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therein “ shone upon us :" accordingly, it must, on this ground, be something, which conversion, or change of heart, such as were known under the old dispensation, could not exhaust; and the relation of Israel, as the child of God, could but shadow forth, not realize, the privilege of our sonship. “But' perhaps " one will ask, wherein consists the eminence of believers in “ Christ above Israel, since he too is said to have been born of “ God, as is said, 'I have begotten and brought up children, and “ . they have despised ME.' (Is. i.) To this must be answered, “ I think, that the law had a shadow of the good things which “ were to come, not the very image of the things ; neither then “ did He give this to Israel in real and full possession, but “ sketched in them, as in an image and figure, ' until the time of "• restoration,' as is written (Heb. ix.), when there should be a “ visible display of such as should in a truer and more cor“ responding sense call God Father, on account of the Spirit of “the Only-Begotten dwelling in them. For Israel • had the " • spirit of bondage to fear, but these the spirit of adoption to " • freedom, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.' Wherefore the “ people, which was through faith in Christ to be advanced to " adoption, was described, as in outline, by that former people, "much as we see our spiritual circumcision [Baptism) imaged “ by that in their flesh; and in a word, all we have was sha“ dowed out in them. Moreover, we say that Israel was called “ to adoption, as in an image, by a mediator Moses, wherefore “ they were baptized unto Him, as St. Paul saith, in the cloud " and in the sea."

St. Chrysostom well gives the context of the whole passage, and brings out the greatness of the mystery therein declared, and the application of the context to such of us as, having been made Christians from the eighth day, have persevered. “Re“ proach no one,” he says, " for thou wast such an one thyself. “ . For we likewise,' he says, ' were sometimes disobedient,' &c. “ Let no one boast, for all have sinned. For if from thy earliest “ youth thou hast lived virtuously, yet must thou have many

i St. Cyril of Alexandr. ad loc.

CONTEXT OF TIT. III. 5. EXPLAINED BY ST. CHRYSOSTOM. 57

ness.

“ sins ; but if thou hast not, as thou thinkest, consider that this

was not the result of thy excellence, but of the grace of God. For had He not called thy forefathers, thou also hadst been an unbeliever. Observe how he enumerates every sort of wicked

Did not God order innumerable ways for us by the “ prophets ; did we obey ?- For we,' he says, “were some"times deceived.' . But when the love and kindness of God “'our Saviour toward man appeared.' How? ' not from works " . of righteousness which we had done, &c., but—by the wash

ing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Ghost.' Oh! " how were we plunged in wickedness, so that we could not be “cleansed, but required to be born again ; for such is regenera“ tion. For as when a house is decayed, no one underprops it, "nor binds together the old ruins, but taking it down to the “ foundation, raises it up again, and restores it from the very

be“ginning, so did He; He raised us not up on what we were ; “ but He razed us to the ground. This is what is meant by re"newal of the Holy Ghost :' He made us new from the very

core: how? through the Spirit.' And again pointing out, in “ another way, our great need, he says, ' which He shed on us

abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour :' so much mercy did we need,' that having been justified by His grace' -again grace,' not 'debt,'—'we might be heirs, according "to hope, of eternal life. Here is both an exhortation to “ humility, and hope for the future. For if when our case was

so desperate, that we must be wholly born again, be saved by

grace, had no good in us, He saved us, much more will He do “ this in the time to come.”

One is almost ashamed to go about to prove that a text so plain applies to Baptism, or that the Holy Church Universal always so held it. The proof which one person can bring, can be but a sample of what remains behind. The proof is the same in kind as before ; and may be useful to those who (because they have never examined) doubt even whether there be such a thing as Catholic consent and agreeing interpretation in Christian antiquity. First, then, no passage from any Father can, or has been pretended to be adduced, which should imply

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any other explanation ; next, there is the large body of Fathers' from every Church, who do interpret the text, as a matter of course, of Baptism ; thirdly, all the Liturgies, in all the different ways in which it is possible to apply it.

