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pressed himself with reference to the Sir Hans Sloane is to be considered cruelties practised towards the slaves in rather as a diligent and discriminating Jamaica, in a manner equally unworthy collector, than as a man of profound of the philanthropise and of the phi- science, original ideas, or philosophical losopher. Speaking of the blacks, he investigation. As a medical practisays, “ After they are whipped till they tioner, the suavity and politeness of his are raw, some put on their skins pepper manners greatly conduced to his emand salt, to make them smart; ai other ployment. He was the first in Engtimes, their masters will drop melted land who introduced into general pracwax on their skins, and use several tice the use of the bark ; and he greatly very exquisite torments. These punish- accelerated the progress of inoculation, ments are sometimes merited by the by performing

that operation on several blacks, who are a very perverse gene

of the royal family. His portrait hangs ration of people; and though they ap- in the British Museum ; and in the pear barsh, yet are scarce equal to some centre of the Botanical Garden, at of their crimes, and inferior to what Chelsea, which he gave to the Apothepunishme.its other European nations caries' Company, a statne of him is inflict on their slaves in the East erected, by Rysbrach, the execution of Indies."

which is admirable, and the likeness With all his abilities as a naturalist, | striking.

JOHN KEILL.

JOHN KEILL was born at Edin answered both in the same volume, in burgh, in the year 1671, and educated 1699; and so satisfactorily exposed the in the university of that city, where he false reasoning and ignorance of science graduated M. A. His tutor in mathe- in Burnet, that his theory of the earth matics, in which he early excelled, was is now no longer read but as an inDr. David Gregory; from whom Keill genious romance. learnt the principles of the Newtonian In 1700, on the appointment of Dr. philosophy, and imbibed them with Millington, Sedleian professor of natural great ardour.

In 1694, he accoín- philosophy at Oxford, to be physician panied his tutor to the University of in ordinary to King Williain. Mr. Keill Oxford, where he became a member of was left as his deputy, and added con. Baliol College, and obtained one of the siderably to his fame by his lectures. Scotch exhibitions in that society. He About the same time, the term of his was not long in preparing hiniself to Scotch exhibition being nearly out, he read lectures upon naiural philosophy; removed from Baliol to Christchurch and he is said to have been the first College, by the invitation of its dean, who taught the doctrines of the Prin- Dr. Aldrich. In 1702, he published cipia by the experiments on which they the substance of his lectures in a treaare founded. His lectures were at- tise, entitled Introductio ad veram tended by numerous students, and pro- Physicam. This work met with great cured him high reputation, which was applause, both at home and abroad, furi her increased by his Examination particularly in France, where it was of Burnet's Theory of the Earth; in considered the best introduction to which work he is generally allowed to The Principia, when the Newtonian have completely refuted the absurd philosophy began to obtain in that system which was the object of his at

country. A second edition of it aptack. In his Examination, he also peared in 1705, with two additional made some remarks upon Whiston's | lectures ; and a third was published, theory on the same subject; and it, some years after the author's death, ai consequently, drew from that eccen- the instance of M. Maupertius. tric divine, as well as from Dr. Burnet, Mr. Keill was elected a fellow of the a printed reply. Our philosopher Royal Society, some time previous to

