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saying he had no hope but in God, and from no other motive than the pleasure wanted nothing but death ; and Des of appearing singular and paradoxical. Maizeaux, his biographer, and the The same authority justly says, that no editor of his works, informs us that he one has written so niuch against remet his end without the least perturba- ligion, and no one done so little injury tion of mind, bidding farewell to those to it, as Toland. Swift calls him a that were about him, and telling them miserable sophist, and Des Maizeaux he was going to sleep.

admits that he might have employed The character of Toland does not much better the great talents and learnappear to advantage, either upon a ing which he undoubtedly possessed. review of his conduct or writings. Both He wrote several works of minor conappear to be cainted with inconsistency, sideration in addition to those already obstinacy, and conceit; and, according mentioned. to the author of The Freeholder, arose



COLLEY, the son of Caius Gabriel the age of eighteen, at Drury Lane Cibber, a Germana statuary, was born in Theatre, at ten shillings per week. Southampton Street, Westninster, on This was, shortly afterwards, increased the 6th of November, 1671, and edu- to twenty shillings, on the cated at the free school of Grantham, in mendation of Congreve, who expressed Lincoln, where he seems to have been himself much .pleased with his perequally conspicuous for his vanity, care- formance of Touch wood, in The Double lessness, and talent. On one occasion he Dealer. His next character of im. was flogged for having written a very bad portance was that of Fondlewife, in theme, although the master declared 'The Oid Bachelor; on hearing his rethat, in some paris of it, he had ex- solution to undertake which, Powel obcelled all his competitors. On the death served, “ If the fool has a mind to blow of Charles the Second, the boys of his himself up at once, let us even give him class were directed to compose a funeral a clear stage for it.” He performed oration for that monarch ; but all of the part in imitation of Dogget, and them pleaded inabiliiy to execute such with such verisimilitude, that the latter, a task but young Cibber, who was con- who was present, joined in applauding sequently placed at their head. When him, and many of the spectators niisJames the Second was crowned, his took him for Dogget bimself. schoolfellows petitioned for a holiday, In 1696, on the recommendation of which the master consented to grant on Southern, his first production, entitled, condition that one of them should write Love's Last Shift, was brought on the an English ode on the occasion ; which, stage, in which he represented the prinit is said, Cibber produced within half cipal character. After its performance, an hour, but displayed so much vanity Lord Dorset said to him, “ That it was on account of his success, as to disgust the best first play that any author in his companions, who would not permit his memory had produced; and that him to join a party of them, in whose for a young fellow to shew himself such recreations he felt particularly anxious an actor and such a writer in one day to share.

was something extraordinary."

His In 1687, he left school, and attempted next piece was Love in a Riddle, the to obtain a fellowship at New College, failure of which Cibber attributed to Oxford, on the plea of founder's kin by the prejudice then existing in favour of the maternal side. His claim being the author of The Beggar's Opera; a disallowed, he entered the army for a sequel to which, written by Gay, about short while, but afterwards, coming to this time, was forbidden to be acted. London, his partiality for the stage in. Cibber's piece, being exactly of an opduced him to accept an engagement, at posile naiure, inet with a proportionate opposition, and, to use his own ex- appeared ; and, at the age of seventypression, " was assassinated without four, he played Pandulph, in Papal mercy.” In 1697, he produced Woman's Tyranny, a tragedy of his own comWit,' and, in 1699, the tragedy of position. In 1740, in consequence of Xerxes; the former of which met with the continued attacks that were made little success, and the latter was damned against him, he published An Apology the first night of representation. These for the Life of Colley Cibber, in which were succeeded by Love makes a Man, he vindicates his own character, and She Would and She Would Not, and gives a curious and amusing account of The Careless Husband, which appeared many of his contemporaries. He wrote in 1706, and was received with the several other plays, in addition to those applause it merited. He next produced, mentioned, previously to his death, in succession, his Peroka and Izadora, which took place on the 12th of De. a tragedy; and his comedies of Thecember, 1757, when he was found dead School Boy, The Comical Lovers, The in his bed. Double Gallant, The Lady's Last Stake, Cibber appears, in his Apology, a and The Rival Fools. In 1711, he ob- work of talent and naiveté, and highly tained a share in the patent of Drury entertaining, to have drawn a very fair Lane Theatre, with Wilkes and Dogget; estimate of his own character. He conand, upon the death of Queen Anne, fesses that, even from his school-days, the names of Booth and Sir Richard there was ever a degree of inconsistency Steele were substituted in lieu of in his disposition; that he was always in Dogget, in the new license. Steele, full spirits; in small capacity to do right, however, falling into pecuniary diffi- but in a more frequent alacrity to do culties, and not attending to the con- wrong ; and, consequently, often under cerns of the theatre, found such de- a worse character than he really deductions made from his demands, that served. As an actor, Cibber excelled he brought a suit in Chancery against chiefly in foppish, and feeble old men ; his partners, which was successfully but in every branch of acting he appears defended by Cibber in person.