Some of them again recite’ this Scripture in their service; or they use its language in the consecration of the baptismal font;

1 In Note B. are quoted Origen, S. Cyprian, S. Basil, S. Gregory of Nyssa, S. Ambrose, S. Jerome, S. Augustine, S. Chrysostom, and Theodoret ; and even Pelagius admits the same; add to these Justin Martyr (Apol. i. $ 61.), S. Irenæus (v. 15. 3), S. Theophilus (ad Autol. I. ii. § 16), S. Athanasius (de Sabb. et Circumcis. $ 5), S. Cyril of Jerus. (Cat. xviii. 35), S. Epiphanius (Hær. i. 4), The Apostolical Constitutions (1. 8. c. 6), S. Gregory of Nazianzum (de Baptismo), S. Hippolytus (in Theoph. $ 9), Methodius. (Conv. Virg.)

Titus ii. 11.-iii. 7. is one of the lessons in the Alexandrian, Coptic, and Æthiopic (Ass. ii. 152), where it is retained even in the more compendious form of Baptism (ib. 188), and in the revised Syriac Liturgy (ib. i. 228.) 3 Latin, Gelasiu (ii. 3), Gellon (53), Chelle (62), Colbertin (65), Moisac.

(68), Apamea (75). “ Be it a living, regenerating fountain of water, a purifying stream, that all “ who are to be washed in this health-giving stream, by the operation of the “ Holy Spirit within them, may obtain a free grant of perfect cleansing."

Gothic and Gallican. “ Pray we our LORD and God to sanctify this fountain, and to make it unto “ all who descend therein, a laver of most blessed regeneration for the remission “of all sins, through the LORD, &c.” (ii. 34.)

“Give place (O army of Satan) to the Holy Spirit; that to all who descend “ into this fountain it may be a laver of the Baptism of regeneration in the “ remission of all sins” (ib. 35).

Alexandrian, Coptic, und Æthiopic. “ Sanctify this water and this oil, that they may be a bath of regeneration “ (Amen) to eternal life (Amen), for a clothing of immortality (Amen), for the

adoption of sons (Amen), for the renovation of the HOLY SPIRIT (Amen), &c.

(ib. ii. 165.) Grant to it power to become life-giving water (Amen), sancti“ fying water (Amen), water cleansing sin (Amen), water of the bath of regeneration (Amen), water of the adoption of sons (Amen), &c.” (ib. 173.)

Greek. “ But Thou, Lord of all, make this a water of redemption, water of sancti“ fication, purifying of flesh and spirit, loosing of bonds, remission of sins, en“ lightening of souls, bath of regeneration, renovation by the Spirit, gift of adop“tion, clothing of immortality, fountain of life, &c.” (ib. p. 138.)

[Antient

ON THE INTERPRETATION OF TIT. 111. 5.

59

or in their prayers for those about to be admitted to Holy Baptism, or afterthe Baptism has been completed.

Antient Antiochian, Jerusalem (bis) Apostolic, by Severus, from Greek. “ But Thou,"LORD of all, make these waters, waters of comfort, waters of joy " and gladness, waters betokened in the death and resurrection of Thy Only“ Begotten Son, waters of redemption, purifying of defilements of flesh and “spirit, loosing of bonds, remission of sins, enlightening of souls, bath of regeneration, gift of adoption, clothing of immortality, renovation of Thy HOLY “ SPIRIT, waters cleansing every stain of soul and body, &c." (ib. ii. pp. 220– 231-259—291.)

Revised Syriac, Apostolic from Greek (ib. 233—259). “ The waters are sanctified to be a divine ' bath of regeneration,' in the name “ of the Living FATHER to life (Amen), in the name of the Living Son to life “ (Amen), in the name of the Living and Holy Spirit to life for ever and ever “ (Amen).”

