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Copyright, 1886,

BY IRVING A. WATSON, SEC. AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION.

All Rights Reserved.

I431 136 1886

INTRODUCTION.

As the result of prizes offered by Mr. Henry Lomb, of Rochester, N. Y., through the American Public Health Association, the following awards were made at the last meeting of the association:

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I. HEALTHY HOMES AND FOODS FOR THE Working ClassES. BY VICTOR C.
VAUGHAN, M. D., PH. D., Professor in University of Michigan. Prize,
II. THE SANITARY CONDITIONS AND NECESSITIES OF SCHOOL-HOUSES AND
SCHOOL-LIFE. By D. F. LINCOLN, M. D., Boston, Mass. Prize,
III. DISINFECTION AND INDIVIDUAL PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST INFECTIOUS DIS-
EASES. BY GEORGE M. STERNBERG, M. D., Major and Surgeon U. S. Army.
Prize,

IV. THE PREVENTABLE CAUSES OF DISEASE, INJURY, AND DEATH IN AMERICAN
MANUFACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS, AND THE BEST MEANS AND APPLI-
ANCES FOR Preventing and AVOIDING THEM. BY GEORGE H. IRELAND,
Springfield, Mass. Prize,

.

$200

$200

$500

$200

That these essays may be placed in the hands of every family in the country is the earnest desire of the association, as well as the heartfelt wish of the public-spirited and philanthropic citizen whose unpretentious generosity and unselfish devotion to the interests of humanity have given us these essays, but the financial inability of the association renders it impossible to distribute them gratuitously;—therefore a price covering the cost has been placed upon these publications. It is to be hoped, however, that government departments, state and local boards of health, sanitary and benevolent associations, etc., will either publish these essays, or purchase editions at cost of the association, for distribution among the people.

Although a copyright has been placed upon these essays for legitimate protection, permission to publish, under certain conditions, can be obtained by addressing the secretary.

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I.

BUILDING A HOME.

LOCATION.

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he location of the home of the working-man is often determined by siderations over which he has no control. Cost of land and distance a place of labor must influence the selection. If possible, however, house should not be located in a low, damp place, nor on made th. In cities, many low tracts, and even the beds of small streams, rshes, and lakes, are filled in with general refuse, such as street eepings, back-yard rubbish, ashes, and garbage. Such soil, unless roughly under-drained, must be unfit for the location of habitations. is damp, and will for years be filled with the products of decomposi›n arising from the putrefaction of the garbage deposited there. Houses iilt in such locations must be damp, musty, and unhealthful. The mates of a house built in such a place are likely to suffer from malaria, ilious fever, and rheumatism, even if they do not fall victims to the nore dreaded diseases, typhoid fever and consumption. The house hould also be far from marshes and other low lands, whose surface is overed with water in the spring and early summer, and then exposed ater. Such situations are likely to be malarious. Neither should the nome be located near manufacturing establishments which usually have much garbage about them, such as breweries, tanneries, glucose factories, rendering houses, and oil refineries.

The site should be one which is naturally well drained; and whether this be the case or not often cannot be decided in cities without consulting maps which show the original lay of the land before any grading. had been resorted to, though the position and course of neighboring streams and the location of springs may suggest valuable information. The slope of the land should be from the house. Extra precaution must be taken when it becomes necessary to build at the foot of a hill which is covered with houses from which the surface water and under-ground drainage flows toward the home. The location of neighbors' out-houses, with reference to the proposed home, should also be taken into consideration. While an intelligent man will not neglect the sanitary condition of his own premises, his neighbor's cesspool or privy vault r rain into his well and poison his drinking-water. Have the h place high enough, and as dry as possible. Avoid, when ble, narrow streets, which are devoid of sufficient sunligh The width of the street should be twice the height of th

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