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destructive of subordination, subversive of military discipline, a violation of the sacred rights of the Commander-in-chief, and holding out a most dangerous example to the service, Lieutenant-General Macdowall, in support of the dignity of the profession, and his own station and character, feels it incumbent on him to express his strong disapprobation of Lieutenant-Colonel Munro's unexampled proceedings, and considers it a solemn duty imposed upon him to reprimand Lieutenant-Colonel Munro in general orders; and he is hereby reprimanded accordingly. (Signed) T. BOLES, D.A.G.”--Accurate and Authentic Narrative, pp. 68, 69.

Sir George Barlow, in consequence of this paper, immediately deprived General Macdowall of his situation of Commander-in-chief, which he had not yet resigned, though he had quitted the settlement; and as the official signature of the deputy adjutant-general appeared at the paper, that officer also was suspended from his situation. Colonel Capper, the adjutant-general, in the most honourable manner informed Sir George Barlow that he was the culpable and responsible person ; and that the name of his deputy only appeared to the paper in consequence of his positive order, and because he himself happened to be absent on shipboard with General Macdowall. This generous conduct on the part of Colonel Capper involved himself in punishment, without extricating the innocent person whom he intended to protect. The Madras Government, always swift to condemn, doomed him to the same punishment as Major Boles : and he was suspended from his office.

This paper we have read over with great attention; and we really cannot see wherein its criminality consists, or on what account it could have drawn down upon General Macdowall so severe a punishment as the privation of the high and dignified office which he held. The cen. sure upon Colonel Munro was for a vio ion of the regular etiquette of the army, in appealing to the Governor otherwise than through the channel of the Commander-in-chief. This was an entirely new offence on the part of Colonel Munro. Sir George Barlow had given no opinion upon it ; it had not been discussed between him and the Commander-in-chief, and the Commander-in-chief was clearly at liberty to act in this point as he pleased. He does not reprimand Colonel Munro for obeying Sir George Barlow's orders; for Sir George had given no orders upon the subject; but he blames him for transgressing a well-known and important rule of the service. We have great doubts if he was not quite right in giving this reprimand. But at all events, if he were wrong-if Colonel Munro were not guilty of the offence imputed, still the erroneous punishment which the General had inflicted merited no such severe retribution as that resorted to by Sir George Barlow. There are no reflections in the paper on the conduct of the Governor or the Government. The reprimand is grounded entirely upon the breach of that military dis. cipline which it was undoubtedly the ibusiness of General Macdowall to maintain in the most perfect purity and vigour. Nor has the paper any one expression in it foreign to this purpose. We were, indeed not a little astonished at reading it. We had imagined that a paper, which drew after it such a long train of dismissals and suspensions must have contained a declaration of war against the Madras Government,-an exhortation to the troops to throw off their allegiance,-or an advice to the natives to drive their intrusive masters away, and become as free as their forefathers had left them. Instead of this, we find nothing more than a common reprimand from a Commander in-chief to a subordinate officer, for transgressing the bounds of his duty. If Sir George Barlow had governed kingdoms six months longer, we cannot help thinking he would have been a little more moderate.

But whatever difference of opinion there may be respecting the punishment of General Macdowall, we can scarcely think there can be any with regard to the conduct observed towards the adjutant-general and his deputy. They were the subordinates of the Commander-inchief, and were peremptorily bound to publish any general orders which he might command them to publish. They would have been liable to very severe punishment if they had not; and it appears to us the most flagrant outrage against all justice, to convert their obedience into a fault. It is true no subordinate officer is bound to obey any order which is plainly, and to any common apprehension, illegal ; but then the illegality must be quite manifest; the order must imply such a contradiction to common sense, and such a violation of duties superior to the duty of military obedience, that there can be scarcely two opinions on the subject. Wherever any fair doubt can be raised, the obedience of the inferior officer is to be considered as proper and meritorious. Upon any other principle his situation is the most cruel imaginable : he is liable to the severest punishment, even to instant death, if he refuses to obey ; and if he does obey he is exposed to the animadversion of the civil power, which teaches him that he ought to have canvassed the order,--to have remonstrated against it,-and, in case this opposition proved ineffectual, to have disobeyed it. We have no hesitation in pronouncing the imprisonment of Colonel Capper and Major Boles to have been an act of great severity and great indiscretion, and such as might very fairly give great offence to an army, who saw themselves exposed to the same punishment, for the same adherence to their duties.