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1708; in which year he communicated professor of astronomy at Oxford. In to their Transactions a paper on the 1711, he cominunicated to the philoLaws of Attraction, and its Physical sophical Transactions a paper on the Principles. This was in support of some Rarity of Matter and the Tenuity of of Newton's doctrines on optics; and, its Composition; wherein he pointed about the same time, he vindicated Sir out some phenomena which were inIsaac from the charge of Leibnitz, that explicable upon the supposition of a the former had no claim to the inven- plenum; in support of which, the Cartion of Auxions. In the famous, but tesians had made some attacks upon disgraceful controversy, which took Newton. He was, shortly afterwards, place between these two eminent phi- made decipherer to Queen Anne; and losophers, Leibnitz was not without he held that office, for two years, under partisans; and Keill, therefore, did no George the First. In 1713, he was inconsiderable service to Sir Isaac, in created M. D. by the University of Oxproving, what has since been allowed, ford ; and, in 1715, published an edi. that from him Leibnitz had taken this tion of Conimandine's Euclid, with method, only changing the name and the addition of two tracts by himself, notation. This enraged Lelbnitz, who entitled Trigonometriæ planæ addressed a letter to Sir Hans Sloane, Sphericæ Elementa, and De Natura et president of the Royal Society, insist- Arithmetica Logarithmorum. He is ing that Mr. Keill should be made to said to have esteemed these beyond all disown his on, for that he was his other perfo ances, and they are absolutely ignorant of the name of the certainly remarkable for their elegance method of Huxions till they appeared and perspicuity. In 1718, he published in the mathematical works of Dr. his Introductio ad veram Astronomiain; Wallis. Keill replied, by maintaining and afterwards, at the request of the his former opinions; and Leibnitz, stiii Duchess of Chandos, translated it into more incensed, wrote another letter to English. It was entitled An Introthe president, affecting to consider the duction to the true Astronomy, or subject of our memoir as an upstart | Astronomical Lectures, &c., and apbeneath his dignity to answer, and re peared but a few months before his peating his desire that he might be death, which took place on the 1st of silenced. Upon this, a comınittee September, 1721. was appointed, which came to a con His merits, as a philosopher, have clusion in favour of Mr. Keill. The been sufficiently shown in the preceding controversy, however, was carried on for memoir to warrant us in assigning him some time: and one of Keill's latest a very high rank among men of science. publications was a Latin epistle to the If he struck out no new path, he folcelebrated John Bernouilli, in defence lowed the best that was discovered; of Newton, with the arms of Scotland and certainly, in advocating the truths, in the title page, and the motto “ Nemo and detecting the errors, of philosophy, me impune lacessit.

few have been more zealous or successIn 1709, the subject of our memoir ful. To comprehend Newton's Prinwent out to New England as treasurer cipia on the first promulgation of them, to the German exiles from the Pala- displayed no common genius ; to teach tinate ; and, on his return, in the fol and vindicate them, a very superior lowing year, he was elected Savilian order of mind.

JOHN HUTCHINSON,

JOHN HUTCHINSON, the son of a classics and mathematics, in order to person of small landed property, was qualify him for the office of a steward born at Spennythorn, in Yorkshire, in to some nobleman or gentleman, and 1674. A gentleman, who boarded at in this capacity, he entered the service his father's house, instructed him in the of Mr. Bathurst, about the year 1683.

He afterwards filled the same situation, utmost verge of this system; from successively, under the Earl of Scar whence the idea or expression of borough and the Duke of Somerset, on "outer darkness and blackness of darkwhose business going to London, in ness," used in the New Testament, 1700, he became acquainted with the seems to be taken. In the introduction celebrated physician and naturalist, to this second part, he also bints that Dr. Woodward. Having communicated the idea of the Trinity is to be taken his ideas to Hutchinson, respecting from the three grand agents abovethe Mosaic account of the creation, the mentioned, fire, light, and spirit; these latter, in the course of some subsequent three conditions of one and the same journies into England and Wales, made substance answering wonderfully in a collections of fossils; and, in 1706, pub- typical, or symbolical manner, he oblished some Observations, which met serves, to the three persons of one and the approbation of Woodward, who en the same essence. From this time, he couraged him to persevere. Hutchinson continued publishing a volume every now gave up his fossils to the doctor, year or two, till his death, which was who undertook to arrange them in a probably hastened by want of exercise, systematic order, and to digest the and too intense an application to his scaltered observations which accom studies, and took place on the 27th of panied them, into a regular work, to August, 1737.

His works were pubprove the truth of the Mosaic account lished in the year 1748, in twelve voof the formation of the earth. His lumes, by the Rev. Mr. Julius Bate, a delay, however, irritated Hutchinson, great favourite of the author, and a who resolved to draw up the work him strenuous advocate for his doctrines. self; and, that he might the better Hutchinson, who was a man of great prosecute his design, he quitted the ser sagacity, but of violent temper, posvice of the Duke of Somerset, who, being sessed also considerable knowledge of master of the horse, appointed him his mechanics; and invented a chronometer, riding purveyor, a sinecure, worth £200 for the discovery of the longitude at per annum, with a good house in the sea, which obtained the approbation of King's Mews.