to have been, at different times, sucIn 1717, appeared' The Nonjuror, cessful. As an author, Cibber posnow acted under the title of The Hypo- sessed more genius than he was allowed crite. The piece, which is an adapta- | by his contemporaries; and he proved tion of The Tartuffe of Moliere, had a himself by no means a despicable opgreat run, and procured the author a ponent to Pope, who carried his virupension from the court. In 1730, he lence so far as to displace Theobald was appointed poet laureat; a dis- from the Dunciad for the purpose of tinction which, as he possessed no substituting Cibber. poetical genius, procured him the ridi- In addition to the plays before-mencule of both friends and enemies, whose tioned, Cibber wrote, in conjunction laugh he joined in with the good-nature with Vanbrugh, The Provoked Husband, of a fortunate coxcomb.

He soon and several other original pieces, which, afterwards sold out his share of the as well as his adaptations from Shakpatent, and retired from the stage; on speare, have been printed in five duodewhich, however, he still occasionally cimo volumes.


RICHARD STEELE, son of a bar- Charter-House School, whence, in 1691, rister, who was secretary to the first he was removed to Merton College, OxDuke of Ormond, was born at Dublin, ford. Devoting bimself to light literaaccording to one account, in 1671 ; but ture, instead of the classics, he left the another, by conjecture, places his birth university without taking a degree, and about 1676. By the influence of the had so strong a passion for a military above nobleman he was placed at the life, that he entered as a private in the

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horse-guards, by which he lost the suc- to Lord Oxford, and at the same time cession to his Irish estate. By this step resigned a pension he had hitherto rehe offended his relations; but his frank ceived from Queen Anne. He now conand generous temper soon procured him tinued to write against ministers with a friends, some of whom obtained for him view of obtaining a seat in the new an ensign's commission in the guards. parliament, to which he was returned, At this time his mode of lise may be as member for Stockbridge, in Dorsetguessed from his own confession :- shire, in the autumn of the year last * When I was an ensign in the guards," mentioned. His senatorial career was he

says, being thoroughly convinced not of long duration ; for having written, of many things, of which I often re- in two papers, called The Crisis and pented, and as often repeated, I wrote, The Englishman, what was pronounced for my own private use, a little book a libel by the commons, he was expelled called The Christian Hero; with a de- the house by a majority of two hundred sign principally to fix upon my mind a and forty-five to one hundred and fiftystrong impression of virtue and religion, two. in opposition to a stronger propensity to He now engaged in several literary unwarrantable pleasures." He printed undertakings, and among others, wrote this work in 1701, with a dedication to The Spinster; and, in opposition to The Lord Cutts, who appointed him his pri- Examiner, a paper called The Reader. vate secretary, and obtained for him a On the accession of George the First, company in a regiment of fusiliers. The he was appointed surveyor to the royal contrast, however, between his conduct stables at Hampton Court, and put into and his precepts exposing him to the the commission of the peace for Middleridicule of his friends, he diverted their sex; and having procured a license to attention from his former work, by pro- be chief manager of the royal company ducing a comedy called The Funeral, of comedians, he had interest to get it or Grief à-la-Mode, which was brought exchanged for a patent for life. In 1714, upon the stage in the same year. It he re-entered parliament as member was received with applause, and pro- for Boroughbridge; and in the followcured him the favourable notice of Kinging year he received, successively, the William; shortly after whose death he honour of knighthood, and £500 from was appointed gazetteer to the ministry Sir Robert Walpole for special service. of Lords Halifax and Sunderland, on the Continuing to write political pamphlets recommendation of Mr. Addison. in favour of King William, he was, in