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“The measure of removing Lieutenant-Colonel Capper and Major Boles," says Mr. Petrie, was universally condemned by the most respectable officers in the army, and not more so by the officers in the Company's service than by those of his Majesty's regiments. It was selt by all as the introduction of a most dangerous principle, and setting a pernicious example of disobedience and insubordination to all the gradations of military rank and authority; teaching inferior officers to question the legality of the orders of their superiors, and bringing into discussion questions which may endanger the very existence of Government. Our proceedings at this time operated like an electric shock, and gave rise to combinations, associations, and discussions pregnant with danger to every constituted authority in India. It was observed that the removal of General Macdowall (admitting the expediency of that measure) sufficiently vindicated the authority of Government, and exhibited to the army a memorable proof that the supreme power is vested in the civil authority.

“ The offence came from the General, and he was punished for it; but to suspend from the service the mere instruments of office, for the ordinary transmission of an order to the army, was universally condemned as an act of inapplicable severity, which might do infinite mischief, but could not accomplish any good or beneficial purpose. It was to court unpopularity, and adding fuel to the flame, which was. ready to burst forth in every division of the army; that to vindicate the measure on the assumed illegality of the order, is to resort to a principle of a most dangerous tendency, capable of being extended in its application to purposes subversive of the foundations of all authority, civil as well as military. If subordinate officers are encouraged to judge of the legality of the orders of their superiors, we introduce a precedent of incalculable mischief, neither justified by the spirit nor practice of the laws. Is it not better to have the responsibility on the head of the authority which issues the order, except in cases so plain that the most common capacity can judge of their being direct violations of the established and acknowledged laws ? Is the intemperance of the expressions, the indiscretion of the opinions, the inflammatory tendency of the order, so eminently dangerous, so eminently calculated to excite to mutiny and disobedience, so strongly marked with features of criminality as not to be mistaken? Was the order, I beg leave to ask, of this description, of such a nature as to justify the adjutantgeneral and his deputy in their refusal to publish it, to disobey the order of the Commander-in-chief, to revolt from his authority, and to complain of him to the Government ? Such were the views I took of that unhappy transaction; and, as I foresaw serious mischief from the measure, not only to the discipline of the army, but even to the security of the civil Government, it was my duty to state my opinion to Sir G. Barlow, and to use every argument which my reason suggested, to prevent the publication of the order. In this I completely failed: the suspension took effect ; and the match was laid that has communicated the flame to almost every military mind in India. I recorded no dissent; for, as a formal opposition could only tend to exonerate myself from a certain degree of responsibility, without effecting any good public purpose, and might probably be misconstrued or misconceived by those to whom our proceedings were made known, it was a more honourable discharge of my duty to relinquish this advantage, than to comply with the mere letter of the order respecting dissents. I explained this motive of my conduct to Sir G. Barlow."Statement of Facts, pp. 20–23.

After these proceedings on the part of the Madras Government, the disaffection of the troops rapidly increased ; absurd and violent inani.

festoes were published by the general officers; Government was insulted; and the army soon broke out into open mutiny.

When the mutiny was fairly begun, the conduct of the Madras Government, in quelling it, seems nearly as objectionable as that by which it had been excited. The Governor, in atteinpting to be dignified, perpetually fell into the most puerile irritability, and, wishing to be firm, was guilty of injustice and violence. Invitations to dinner were made an affair of state. Long negotiations appear, respecting whole corps of officers who refused to dine with Sir George Barlow; and the first persons in the settlement were employed to persuade them to eat the repast which his Excellency had prepared for them. A whole school of military lads were sent away for some trifling display of partiality to the cause of the army; and every unfortunate measure recurred to, which a weak understanding and a captious temper could employ to bring a Government into contempt. Officers were disinissed, but dismissed without trial, and even without accusation.

