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native city, and studied mathematics, her botanical resources, and for the esphilosophý, and medicine. He then tablishment of a new botanical garden visited the principal medical schools of at Edinburgh, where, a short time after the continent, particularly those of its cultivation, were to be seen " the Paris, where he cultivated his favourite rarest plants of every country, on a study of botany, under the celebrated spot, which, but a few years before, was Bernard Jussieu. In 1749, he returned considered as little better than a barren to Scotland, and, in the commence waste, hardly producing even a pile of ment of the following year, took his useful grass." He also prevailed upon degree of M.D. at the University of government, through the medium of Glasgow, and commenced practice at the Duke of Portland, to institute a Edinburgh. After a highly successful permanent fund for its support; and professional career of about ten years, • indeed," continues the authority just he was, in 1761, on the death of Dr. quoted, " to Dr. Hope, who was the Alston, appointed professor of botany tirst mover in everything respecting and materia medica, king's botanist for that garden, his country in particular, Scotland, and superintendent of the and science in general, are indebted for royal garden. The indefatigable zeal all the advantages resulting from that and attention, however, with which he establishment." As a proof of his zeal pursued his duties as a lecturer, im for the diffusion of his favourite science, pairing his health, he, in 1768, resigned it may be stated that he prolonged the his office, as teacher of materia medica, course of lectures to an eyual length and was nominated, by a new com with any other at the university; and, mission from the king, regius professor at his own expense, gave away an of medicine and botany. At the same annual gold medal. time, his other appointments were con He is said to have left, incomplete, firmed to him for life; an honour strongly an extensive botanical work, to which indicative of his merit, as they had he had devoted many years ; but, his never been given to others but as a tem- only original compositions in print, porary grant. He had, in the year last are, two articles in the Philosophical mentioned, been elected physician to Transactions, one on the Rheum palthe Royal Infirmary; and, in addition matum, and the other on the Perula to the distinctions he thus received at assafætida. These illustrate his anxiety home, was honoured by the insertion of to render botany subservient to the his name, as a member of several cele arts more immediately useful in life, brated foreign societies, besides having but particularly to medicine; and, by been elected a fellow of the Royal the former publication, he succeeded, in Society in London. He was held also conjunction with Sir Alexander Dick, in high estimation by Linnæus, who in introducing the practical cultivation placed him among the first class of of rhubarb in Britain. In this, he was botanists, and called, after his name, the so far successful, as entirely to supersede beautiful shrub Hopea. On Linnæus, the necessity of sending abroad for that indeed, he seems to have had a claim of medicine; he was not able to accomgratitude as well as esteem; for, ac- plish as much in the assafætida plant; cording to Dr. Pulteney, “ the adoption but he proved that, by proper cultiof the doctrines of Linnæus by ihose vation, it was capable of being brought learned professors, Drs. Hope and Mar- nearly to the state of perfection at which tyn, was the era of the establishment it arrives in its native soil. of the Linnean system in Britain." The character of Dr. Hope was His death took place on the 10th of marked by considerable warmth of November, 1786; "at a time," says temper, generosity, liberality, and an Dr. Duncan, " when he was holding the enthusiastic earnestness in the pursuit distinguished office of president of the of science, and the encouragement of Royal College, and might be justly con merit. About ten years after his comsidered at the very head of his pro- mencing practice, he married Miss fession in Edinburgh.".

Stevenson, a physician's daughter, at Scotland is much indebted to Dr. | Edinburgh, by whom he had four sons Hope for the improvements he made in and one daughter.