Sir' Isaac Newton. Ambiguous and In 1724, he presented to the world fanciful as were the philosophical docthe fruits of his early studies, in a work trines of Hutchinson, they obtained entitled Moses' Principia, including many admirers; and, among others, the first part, in which he not only Dr. Samuel Clarke and Bishop Horne. ridiculed Dr. Woodward's Natural His- “His leading notion," says Aikin, “was, tory of the Earth, but attempted to re that all knowledge, natural as well as fule the principle of gravitation. After theological, is contained in the Hebrew commencing a law-suit for the recovery Scriptures; and, in order to support of his tossils, which was put an end to this, he had recourse to the most fanciful by Woodward's death, the subject of etymologies, contrary to the genius and our memoir published the second part usage of the Hebrew tongue, as well as of his Principia ; in which, in opposition to the most extravagant and whimsical to the vacuuin and graviiy of Newton, propositions. He taught, that every he asserts that a plenum and the air are Hebrew root has some important meanthe principles of the Scripture philoso- | ing, or represents some obvious idea of phy. The air he supposes to exist in action or condition, raised by the senthree conditions— fire, light, and spirit. sible object which it expresses, and The light and spirit are the finer and further designed to signify spiritual and grosser parts of the air in motion ; from mental things." the earth to the sun, the air is finer and The following anecdote is told of him, finer, till it becomes pure light near the in his last illness :- His regular physiconfines of the sun, and fire in the orbcian, Dr. Mead, being out of town, he of the sun, or solar focus. From the refused to be bled by the physician who earth, towards the circumference of this attended in Mead's 'stead. On hearing system, in which he includes the fixed this, the doctor, when he called, blamed stars, the air. becomes grosser and him; but said, to console him, he would grosser, until it becomes torpid and soon send him to “Moses," meaning stagnate, in which condition it is at the his studies. Taking the doctor's words

in another sense, however, he anwered, a disgust against the doctor, that he in a muttering tone, " I believe, doctor, dismissed him from further attendance, you will;" and from this, and some called in another physician, and never other circumstances, he conceived such

after suffered his presence.

WILLIAM JONES.

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WILLIAM JONES, the son of a him in the publication of it in 1711, small farmer, in the parish of Llan- accompanied by other pieces on analyfihangel-the-Bard, in Anglesea, North tical subjects. This tract secured to Wales, was born there in the year Newton the honour of having applied 1680. He received an ordinary edu- the method of infinite series to all sorts cation, of which arithmetic was his of curves, previous to the publication of fivourite branch; he afterwards pro Mercator's Quadrature of the Hyperceeded to the mathematics of his own bola, and contributed to the decision accord, and commenced his career in of the question in dispute between life, as a teacher of this science on Leibnitz and Newton, respecting the board a man-of-war, in the fleet under invention of fluxions, in favour of the Lord Anson. He was present at the latter. capture of Vigo, and during the pillage After Mr. Jones had been elec ed a by which it was followed, said to have member of the Royal Society, of which fixed upon a bookseller's shop, as the he became also a vice-president, he took object of his plunder ; but finding in it up his residence at Sherborne Castle,

books worth seizing, contented the seat of Lord Macclesfield, to whom himself with bringing away a pair of he gave instructions in the sciences. scissars, as a trophy of his military suc Whilst in this situation, the failure of cess. Previously to this event, which his banker deprived him of almost the happened in his twenty-second year, whole of his property; for which Lord he had published A New Compendium Macclesfield compensated by procuring of the whole Art of Navigation ; and, for him a sinecure place of considerable on his return from abroad, he imme- emolument... He, shortly afterwards, diately established himself as a mathe- married a Miss Nix; and after having matical teacher in London. In 1706, had three children by her, the youngest he published his Synopsis Palmariorum of whom was the celebrated 'Sir WilMatheseos, or a New Introduction to liam Jones, died of a polypus in the the Mathematics, &c., containing a heart, in July, 1749. perspicuous and useful compendium of “ The history of men of letters," says all the mathematical sciences.