In 1704, appeared The Tender Hus- | 1717, appointed one of the commisband, in which Steele was materially sioners for inquiring into the estates assisted by the author of The Spectator'; forfeited by the late rebellion in Scotand shortly afterwards was acted his !and ; in which country, notwithstandLying Lover, which, in a speech in the ing the unwelcomeness of his errand, house of commons, he declared " was he was so well received, that he was damned for its piety.” In 1709, he com- enabled to make some progress towards menced the publication of The Tatler; effecting an union between the Scotch taking both the notion of his paper and and English, in church as well as in the name of Bickerstaff, under which he state. This project, however, failing, wrote them, from the previous letters of on his attempting to introduce it at Swift, who became one of his contri- court, he started the more humble one butors, together with Addison and other of conveying fish alive to any part of eminent writers. Combining both moral | the kingdom, for which he obtained a and political views, Steele found his patent in 1718. end in siding with the existing ministry, His scheme, however, after having who, in 1710, rewarded him with the involved him in considerable expense, post of commissioner of the stamp du- proved fruitless; and he was still furties. On a change of administration he iher embarrassed, in 1719, by being still continued his office; but having, deprived of his theatrical patent, in conin The Guardian, which succeeded the sequence of his having voted against Tatler, in 1713, attacked the new mi. the peerage bill. In the following year, nistry under borrowed names, he, to he appealed to the public in a paper prevent dismissal, sent in bis resignation called 'The Theatre, and employed his pen against the South Sea scheme; due to one who uses his pen in the shortly after which his patent was re- cause of virtue, he is, at the same time, stored to him. In 1722, he brought open to censure for a style and train upon the siage his excellent comedy of of thinking equally lax and incorrect, The Conscious Lovers, which produced and for preceprs occasionally not less him a considerable profil, besides a exceptionable than his own example. present of $500 from the king, to Among other objects of his benewhom it was dedicated. His heedless volence and generosity was the illextravagance, however, rendered his fated Savage; in the account of whose good fortune of such little avail, that life, Dr. Johnson relates the following he was ultimately compelled to sell bis anecdote :-Savage was desired by Sir share in the play house, with the ma- Richard, with an air of the utinost imnagers of which he had the additional

portance, to come very early to his mistortune of maintaining an unsuc- house one morning. Savage came as cessful law-suit. In these circum- he had promised, found the chariot at stances, he received a paralytic shock, the door, and Sir Richard waiting for which greatly impaired his understand him, and ready to go out.

What was standing; and, having retired to his intended, or whither they were to go, seat at Langanor, in Wales, he died on Savage could not conjecture, and was the 1st of September, 1729. He was not willing to inquire; but immediately survived by one danghter, the issue of seated himself with Sir Richard. The his second wife, on whose death he coachman was ordered to drive, and came into possession of the estate above they hurried with the utmost expedition mentioned. By his first wise he had no to Hyde Park Corner, where they children, and both marriages brought a stopped at a petty ale-house, and retired great increase to his fortune.

to a private room. Sir Richard then The character of Sir Richard Steele, informed him, that he intended to pubthough not exemplary, appears to have lish a pamphlet, and that he had desired made almost every man his friend, and him to come thither that he might write to have left him no enemy but himself. for him. They soon sat down to the He possessed great benevolence and work. Sir Richard dictated, and Savage warmth of disposition, with the corres- wrote, till the dinner that was ordered ponding faults of indiscriminate libe. had been put upon the table. Savage rality and reckless improvidence; but was surprised at the meanness of the in every sense of the words, he appears entertainment, and, after some hesito have been an amiable and agreeable tation, ventured to ask wine, which Sir