James HUTTON, the son of a mer- entered with a friend respecting the chant in Edinburgh, was born in that joint establishment of a manufacture of city on the 3rd of June, 1726. He lost sal ammoniac from coal-soot. This was his father when very young, and was some time before it took place; how, sent by his mother to the high school, ever, on coming to Edinburgh, in the and, afterwards, to the University of summer of 1750, Dr. Hutton relin. Edinburgh, of which he was entered a quished all idea of practising, and student in 1740. His taste for che- turned his attention to agriculture. He mistry was first awakened by an ob- went, for some time, into Norfolk, servation of Mr. Stevenson, professor where he took up his residence in the of logic, who happened to mention, as house of one Dybold, a farmer, who an illustration of some particular doc- was at once his preceptor and his host trine, the fact that gold is dissolved in The pursuit of rural economy led him to aqua regia ; and that two acids, which make frequent excursions into various can each of them singly dissolve any of parts of England; and it was in the the baser metals, must unite their course of these journies that he first strength before they can attack the began to study mineralogy, by way of most precious. Young Hutton imme- amusing himself on the road. In a diately sought for such books as might letter to Sir John Hall, written in 1753, give him further instruction respecting he says, that he was become very fond this phenomena; one of which was of studying the surface of the earth, Harris's Lexicon Technicum, a work and was looking with anxious curiosity which at once hxed his predilection for into every pit, or ditch, or bed of a the science of chemistry.

river, that fell in his way; and that " if In compliance, however, with the he did not always avoid the fate of wishes of his friends, he was, in 1743, Thales, his misfortune was certainly not apprenticed to Mr. George Chalmers, owing to the same cause." The antiwriter to the signet; but, unable to re- quity of husbandry in Flanders, induced strain the bent of his mind, he devoted him to pay that country a visit in 1754; more of his time to making experi- whence he returned, in the summer of ments, than to the transcribing of law the same year, with an accession of papers. Mr. Chalmers perceiving this, agricultural and mineralogical knowadvised him to select some other pro- ledge. He fixed upon his own farm in fession, and generously freed him from Berwickshire as the place of his agrithe articles into which he had entered cultural operations, and remained there with himself. He, in consequence, se- till about the year 1768, with the exlected that of medicine, as most nearly ception of a few months, occupied by allied to chemistry; and, in 1744, was him in an excursion to the north of entered a medical student of the uni- Scotland. His improvements in tillage versity. In 1747, he went, for improve- were soon conspicuous on his farm; ment, to Paris; and, after a stay there and he has the credit of being one of of about two years, returned home by the first who introduced the new husway of the low countries, and took the bandry into a country where it has degree of M. D. at Leyden, in 1749. since made more rapid advances than On coming to London, however, at the in almost any other part of Great end of the year, he altered his views Britain. The sal ammoniac establishwith respect to the pursuit of medicine ment, to which we have before alluded, as a profession, and ultimately came to appears to have been founded during a resolution to abandon it altogether. Dr. Hutton's residence in Berwick This was in consequence partly of the shire ; but it was not till 1765, that the want of an opening at that time for a subject of our memoir became a regular physician in Édinburgh, and, partly, of partner in the concern. a correspondence into which he had Dr. Hutton now took up his resi


dence at Edinburgh; and having let for the present appearances. He suphis farm to advantage, began to confine poses the earth to hare undergone his attention to scientific pursuits. In many revolutions at very distant interthe course of a variety of experiments, vals of time, and to be subjected to a he discovered, for the first time, that law which produces a general and sudmineral alkali is contained in zeolite, den convulsion, as a stage in certain a fact which the experiments of M. cycles of changes, which at all other Klaproth, Dr. Kennedy, and others, times are slowly, yet incessantly adhave since confirmed. In 1774, he vancing. This theory, as Dr. Playfair made a mineralogical tour into Wales ; observes, rests, as to its evidence, partly and, in 1777, he gave to the world his on its conformity to analogy, and partly first publication, under the title of Con- the explanation which it affords siderations on the Nature, Quality, and of certain phenomena in the natural Distinctions of Coal and Culm. This history of the earth. The degree of this little pamphlet was designed to answer evidence will be considered differently a question, which began to be much by different minds; Dr. Hutton, certainly agitated, and at length came before the thought that the conclusion to which privy-council, whether the small coal of he had come, founded upon the fact of Scotland is the same with that of Eng. the liquefaction of mineral substances land, and whether it ought to be carried by heat, (which he considered comcoastwise, free of all duty. The result pletely established) was indisputable. was, the exemption from the payment. No other proof, in his opinion, seemed duty of the small coal of Scotland ; necessary; nor did he appear to think which was owing, in a great degree, to that the direct testimony of experiment, the satisfactory information given by could it have been obtained, would Dr. Hutton on the subject, in the above have added much to the credibility of pamphlet.

