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be, or the elocutionist cannot succeed. Distinctness of articulation, is a primary, and fundamental quality of good reading; and no pains should be considered too great a sacrifice to acquire it.

2. Inaccurate Pronunciation, is another. This indeed is so great a blemish, that every one who aspires to correct speaking should avoid it. And considering the meritorious efforts of Sheridan, Walker, Jameson, Fulton, Knight and others, to establish an easy and correct standard of orthoepy, the vicious pronunciation of public speakers is unpardonable. Under favourable circumstances, I have long attended to the pronunciation of the pulpit, the senate, and the bar; and I am mortified in saying that I have never yet discovered an individual, who might be considered, for young people, a safe standard in orthoepy. This surely is disgraceful to American oratory.

3. The indistinct or inaccurate exhibition of Accent, is another fault of great prevalence. Accentual distinction is made in two ways; first, by stress of voice, and second, by long quantity. In making it the first way, we should commence the enunciation of the accented letter with a heavy, and distinct voice, and end it with a gentle gliding into nothing. This, besides imparting variety to Elocution, contributes to the melody of what is read, and to the reader's ease. A feeble accentual force, seems to be a blemish, almost peculiar to Ameri

cans.

4. Inattention to the Rhetorical, and even to the Grammatical Pauses, is also a fault of extensive prevalence. Every indication of rest should be attentively observed. This contri butes alike to the exhibition of the author's meaning, the beauty of his composition, and the powers of the elocutionist. It is scarcely possible to render too much attention to this particu

lar.

5. But perhaps the most common and injurious fault in Elocution, consists either in making no Emphasis, or making false

ones, or in making them always in the same way. To this point, therefore, the teacher should direct his special attention. 6. Another fault in reading arises from an improper attempt at variety in Modulation. The ordinary movement of the voice in unimpassioned discourse, exclusive of emphasis and cadence, should seldom exceed the interval of two notes. But in defiance of this rule, some speakers, in the enunciation of a few sentences, in simple narrative, range over the whole compass of the voice. This kind of elocution, may indeed, be vastly pleasing to the uncultivated ear, but to persons of good taste, it cannot fail to be offensive.

7. The greatsst fault, however, in Elocution, consists in the want of adaptation of Style to the matter read. I have heard the inimitable service of the Episcopal Church, read with as great rapidity, and, consequently, with as little solemnity, as Matthews would recite a comedy; and on the other hand, it is not unusual to hear an article of ordinary interest, read from a common newspaper, with all the stateliness, the lord Chancelor of England would pronounce the king's speech to both houses of parliament. Surely it is high time such a kind of reading were done away.

8. But although a certain stately and drawling Style of Elocution is the vice of many, Rapidity and Hurry are the fault of more. The minute and accurate conception of the author's meaning; the exact and delicate increase and remission of accentual and emphatic force; the combination of the varied and expressive elements of modulation; and the observance of the multiform canons of good reading, necessarily require time and deliberation. These qualities, it is true, are not demanded by the impatient and restless multitude; for, with auditors of this description, noise only is required; but to the satisfaction of men of taste, they are absolutely indispensable.

9. The last fault that I shall notice, is the neglect of Cadence; or the equable and continuous fall of the voice on the two or three last syllables of a sentence. The harmonious and

expressive close of a period, is, perhaps, one of the most difficult things in Elocution. To taper off the voice in a round, distinct volume, till it reposes in perfect silence, is what one reader in ten thousand does not accomplish. And yet, this, in sentences of ordinary construction, is alike necessary to the reader and the hearer. To the reader, because it affords a remission of organic effort, and enables him to commence the succeeding sentence with fresh vigor; and to the hearer, because it indicates the close of the sentence, and by gratifying his expectation, gives to his mind distinctness of perception, and intermission of attention.

Instead, however, of closing periods in this way, many pronounce the last word of every sentence, with increased force and a rising slide; and this they call" keeping up the last end for the sake of being heard." It is certainly desirable for the close of every period to be distinctly understood; but if this cannot be done in a large room, without the neglect of cadence, let it be (to the deaf and the distant,) forever lost. There are limits to the voice of every reader, and beyond these he should never go. And if he has the misfortune to read to those who are dissatisfied, because he does not bawl out the last word of every sentence, he must come to the determination, either to let them vituperate, or to sacrifice himself to ignorance and bad taste.

But while the close of every sentence, not interrogatory, or interjective, should be pronounced with falling pitches, those pitches must not descend more than one note at a time, nor always to the same extent, nor yet with the same tone. The drop of the voice three or four notes on the last word of a period, is truly shocking; especially if this mode be persevered in thro a whole discourse. t is the regular descent of the voice, one note at a time, on the last syllables of a sentence, preceded by a little elevation of the voice, which constitute a correct cadence, and bring to both speaker and hearer, that repose which is necessary to succeed labour.