“ He was the best-natured crea Richard, not without reluctance, ordered ture in the world,” says Dr. Young, to be brought. They then finished their

even in his worst s'até of health ; he dinner, and proceeded in their painseemed to desire nothing but to please phiet, which they concluded in the afterand be pleased." His veneration for noon. Savage then imagined his task Addison continued to the last; and, over, and expected that Sir Richard although the author of The Spectator would call for the reckoning and return used now and then to play upon him, home; when Sir Richard told him that we are told by Pope that he always he was without money, and that the took it well.” A more serious charge, pamphlet must be sold before the dinhowever, than that of bantering his ner could be paid for; and Savage was, friend in society has been laid to Addi- therefore, obliged to go and offer the son, who is said to have arrested Steele new production to sale for two guineas, for the loan of £100 during his pecn- which, with some difficulty, he obtained. niary embarrassments. Yet this was Sir Richard then returned home, having readily forgiven by Steele, who seems retired that day only to avoid his credito have been incapable of harbouring tors, and composed the pamphlet to diseither literary jealousy or personal ma- charge his reckoning. The following is levolence.

also told respecting Steele:-Having one With respect to his writings, he is day invited to his house a great number perhaps rather to be considered a man of persons of the first quality, they were of parts than a man of genius; and surprised at the number of liveries which while he must be allowed the praise surrounded the table; and after dinner,


when wine and mirth had set them free cution; and whom, since he could not from the observation of rigid ceremony, send them away, he had thought it conone of them inquired of Sir Richard how venient to embellish with liveries, that such an expensive train of domestics they might do him credit while they could be consistent with his fortune. stayed.” His friends were diverted with Sir Richard very frankly confessed that the expedient, and, by paying the debt, they were fellons of whom he would discharged their attendants; having, very willingly be rid; and, being then however, previously obliged Sir Richard asked why he did not discharge them, to promise that they should never again declared, * That they were bailiffs, who find him graced with a retinue of the had introduced themselves with an exe- same kind.


This eminent writer, son of Dean with whom was subsequently broken Addison, was born at Milton, near off by their disagreement in political Amesbury, in Wiltshire, on the 1st of principles. May, 1672. In this town he received Mr. Addison had, it seems, been urged the rudiments of education, under the by his father to go into the church; Rev. Mr. Naish, and was afterwards but either on account of his remarkable removed to the Rev. Mr. Taylor's seriousness and modesty, is related by school, at Salisbury, and from thence to Tickell, or, according to Steele, at the the Charter-House, where he became suggestion of Lord Halifax, he declined acquainted with Steele. At the age of taking orders; and, in 1699, commenced fitteen, he was entered of Queen's Col. a tour to Italy, on a traveliing pension lege, Oxford; and, shortly afterwards, of £300 per annum, obtained for him a copy of some of his Latin verses by Sir John Somers, whose patronage falling into the hands of Dr. Lancaster, he had previously secured by addressing Dean of Magdalen College, that gentle- to him some verses on one of the camman was so pleased with the talent paigns of King William. In 1701, he they displayed, that he procured the w role, from Italy, an epistolary poem author's election into his own hall

, to Lord Halifax, which was much adwhere Addison took his degrees of B. A. mired both at home and abroad, and and M. A. In the course of a few was translated into Italian verse by years, he gained the applause of both the Abbot Antonio Maria Saloini, prouniversities, by his Latin coinpositions, fessor of Greek, at Florence. In 1702, which were no less esteemed abroad, he was appointed to attend Prince and are said to have elicited from Eugene, who then commanded for the Boileau the remark that he would not emperor, in Italy; but the death of have written against Perrault, had he King William happening soon afterbefore seen such excellent pieces by a wards. which put an end to this affair modern hand. His first publication, a as well as his pension, he returned copy of verses addressed to Mr. Dryden, home, and published an account of his appeared about 1694, who bestowed travels, dedicated to Lord Somers. The great commendation both on this and work did not at first succeed, but, by the one that foilowed it, which was a degrees, says the writer of his life in the translation of the fourth Georgic of | Biographia Britannica, as the curious Virgil (omiting the story of Arisiæus). entered deeper and deeper into the His next production was An Essay on book, their judgment of it changed, and the Georgics, prefixed to Mr. Dryden's the demand for it became so great, that translation, an admirable piece of criti- the price rose to five times its original cism; and, about the same time, he value before a second edition was wrote several small poems; one of printed. In 1704, an opportunity was which, dated April, 1694, was addressed atforded to bim of displaying his abilities to the famous Sacheverell, his intimary with advantaje from the following cir.

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