The object seemed to be to punish somebody; whether it was the right or the wrong person was less material. Sometimes the subordinate was selected where the principal was guilty ; sometimes the superior was sacrificed for the ungovernable conduct of those who were under his charge. The blows were strong enough; but they came from a man who shut his eyes and struck at random ;-conscious that he must do something to repel the danger,—but so agitated by its proximity that he could not look at it, or take a proper aim.

Among other absurd measures resorted to by this new Eastern Emperor was the notable expedient of imposing a test upon the officers of the army, expressive of their loyalty and attachment to the Government; and as this was done at a time when some officers were in open rebellion, others fluctuating, and many almost resolved to adhere to their duty, it had the very natural and probable effect of uniting them all in opposition to Government. To impose a test, or trial of opinions, is at all times an unpopular species of inquisition ; and at a period when men were hesitating whether they should obey or not, was certainly a very dangerous and rash measure. It could be no security ; for men who would otherwise rebel against their Government, certainly would not be restrained by any verbal barriers of this kind; and, at the same time that it promised no effectual security, it appeared to increase the danger of irritated combination. This very rash measure immediately produced the strongest representations and remonstrances from king's officers of the most unquestionable loyalty.

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Lieutenant-Colonel Vesey, commanding at Palamcotah, apprehends the most fatal consequences to the tranquillity of the southern provinces, if Colonel Wilkinson makes any hostile movements from Trichinopoly. In different letters he states that such a step must inevitably throw the Company's troops into open revolt. He has ventured to write in the strongest terms to Colonel Wilkinson, entreating him not to march against the southern troops, and pointing out the ruinous consequences which may be expected from such a measure.

“ Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart in Travancore, and Colonel Forbes in Malabar, have written, that they are under no apprehension for the tranquillity of those provinces, or for the fidelity of the Company's troops, if Government does not insist on enforcing the orders for the signature of the test; but that, if this is attempted, the security of the country will be imminently endangered. These orders are to be enforced ; and I tremble for the consequences.”—Statement of Facts, pp. 53, 54.

The following letter from the Hon. Col. Stuart, commanding a king's regiment, was soon after received by Sir George Barlow :

“ The late measures of Government, as carried into effect at the Presidency and Trichinopoly, have created a most violent ferment among the corps here. At these places where the European force was so far superior in number to the Native, the measure probably was executed without difficulty; but here, where there are seven battalions of sepoys, and a company and a half of artillery to one regiment, I found it totally impossible to carry the business to the same length, particularly as any tumult among our own corps would certainly bring the people of Travancore upon us.

"It is in vain, therefore, for me, with the small force I can depend upon, to attempt to stem the torrent here by any acts of violence.

“Most sincerely and anxiously do I wish that the present tumult may subside, without fatal consequences; which, if the present violent measures are continued, I much fear will not be the case, If blood is once spilt in the cause, there is no knowing where it may end; and the probable consequence will be, that India will be lost for ever. So many officers of the army have gone to such lengths, that, unless a general amnesty is granted, tranquillity can never be restored. “ The honourable the Governor in council will not, I trust, impute

I to me any other motives for having thus given my opinion. I am actuated solely by anxiety for the public good and the benefit of my country; and I think it my duty, holding the responsible situation I now do, to express my sentiments at so awful a period.

“Where there are any prospects of success, it might be right to persevere ; but, where every day's experience proves, that the more coercive the measures adopted, the more violent are the consequences, a different and more conciliatory line of conduct ought to be adopted. I have the honour," &c.-Statement of Facts, pp. 55, 56.

“A letter from Colonel Forbes, commanding in Malabar, states, that to prevent a revolt in the province, and the probable march of the Company's troops towards Seringapatam, he had accepted of a inotification in the test, to be signed by the officers on their parole, to make no hostile movements until the pleasure of the Government was known.- Disapproved by Government, and ordered to enforce the former orders." -Ibid., p. 61. It can scarcely be credited, that in spite of these repeated remon.

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