· Latin, Gothic, and old Gallican.

On making a Catechumen (ib. i. 29). “Grant him Thy mercy and loving-kindness through the washing of rege“ neration ;' bring him to the spiritual grace; that together with us, he may “ return praise and thanksgiving to thee, LORD GOD FATHER ALMIGHTY; lead "bim into the way of truth ; teach him Thy righteousness, through our LORD,

" &c."

“ Mighty is our God; and may He bring to the bath of the water of regene“ration' you who are fleeing to the faith ; and us also, who deliver to you the

mystery of the Catholic Faith, may He bring with you to the heavenly king

2 Western. Old Gallican ( ii. 42). “ “ God, the Father of our LORD JESUS CHRIST, who hath regenerated thee by water and the Holy SPIRIT, and who hath given thee remission of sins by “ the washing of regeneration' and (His) blood,” &c. (The Sacramentary of Gelasius omits the words“ by the washing of regeneration;" and of the other Latin rituals, it is not generally expressed whether they used the longer or the shorter form.)

Coptic, &c. (ii. 182.) “ Thou Thyself, our LORD, by the grace of Thy Christ, and by the descent “of Thy Holy SPIRIT, hast consecrated this water, whence it has been made to “ Thy servant baptized therein 'a washing of regeneration, and a renewal after “ his antient error, whereby he has been enlightened by the light of Thy “ Divinity," &c.

They carry their own evidence, and they are evidence for the whole Christian Church, and this evidence becomes the stronger

“ doms, through the gift of our LORD JESUS CHRIST, to whom be honour and “ dominion for ever and ever. Amen." (Ib. i. 36.)

Gallican (ib. 39). “O God, to whom flee thirsty souls, longing for the draught of immortality; “ grant to these, Thy suppliant servants, to find the gift which they long for; " to obtain the grace which they claim; let them enter the fountain, the source of regeneration ;' there to lay aside that death-bringing offence of our “ first parents, the frailness of perishing Aesh being changed into a new man. “ Through the LORD, &c.”

Ambrosian (ib. 45). “ O God, to dedicate to whom no littleness unfits, who graciously admittest “ every age, and every sex to the worship of Thy Majesty, to Thee we dedicate “ these beginnings of a new man, and rudiments of infant life: grant that the “ sign of the Holy Cross of Thy only-Begotten, inscribed upon this little one, “may protect him, as yet ignorant of ill: Thine may he be ; to Thee may he grow up; Thee may he fear; Thee love; Thee his Creator ever acknowledge ; “ and, brought by Thee, arrive at the holy washing of regeneration. Through “ the same Jesus Christ our LORD, who livetb,” &c.

Alexandrian, Coptic, Æthiopic. “ Search the lurking recesses of their hearts. Thou who searchest Jerusalem “ with lanterns' (Zeph. i. 12.) and permit not the malignant spirit to lurk in " them ; but grant them purity and health, grant them eternal salvation, rege“ nerate them with the washing of regeneration' and of remission of sins ; make “them a temple for Thy HOLY SPIRIT, through Thy Only-Begotten Son, our “ LORD God, and SAVIOUR, Jesus Christ, through whom," &c. (ib. 153, 154.)

“ Dispose his soul to receive the Holy Spirit, and that he may be accounted “ worthy to obtain the washing of regeneration, and the clothing of immortality, " and the remission of his sins," &c. (ib. 162, 163.)

Armenian. (After the 25th, 26th, and 51st Psalms.) « Pray we also the most merciful God for this Catechumen, that according “ to His great mercy, He would have compassion upon him, and vouchsafe to 6 him the divine' washing of regeneration,' and the garment of immortality; " and number him with the faithful, called after His name, and save him by “ His free mercy.” (pp. 169, 170.)

“Fill him with heavenly grace, and gladden him with Thy most ex« cellent name ; that he may be called a Christian, and at the fitting season be

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