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you will yourself be able, upon inquiry, to account as easily (and in the same manner) for the use of all the others, as I know you can for ut; which is merely the Greek neuter Article oro *, adopted for this conjunctive purpose by the Latins, and by them originally written uti: the o being changed into y, from that propensity which both the ancient Romans had t, and the modern Italians still have Is upon many occasions, to pronounce even their
* * Uri eft mutata óti."
J. C. SCALIGER, de C. L. L, Cap. 173.
+ So in the antient form of self-devotion.
VTEI. EGO, AXIM. PRAI. ME. FORMIDINEM. METOM. QUE. OMNIOM. DIRAS. ŠIC. VTEI. VERBEIS. NON COPASO. ITA. PRO. REPOPLICA. POPOLI. ROMANI. QUIRITIOM. VITAM. SALUTEM. QUE. MEAM. LECIONES. AUX
SILIA. QUE. HOSTIOM, MEOM. DIVEIS. MANEBOUS. TELLOURI. QUE. DE" YOYEO."
So in the laws of Numa, and in the twelve tables, and in all antient in-, fcriptions, O is perpetually found where the modern Latin uses U. And it is but reasonable to suppose, that the pronunciation preceded the change of the orthography.
I “ Quant à la voyelle v pour ce qu'ils (les Italiens) l'aiment fort, ainsi que nous cognoissons par ces mots Ufficio, ubrigato, &c. je pense bien qu'ils la respectent plus que les autres.”
Henri ESTIENE, de la precell. de la L. F.
own o like an U.
Of which I need not produce any
The Resolution therefore of the original will be like that of the translation;
“ Latrones jugulent homines (A1) ért surgunt de nocte."
« L'o a stretta amicizia coll' Ÿ, usandosi in molte voci scambievol" mente.”
Menage. Cambiamenti delle lettere. page 16.
Menage quotes Quinctilian, Festus, Velius Longus, Vi&torinus, Çalliodorus, Servius, Priscian, Virgil, Jul. C. Scaliger.
“ La v par che prevalesse ne'primi tempi e piu remoti, quando i Latini “ memori della Eolica origine, o imitando gli umbri e gli Etruschi, literam,
v pro o efferebant : (1.) e pronunziavano Funtes, Frundes, Acherunte, “ Humones, e simili. (2.) Quindi Ovidio, avendo detto che una volta il, “ nome di Orione era Urion, soggiugné-perdidit' antiquum litera prima
Sonum. (3.) Ne' tempi posteriori si andò all' altro estremo; e all'antica “ lettera fu sostituita quasi sempre la o, come vedefi in Novios Plautios, o e in altre voci della tavola seconda. Prisciano ne dà per ragione: quia “ multis Italia populis v in ufu non erat, sed e contrario utebantur o: (4.) “ dicendovi verbigrazia, Colpa, Exfoles, per Culpa, Exules, &c. (5.)”
Lanzi Saggio di Lingua Etrusca, Tom. i. Pag. 124. (1.) Feft. vid. Orcus. (2.) Quinct. L. 4. (3.) Fast. v. (4.) Pag. 554. (5.) Caffiod. 2284.
You have extricated yourself pretty well out of this scrape with ut. And perhaps have done prudently, to decline the same sort of explanation in those other languages which, as well as the Latin, have likewise a double Conjunction for this purpose, not quite so easily accounted for, because not ready derived to your hands. But I have not yet done with the English : for though your method of resolution will answer with most sentences, yet I doubt much whether it will with all. I think there is one usage of the conjunction that which it will not explain.
Produce an instance.
The instances are common enough. But I chuse to take one from your favourite sad Shepherd : in hopes that the difficulty it may cause you, will abate something of your extreme partiality for that piece. Which, though it be
< such wool “ As from mere English flocks his Muse could pull," you have always contended obstinately, with its author, is
a Fleece “ To match or those of Sicily or Greece."
" I wonder he can move! that he's not fix'd!
So again in Shakespeare
.“ IF THAT the king " Have any way your good deserts forgot, “ He bids you name your griefs."
How will you bring out the Article THAT, when two Conjunctions (for I must still call thar a Conjunction, till all my scruples are satisfied) come in this manner together? ADVERTISEMENT.
* ist Part of Henry IV. Ac IV. Scenes
I PRESUME my readers to be acquainted with French,
Latin, Italian and Greek : which are unfortunately the usual boundaries of an English scholar's acquisition. On this supposition, a friend of mine lamented that, in my Letter to Mr. Dunning, I had not confined myself to the common English character for the Anglo-saxon and Gothic derivations.
In the present publication I should undoubtedly have conformed to his wishes, if I had not imagined that, by inserting the Anglo-saxon and Gothic characters in this place, I might possibly allure some of my readers to familiarize themselves with those characters, by an application of them to the few words of those languages which are here introduced: and thus lead the way to their better acquaintance with the parent language, which ought long ago to have made a part of the education of our youth. And I flatter myself that one of the consequences of my present inquiry will be, to facilitate and abridge the tedious and mistaken method of instruction which has too long continued in our seminaries: the time which is at present allotted to Latin and Greek, being amply sufficient for the