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4. Climax consists in the accumulating of particulars; each one rising in importance as the sentence advances to a close. If it be charged with much vehemence, it must be read with great and augmenting force; and if it be not, it still should be pronounced with increasing earnestness and rapidity, in each succeeding particular.
What hope, said Cicero, is there remaining of liberty, if what is their pleasure, it is lawful for them to do; if what is lawful for them to do, they are able to do; if what they are able to do, they dare do; and if what they dáre do, they really èxecute; and if what they execute, is no way offensive to you?
In pronouncing the above passage, the voice must adopt the falling inflection on each particular; it must increase in force and elevation till it comes to the last member, which must still have more force than the former members, closing, however, with a lower pitch, as sentences ordinarily do.
The cloud-capt tow'rs, the gorgeous palaces,
Can you raise the dead?
How hast thou charm'd
The wildness of the waves and rocks to this?
That thus relenting, they should give thee back
5. Repetition consists in repeating the same words, or the same sense in different words; and requires a reading similar
to that of Climax. The repeated words, or sense, should be distinctly emphasized.
As trees and plants necessarily arise from seeds, so are you, Antony, the seed of this most calamitous war. You mourn, Ó Rōmans! that three of your armies have been slaughteredthey were slaughtered by Antony: you lament the loss of your most illustrious citizens-they were torn from you by Antony: the authority of this order is deeply wounded-it was wounded by Antony in short, all the calamities we have ever since beheld, (and what calamities have we not beheld,) if we reason rightly, have been entirely owing to Antony. As Helen was of Troy, so the bane, the misery, the destruction of this state -is Antony. Cicero.
Thee, his lov'd wife along the lonely shores ;
By foreign hands thy dying eyes were clos'd,
By strangers honour'd and by strangers mourn'd.
6. Anticipation consists in interposing an objection to what is said for the purpose of replying to it. The objection should be read in a somewhat higher pitch than the general strain of the discourse, and the answer a little lower.
*But, grant that others can with equal glory,
Look down on pleasure and the bait of sense, • Where shall we find the man that bears affliction, Great and majestic in his ills, like Cato?
7. Concession signifies giving up some things in order to gain others; and requires the concessive part to be read in a
light, sarcastic manner, and the assertion which follows in a strong decisive tone.
• This, however, I say concerning all the Greeks,-I grant them learning, the knowledge of many sciences; I do not deny that they have wit, fine genius, and eloquence: nay, if they lay claim to many other excellencies, I shall not contest their title:-* but this I must say, that nation never paid proper regard to the religious sanctity of public evidence; and are total strangers to the obligation, authority, and importance of truth, C. Oration for Flaccus.
8. Apostrophe consists in a sudden interruption of the tenor of discourse, by an address to some person or object different from that to which the address was first directed. The reading of it requires a high pitch and forcible movement, especially if the object of the address be dead, or distant, or inanimate; but if it be the Deity, it demands a subdued monotone.
That very night in which my son was born,
Set out with him to reach her sister's house;
9. Antithesis consists in contrasting or placing things in opposition, that they may mutually set off and illustrate each other. In reading it, the words in opposition must be strongly emphasized, and pronounced with a different modulation, and longer pauses between the opposing parts than if there were no opposition.
As there is a worldly happiness which God perceives to be no more than disguised misery; as there are worldly honours which in his estimation are reproach; so there is a worldly wisdom which in his sight is foolishness. Of this worldly wisdom the characters are given in the scriptures, and placed in contrast with those of the wisdom which is from above. The one is the wisdom of the crafty; the other that of the upright: the one terminates in selfishness; the other in charity: the one is full of strife and bitter envyings; the other of mercy and of good fruits, Blair.
Pride still is aiming at the blest abodes,
10. Vision consists in representing things distant and invisible as if they were actually present; and requires the most animated pronunciation. The only effectual rule that can be given for reading this figure, is, to feel, and speak, and act, as if the things we are describing were really before our eyes.— Nature, in elocution, should be our only copy..
What beck'ning ghost, along the moonlight shade,
Hor. Look, my lord, it comes!
Ham. Angels and ministers of grace defend us!
Be thou a spirit of health, or goblin damn'd;
Bring with thee airs from heav'n, or blasts from hell,
Thou com'st in such a questionable shape,
That I will speak to thee. I'll call thee Hamlet,
Why thy canoniz'd bones, hears'd in death,
Making night hideous;
Say, why is this? wherefore, what should we do?
11. Simile, which consists in comparing one thing with another, requires a longer pause than ordinary before it, and a slight depression of the voice at the sign of comparison.
As men, grievously sick, when they are in the burning heat of a raging fever, upon taking a draught of cold water, seem at first, to be refreshed by it, but afterwards are more heavily and violently attacked by their distemper ;—in like manner this disease, under which the republic labours, will gain a respite from the extinction of Cataline, and will afterwards, (as the rest of his accomplices survive,) return upon us with redoubled fury.
As one who spies a serpent in his way,
Then walks with faintness on, and looks with fear
• So seem'd the sire, when, far upon the road,
The shining spoil his wily partner show'd.