Lord Teignmouth, in his Life of Sir The above works procured their William Jones, is too often a melanauthor considerable reputation in the choly detail of human misery, exhibiting scientific world, whilst his respectable the unavailing struggles of genius and character and inviting manners gained learning against penury, and life conhim some noble and substantial friends. sumed in fruitless expectation of paAmong these was the great Lord Hard-tronage and reward. We contemplate, wicke, who, on his accession to the with satisfaction, the reverse of this chancellorship, conferred upon Jones picture in the history of Mr. Jones; as the office of secretary for the peace. we trace him in his progress from obSir Isaac Newton was also one of his scurity to distinction, and in his parintimate friends; and when Jones after- ticipation of the friendship and benewards found among some papers of ficence of the first characters of the Collins, which fell into his hands, a times.” Mr. Jones's papers in the tract of Newton's, entitled Analysis per Philosophical Transactions are, A ComQuantitatum Series Fluxiones, ac dif- pendious Disposition of Equations for ferentias : cum Enumeratione Line | exhibiting the Relations of Goniomearum tertii ordines, Sir Isaac assisted trical Lines; A Tract on Logarithms;

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An Account of the Person killed by general introduction to the mathemalightning in Tottenham Court Chapel; | tical and philosophical works of New. and Properties of the Conic Sections, ton, when illness put an end to his deduced by, a compendious method ; further progress in the design. He all of which are to be found in the left the manuscripts, at his death, to furty-fourth sixty-first, sixty-second, the care of Lord Macclesfield, and and sixty-third volumes, respectively. that nobleman undertook to publish Nichols, in his Anecdotes of Bowyer, them, but died without performing his says that Mr. Jones had also completed, promise, after which they were never and sent to press, the first sheet of a found.

NICHOLAS SAUNDERSON.

This illustrious mathematician, the to afford every possible encouragement son of a person who had a place in the to his growing talents, sent him to an Excise, and a small estate ai Thurlston, academy at Attercliff, near Sheffield; near Penniston, in Yorkshire, was born but his stay here was short, and, on rethere, in 1682. He was but a twelve- turning home, he prosecuted his studies, month old when he lost, not only his in his own way, with greater advantage. sight, but also his eye-balls, which came His education had, hitherto, been at away in abscesses, from an attack of the the expense of his father, who had a small-pox. It was, however, soon large family, and was not in very flouapparent, that his blindness had not rishing circumstances. His friends, retarded the developement of his intel- therefore, in order to relieve him from lects, which displayed themselves in a further burden, and to give young manner that induced his parents to Saunderson an opportunity of gaining send him, when yet very young, to the his own living, resolved to send him to grammar-school at Penniston. In what Cambridge, not as a scholar, but as a mode instruction was conveyed to him tutor. Accordingly, in 1707, he took we have no account, but his progress in up his residence in Christ's College ; the classics, aided by his own subse- and, without being admitted a member, quent application, was such, that he was allotted a chamber, by the society, eventually became able to follow, as with the use of the library, and other easily as his own language, the works assistances. He had not long comof Euclid, Archimedes, and Diophantus, menced lecturer, before his fame filled as they were read to him in their ori the university, and drew towards him ginal Greek, On leaving school, he the attention and admiration of the studied arithmetic under his father, whole scientific world. Philosophers, and the rapidity with which he made as well as students, formed part of his very long calculations, discovered in audience; and numbers came from all him the germ of that mathematical parts to hear a blind man discourse on genius which he afterwards so bril ihe nature of light and colours, and exliantly displayed. His talents in this plain the theory of vision, the effects of line having attracted the attention of glasses, the phenomenon of the rainRichard West Underbank, Esq., that bow, &c. &c. The other topics of his gentleman undertook to be his instructor lectures, besides optics, were, universal in the principles of algebra and geome- arithmetic, and Newton's Principia, the try; and, about the same time, he illustrious author of which came to gained the friendship, and assistance Cambridge to visit Saunderson, and of Dr. Nettleton. Under these volun- frequently conversed with him on the tary preceptors, he made rapid im- most difficult part of his works. provement, and, in a short time, was At the same time that the subject of fitter to be the teacher, than the pupil, our memoir was delivering his lectures, of his masters. He was in his nine- the Lucasian professorship was held by teenth year, when his father, anxious the celebrated Whiston, upon whose

VOL. III.

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