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53
53

56

The Spectator, No. 19,
The Rambler, No. 72,

The Manner in which Argumen-
tative Discourses should be read, 59
Extract from Saurin's Sermon,
1st Corinthians, 15th chap.
The manner in which Hortatory
or Declamatory Pieces should
be read,

ib.
61

Speech of Germanicus,
Nott on the Death of Hamilton,
Ames' Speech on the British Treaty,69
The Manner in which Pathetic
Composition should be read,
Joseph's Speech to his Brothers, ib.
David's Lament over Absalom,
Nott on the death of Hamilton,
The Dead Mother,

64

ib.

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The Manner in which Humorous
Pieces should be read,

The Bashful Man,

ib.

The Gouty Merchant & Stranger, 81
The fat Actor and Rustic,

82

The Manner in which Dramatic
Pieces should be read,

Collins' Ode on the Passions,
The Manner of Reading Poetry,
Battle of Waterloo,

PAGE,

The Negro's Complaint,
Marco-Bozaris,

Adam and Eve's Morning Hymn,
Manner of Reading Irony,

Exclamation,

Interrogation,

Climax,

Repetition,

Anticipation,

Concession,

Apostrophe,
Antithesis,

Vision,

Simile,
Personification,
Description,

74

Brougham's Speech on the pres-
ent state of the Law,

101

ib.

102

ib.

103

ib.

104

105

106

ib.

Action,

107

Rules for Cultivating the Voice, 108
Questions for Examination,
Character of Herschel,

115

121

83

ib.

88

91

92

94

95

97

99

From the Pleasure's of Hope,
Wheaton's Address,
Webster's Speech,
Beman's Address,
Patrick Henry's Speech,
Charles Grant's Speech in the
British Parliament,

ib,

100

122

124

125

Stanzas, He never smiled again,
Restoration of Learning in the East, ib.
Mason's Eulogy on Hamilton,
Lord Moira's Speech,
Verplanck's Address,
Lochiel's Warning,
Biddle's Address,

128

130

132

134

Important Destination of Young
Men going to India,

136

Maxcy's Oration, 4th July, 1803, 139
Ulm and Trafalgar,
American Flag,

140

143

145

146

147

149

150

152

PAGE.

Jeffrey's Character of Mr. Watt, 154
'Theodorus,

155

Rev. Mr. Burrough's on Female
Education,

Rev. Mr. Gallaudet, on Female
Education,

160

162

Song of Mac Murrough,
Wallace's Dream,

163

ib.

164

The Star Spangled Banner,
Plunket's Speech,
Wirt's Eulogy, Adams & Jefferson, 166
Character of Bonaparte,
Hopkinson's Speech,

168

171

172

Torch of Liberty,
The Bended Bow,
Home,

Ginevra, a Poem,

Lines from Bishop Heber to his
Wite,
Cypress Wreath,

174

175

Character of Wm. Pitt, the elder, 176
Russell's Oration, 4th July, 1800, 177
An Address for the Greeks,
Character of Cicero,

179

183

184

186

187

188

The Flight of Xerxes,
Lines by Lieut. Malcolm,
Lloyd's Speech in the U.S. Senate, ib.

189

Jeffrey's Speech,

191

194

195

198

200

202

203

Clay's Address to La Fayette,
Mr. Sec'y Barbour's Address,
Battle of Lake Erie,
Philip of Pokanoket,
Aspirations of Youth,
The Martyr Student,
The Damsel of Peru,
Vanity of Human Wishes,
Elliott's Address,
Judge Story's Address,
T. Child's Address,
Judge Duer's Eulogy,
The Belvidere Apollo,

204

205

207

208

210

211

215

216

217

The Servian Youth,
Ode on Greece,
Science and Religion,
National prejudice, hatred, &c.
Youth and Age,

219

220

221

222

Characters of Pitt and Fox,
Importance of Classical Education,225
Whitbread's Speech,

157

228

230

231

Lord Chatham's Speech,
Mansfield's opinion on the outlaw-
ry of Wilks,

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Tradition of Indians concerning
the Mammoth,
Burgess' Oration,

Extract from a Sermon by Rob-
bert Hall,

Hymn-By Wesley,
Ode to Winter,

Hymn-by Bishop Heber,
Education,

237

238

Extract from Dr. Hardie's Ser-
mon on the Resurrection,
Spanish Lady's Farewell,
The Life Boat,

Meeting of the Waters,
The Beacon,

The Wind passeth over it and it

is gone,

265

ib.

Washington's Monument,
Lord Ullen's Daughter,

266

From Young's Night-Thoughts, 268
Exile of Erin,

269

Andrew Jones,

270

The Wounded Hussar,

ib.

Extracts from Thomson's Seasons, 271

275

276

277

278

281

283

288

289

292

295

Female Excellence,

A tale by a Country Curate,
Morning on the Highlands,
The Tournament,
Death of Hamish,
Hints to Teachers,

240

242

244

ERRATA.

Page 14, 1st line, add HIGH before " pitch."

256

258

259

260

261

262

263

ib.

264

15, 9th line from the bottom, insert ONE instead of "red."

18, 10th line from the bottom, add, OF THE LAST WORD, after "syllable."
245, 7th line from the top, for" reek" read RECK.

The errors in the notations and orthography, the intelligent reader will cor
rect without a particular reference.

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