the results deduced from this part of his Dr. Hutton had, from the period of system. “ For my part," says his biohis fixing his residence in Edinburgh, grapher and illustrator, “I will acknow. heen a member of the Philosophical ledge, that the matter appears to me in Society, before which he read several a light somewhat different ; and though papers, but the only one published was the arguments of Dr. Hutton are suffi that On Certain Natural Appearances cient to produce a very strong conof the Ground on the Hill of Arthur's viction, it is a conviction that would be Seat. It appeared in the second volume strengthened by an agreement with the of the Transactions of the Royal Society results even of such experiments as it is of Edinburgh, shortly after the incor- within our reach to make. It seems poration of that body with the one to me, that it is with this principle in above-mentioned, in 1783. It was to geology, much as it is with the parallax the Transactions of this Society also of the earth's orbit in astronomy; the that Dr. Hutton communicated his discovery of which, though not necesaccount of the theory of the earth, a sary to prove the truth of the Copersubject upon which he had been en- nican system, would be a most pleasing gaged nearly thirty years. The distin. and beautiful addition to the evidence guishing feature of this theory, which by which it is supported. So, in the has been so ably illustrated by Pro- Huttonian geology, though the effects fessor Playfair, is, the universal agency ascribed to compression are fairly deof heat in consolidating the rocky ducible from the phenomena of the strata, after the materials of which they mineral kingdom itself, compared with were formed had been collected by the certain analogies which science has subsiding of loose, earthy materials, at established; yet the testimony of direct the bottom of the sea ; and the heat he experiment would make the evidence conceived to be sealed in the central complete, and would leave nothing parts of the earth. The elevation of that credulity itself could possibly dethe strata from the bottom of the sea to siderate." the higher situations, which they have The Huttonian theory, however, since occupied, he ascribes to the ex- was received with indifference by the pansive power of heat acting on water scientific world, probably on account of or other bodies; and he thus accounts the many unsatisfactory geological theo

ries that had before appeared. Mr. latest occupations, and were nearly Playfair, however, confesses that other ready for the press a short time before reasons contributed to prevent the flut- his death, which took place on the 26th tonian theory from making a due im- of March, 1797. pression : it was proposed too briefly, Dr. Hutton was simple in his manand with too little detail of facts, for a ners, but extremely animated and forsystem which involved so much that cible in conversation ; and, whether was new, and opposite to the opinions serious or gay, full of ingenious and generally received. Dr. Hutton's suc- original information. His general chaceeding works were, On the Theory of racter was highly amiable, and no man Rain ; Physical Dissertations ; Disser- was more esteemed by his friends. In tations on different Subjects of Natural person, he was slender, but active, with Philosophy; An Investigation of the a thin countenance, high forehead, and Principles of Knowledge, and the Pro- a keen penetrating eye; but full of gress of Reason from Sense to Science gentleness and benignity. With respect and Philosophy, in three quarto vo- to his intellectual capacities, none, lumes; and, in 1795, his Theory of the says his biographer, "was more skilful Earth, in iwo volumes, was published in marking the gradations of Nature, as in consequence of an attack which had she passes from one extreme to another; been made upon his doctrines by Mr. more diligent in observing the conKirwan. He left behind him a third tinuity of her proceedings; or more volume, which is still in manuscript, sagacious in tracing her footsteps, even together with a volume of Elements of where they were most lightly imAgriculture. These works formed his pressed."


