor's kindness. • It was in the power I see you sitting at your door, like an of Richardson alone,” he continues, old patriarch, and inviting all who pass “ to teach us at once esteem and deby to come in." Flattery, praise, and testation ; to make virtuous resentment adulation, than which no man received overpower all the benevolence which
wit and elegance and courage naturally consistency of his conduct always preexcite; and to lose, at last, the hero in served; in the duel scene it is unthe villain." In Sir Charles Grandison, questionably destroyed; and his going the character of Clementina is the best so far into a matrimonial treaty with a drawn ; but it has been observed that, bigoted catholic is at variance with all after the refusal of Sir Charles, the propriety, and particularly with the reader should hear no more of her. principles of the stiff and scrupulous " It is the fault of Richardson,” says Sir Charles. The faults of Richardson's Mrs. Barbauid, “that he never knew style are his prolixity and inelegance when to have done with a character." of diction ; few readers, therefore, of Grandison created less interest than the present day, possess the patience either of his preceding novels, although to read him. In Pamela, many of surpassing them both in compass, inven- the scenes are extremely indelicate; tion, and entertainment. Indeed the and Dr. Watts, instead of complimenthero was not a character calculated to ing him upon this novel, told him he please or to impress, not withstanding the understood that the ladies could not superior qualities with which his author read it without blushing. It was in invests him. Sir Charles is an excellent ridicule of Pamela, that Fielding wrote example of self-control, but the pas- Joseph Andrews, an injury which was sionless uniformity of his actions finds never forgiven by Richardson, who no sympathy with the generality of affected to despise Tom Jones, and premankind in whatever degree it may dicted that the author would soon be attract their admiration. Nor is the no more heard of,
RICHARD SAVAGE. RICHARD SAVAGE, an illegitimate in order to leave him a competent prochild of the Countess of Macclesfield, vision. For this purpose he had set by Earl Rivers, was born on the 10th of apart £6,000 ; but left it to another perJanuary, 1698. No sooner had his son, on being informed, by the inhuman birth taken place, than his mother (who, mother, that the boy, for whom he inin consequence of the public declara- tended it, was dead. The next act of tion of her adulterous intercourse with the countess was to endeavour to transRivers, caused herself to be divorced,) | port the object of her hatred to the Ame. discovered a resolution of disowning rican plantations ; but, being thwarted her child. She accordingly removed in this, she ordered him to be apprenhim from her sight, by placing him ticed to a shoemaker in Holborn, in in the hands of a poor woman, whom the hope of burying him in poverty and she directed to educate him as her obscurity, in his own country. Savage, own offspring, and never to divulge however, after he had worked at the to him the names of his true parents.awl some time, began to grow disgusted His abode, however, being ascertained with his occupation; and losing his by the countess's mother, Lady Mason, nurse about this time, he went to take she, in conjunction with his godmother, possession of her effects in the name of Mrs. Lloyd, benevolently undertook her son, as he supposed himself, when the care of his education. The latter he found some letters which informed died when he was in his tenth year, him of his birth, and of the reasons for when he was sent, at the expense of which it was concealed. the former, to the grammar school of St. He now quitted the employment Albans, where he was called by the which had been allotted to him, and name of his nurse. Before he had left made every exertion to obtain an interschool, where he displayed great ability, view with his mother, who avoided him he lost his father, who, having been fre- with the most vigilant precaution, and quently deceived in his inquiries re- gave orders that he should be excluded specting his son, now, upon his death. from her house, by whomsoever he bed, demanded a true account of him, might be introduced. Savage, on the
other hand, was so affected by the dis a subscription of seventy guineas, by covery of his surviving parent, that he publishing his story in a periodical paused to walk in the evenings for several per, called The Plaiu Dealer, with some hours before her door, in hopes of seeing lines, written by our author, relative to her as she might come, by accident, to the treatment he had received from his the window, or cross her apartment with mother. An ode on the death of King a candle in her hand. Receiving, how George the First added to his reputation, ever, neither attention nor assistance which was fast increasing, when, in from her, he had recourse to his pen for November, 1727, entering a house of the purpose of obtaining subsistence. ill fame with two companions, a broil His first production was a pamphlet on ensued, in which he killed a Mr. Sinthe Bangorian Controversy, of which clair. On his trial for murder, a verdict of he was, in a short time, so ashamed, guilty was pronounced against himself that he destroyed all the copies which and Mr. Gregory, whilst his or her friend, he could collect. He next wrote two Mr. Marchant, was found guilty of mancomedies, borrowed from the Spanish, slaughter only. The circumstances of called Woman's a Riddle, and Love in the case were such as to warrant an apa Veil, “ which procured him," says plication for the king's pardon in behalf Johnson, " no other advantage than the of the prisoners, which, but for the ex. acquaintance of Sir Richard Steele and ertions of Lady Hertford, Lord TyrconMr. Wilks; by whom he was pitied, nel, and others, would, in all probacaressed, and relieved." He unfortu- bility, have been withheld, in consenately lost the friendship of the former, quence of the obstacles thrown in its by too openly ridiculing some of Steele's way by the inhuman mother of Savage, follies, but he still found a benefactor who exerted her utmost efforts for his in Mr. Wilks, who obtained from his destruction. In order to prejudice the mother £50, with a promise of £150 queen against him, she declared that he more ; which, however, was never per- had some time ago entered her house in formed. His association with this gen- the night, and attempted to murder her. tleman brought him frequently to the The incident on which this atrocious theatre, where he became acquainted calumny was founded, is thus related with Mrs. Oldfield, who was so much by Johnson :-“ One evening, walking pleased with his conversation, and as it was his custom, in the street touched with his misfortunes, that she that his mother inhabited, Savage saw allowed him a settled pension of £50 the door of her house by accident open; a-year, which he received until her he entered it, and, finding no person in death.
the passage to hinder him, went up In 1723, he, with the assistance of stairs to salute her. She discovered him Aaron Hill, brought upon the stage bis before he could enter her chambertragedy on the subject of Sir Thomas alarmed the family with the most disOverbury, he himself taking the prin- tressful outcries, and when she had, by cipal character; but his performance her screams, gathered them about her, was not so successful as his play, which ordered them to drive out of the house yielded him a profit of £100. “During that villain, who had forced himself in a considerable part of the time,” says upon her, and endeavoured to murder Johnson, “in which he was employed her. Savage, who had attempted, with upon this performance, he was without the most submissive tenderness, to soften lodging, and often without meat; nor her rage, hearing her utter so detesthad he any other conveniences for study able an accusation, thought it prudent to than the fields or the street allowed retire; and, I believe, never attempted him; there he used to walk and form afterwards to speak to her." his speeches, and afterwards step into a Savage received the king's pardon on shop, beg, for a few moments, the use the 9th of March, 1728, and, on his liberof the pen and ink, and write down ation from prison, found the number of what he had composed, upon paper his friends increased ; and a short mewhich he had picked up by accident." moir of bis life being published, excited
Savage's next production was a vo the compassion of those who read it so lume of Miscellanies, towards the pub- powerfully in his favour, that he was lication of which Mr. Hill procured himenabled, frequent presents, to sup