This eminent naturalist was born at The death of his wife, to whom he Downing, in Flintshire, in 1726. He had been married about eight years, received his school education at Wrexo induced him, in 1765, to visit the conham and at Fulham, whence he was tinent, where he became known to the sent to the University of Oxford, with a most distinguished scientific foreigners view of studying jurisprudence. А of the day. In 1767, he was elected a decided bent, however, towards natural fellow of the Royal Society; and, in history prevented him from following 1770, the University of Oxford prethe law as a profession. He imbibed sented him with the degree of LL.D. his taste for the former science as early In the previous year he had published as his twelfth year, from a perusal of his Indian Zoology; and, about the same Willoughby's Ornithology; "and for time, he made a journey into Scotmineralogy, by making a tour into land, an account of which he published Cornwall, in 1746, in company with in 1771. His description of a country, Dr. Borlase. In 1754, he was elected a at that time but partially known to fellow of the Society of Antiquaries; England, was read with interest and and, in the following year, an account avidity, and induced the author to visit which he sent to Linnæus, of a concha the Hebrides, in 1772, of which islands anomia, procured his enrolment as a he gave a most entertaining and valu. member of the Royal Society of Upsal, able account. He now became In 1761, he published his British Zoo- habitual tourist; and, after visiting the logy, in one hundred and thirty-two northern counties of England, made coloured plates, for the benefit of the several excursions in his native country, Welch Charity Schools. He repub- the result of which he gave to the lished it some years afterwards ; added public in 1778, in one quarto volume, a volume relative to reptiles and fishes ; with plates, entitled A Tour in Wales ; and another, containing the vermes, followed, in 1781, by A Journey to testaceous, and crustaceous animals. Snowdon.




He also published, in two volumes, manlike and agreeable in his manners, quarto, his History of Quadrupeds, a cheerful companion, and warm friend. of which a synopsis had previously His light, rapid, and vivacious style, appeared; and, in the Philosophical render him one of our most amusing Transactions of the same year, was topographical writers; though, for want inserted his History and Natural His of sufficient care, he is frequently intory of the Turkey. In 1785, came

He is chiefly distinguished as out, in two volumes, quarto, his Arctic a natural historian; in which character Zoology, containing quadrupeds and he is considered as very respectable birds, with a copious introduction pre- authority, and has the merit of being fixed, which has been considered the clear and judicious in his principles of most interesting and original of all his arrangement, and concise, energetic, writings His London, however, is, and, for the most part, exact in his perhaps, his most popular work, and descriptions. has been preferred to all other publica The following anecdote has been told tions of the class, both for its style and of him :-Among other peculiarities, he

In 1793, he printed his auto had a great antipathy to a wig, which biography, in which he announced his however, he could suppress, until reason intention of resigning authorship; but yielded to wine. Dining once at Cheshis habits were too strong for his reso- ter, with an officer who wore a wig, Mr. lution. He employed his time in writing Pennant became half seas over; when an account of the History of the Parishes another friend, that was in company, of Whiteford and Holywell, in which he carefully placed himself between Pengives a garrulous but vivacious account nant and the wig, to prevent misof many particulars of his family his-chief. At length, however, after much tory. It appeared in 1796, and was patience, and many a wistful look, succeeded by a View of Hindostan, in | Pennant started up, seized the wig, and 1798, in which year our author died, at threw it on the fire. Down stairs ran the age of seventy-two. He had mar Pennant, and the officer, with his ried a second wife in 1776, the sister of sword, after him, through all the streets Sir Roger Mostyn, and left families by of Chester ; but Pennant, from his supeboth marriages.

rior knowledge of topography, escaped. Mr. Pennant, who was a member of This was, whimsically enough, called several foreign societies, was gentle Pennant's Tour through Chester.

Joseph BLACK. This eminent chemist was born of ideas on the subject, in a paper, read British parents, at Bordeaux, in 1728. before a society in Edinburgh, containHe was intended for the medical pro-ing Experiments on Magnesia Alba, fession, and received his education at Quick Lime, and some other Alkaline the grammar-school of Belfast and the Substances.' In this paper, which was University of Glasgow, which latter he published in the second volume of The entered in 1746. Here he became one Essays, Physical and Literary, 1756, he of the favourite pupils of the celebrated gave an account of one of the most imCullen, whose excellent method of in- portant discoveries in chemistry, and struction in chemistry, though not a which is generally considere

as the first-rate chemist himself, gave Black source of much that has immortalized a decided preference for that science. the name of Cavendish, Priestley, and He assisted his master in several of his others, memorable for their acquisitions experiments; and on taking his degree in the knowledge of aërial bodies. This of M. D., at Edinburgh, in 1754, he was no other than the existence of an chose a chemical topic. It was a trea aërial fluid, which he denominated fixed tise entitled De humore acido a cibris air, the presence of which gave mildorto et Magnesia Alba ; and, in the ness, and its absence causticity, to next year, be coinmunicated his further alkalies and calcareous earths.

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