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door, in which position it was found. We shall return, however, to the vaults of later kings.
The tomb of Charles VI, and his queen, Isabel, had been, shortly before the general exhumation, broken into and pillaged, so that it contained only a few dried bones. The vault of Charles V. was in a side-chapel, called the Chapel of Charles, and the tomb of this king was the richest that had been met with. His coffin was of brass, and contained a silver crown, gilt, and in good preservation; a silver hand of Justice; and a sceptre of gilt silver, about five feet in length, and surmounted with a cluster of leaves. This last relic was beautifully wrought, and untarnished in lustre, though it had lain there 400 years.
In the coffin of Jane of Bourbon, his wife, were the remains of a crown, rings, bracelets, and a pair of sharp-pointed shoes, shining still with embroidery in gold and silver. An interesting mark of this queen's habits had been buried with her-namely, a distaff and spindle. This king, Charles V., was poisoned by his relative, the king of Navarre, who himself perished in a still more miserable manner, being burned to death by the accidental ignition of a cloth belt steeped in brandy and sulphur, which he wore for a leprous affection.
Charles's father, King John, lay in the chancel of St Denis. He is well known in history as having been prisoner to the Black Prince of Wales, who vanquished him at the battle of Poictiers, and in other engagements. In John's coffin, beside a pure white skeleton, lay a broken sceptre, and a silver hand of Justice. The saying of this monarch, who, notwithstanding his misfortunes, merited the title of the Good from his people, is memorable. On resolving, when unable to pay his ransom, to render himself a prisoner to the English prince, John said :
Though good faith were banished from the rest of the earth, it should still be found in the breasts of princes!'
Philip of Valois lay in the chancel, near his son King John. His coffin, formed of hard stone, and lined with plates of lead, was closed with a sheet of that metal soldered on some iron bars, and over this lid was placed a large flat stone. His body was dust, and nonc even of that was visible, excepting what lay in the crevices of a gilt crown, and an ornamented sceptre. This was all that remained of the great monarch, against whom all the power of the English Edward contended in vain for the throne of France.
Besides the long line of kings and their families, whose tombs we have enumerated, many more of older dato were opened, of whose possessors scarcely even the name was known. Upon the whole, it is evident that the expectations of those who hoped to find loads of buried treasure in these tombs must have been signally disappointed, since the few baubles which we have noticed constituted the whole of the prize. We do not mean to attribute sordid motives to those who suggested a scheme like this ; but if such motives did exist, it is impossible to regret their failure.
The treasures of the church and shrine of St Denis were of great amount and value, as might have been expected in one of the most splendid ecclesiastical possessions in France; and the whole went, by a decree of the Convention, to similar purposes with the trinkets and leaden coffins of the sepulchres. These treasures were kept in five cabinets; and from the following enumeration of some of the principal articles, the reader may judge of the long duration of the grandeur of St Denis, and may join with us in regretting the destruction of relics so venerable. In the first cabinet were two mitres of ancient abbots of St Denis; one of them formed entirely of pearls and jewels set in gold, and the other of seed pearls strewed with fleur-de-lis. These mitres were made about the twelfth century. In another cabinet was a vase of Oriental agate, supposed to be the finest in the world. It was covered with hieroglyphical figures of beautiful execution. John Tristen, in his Commentaries, expresses his belief that this vase was made by Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. An inscription on the foot says that it was given to St Denis by Charles III. The crown of Charlcmagne, of gold, and enriched with jewels, used at the
coronation of the French kings. A cup made of the wood of Samaris, used by St Louis. The sword which he carried to the Holy Land, and a silver shrine containing a bone of St Denis. A splendid missal, written eight centuries ago. Four crowns, two of gold and two of silver, used at the coronations. A manuscript on vellum, ascribed to St Denis. And the crown used at the coronation of the queens, which was made of gold, and studded with precious stones. There were other valuable curiosities and antique objects in this splendid collection, but of lesser importance, and a notice of which does not appear requisite.
The tribe of American Osage Indians occupy an extensive tract of country to the north and west of the Arkansas territory. The game continued to be abundant throughout this region, until the whites began to intrude upon their hunting-ground. Killing the buffalo for the tongue and skin alone, the whites committed great havoc among them; and the animals, continually attacked, receded from the seat of slaughter. The government of the United States, to protect these and other Indians from such unjust invasions of their territory, passed a law, prohibiting citizens from hunting on the Indian lands. This wholesome law was often evaded, and its violation was very distressing to the Osages, as the game had already become scarce, and, being hemmed in to the westward by the Pawnecs, a powerful and warlike tribe, with whom they were always at war, they were unable to extend their hunting-grounds in that direction.
In the spring of 1824, a party, consisting of three or four whites, as many half-breed Indians, and a negro, disregarding the law, went from the borders of the
Arkansas territory to hunt in the Indian lands. They were discovered by a party of Osages, led by Chetoca Washenpasha, or the Mad Buffalo, the most famous warchief of that nation. Mistaking the hunters, as they afterwards stated, for Indians of an unfriendly nation, they attacked and killed several of the party ; but upon ascertaining the character of those who had fallen, they expressed much regret. • We fear,' they said, that it will make trouble. Some of the men were even melted to tears.
As always happens in such cases, the affair produced great excitement among the inhabitants on the frontiers, whose fears and passions are always excited by the slightest insult from their warlike neighbours. The aggressors were demanded from their tribe by the commandant of the American troops, posted on the Neothio River. After much consultation among themselves, and upon frequent reiteration of the demand, they met in council at the garrison, to the number of 300 or 400. They formed themselves into a circle, to hold their talk after their own fashion. The demand was again repeated, and an appeal made to them, enforcing the necessity of their compliance, and the evil consequences which would result from a refusal. At length, the Mad Buffalo arose with great dignity, and coming forward, declared himself to have been the leader of the party accused. He said that he had mistaken the hunters for a party of unfriendly Indians, and did not know there were any whites among them until after the deed was done. He expressed his willingness to make any atonement for the wrong which he had ignorantly committed against the children of their Great Father, the President; and stepping into the middle of the ring, 'I deliver myself up,' said he, to the American commandant, to be dealt with as may be thought proper.' Five other warriors immediately followed his example. They were taken in charge, and held in close custody at the fort for a few days, and then sent, under a strong guard, down the Arkansas, to Little Rock, distant about 300 miles. During the first or second night of their journey, one of them slipped off his handcuffs, and made his escape. Mad Buffalo was very much distressed at the event; he spoke of the deserter with vehement indignation, as a coward, who had disgraced his nation and himself. At the mouth of the Porto, they met with Major Davenport, who had been known to Mad Buffalo and his people for three years, and whose frank and soldierly treatment had won their confidence. They expressed great pleasure at this meeting, and consulted with him, as a friend, concerning their situation. He explained to them, as well as he could, the nature of their offence; that, under the laws of the United States, they would have to be tried for murder by a court of justice, under civil authority, and if found guilty, would be punished with death by hanging. He told them to employ counsel to defend them, as our own citizens did under similar circumstances.
The Mad Buffalo seemed to be much moved by this explanation, and, for the first time, to comprehend his real situation. He told Major Davenport that he had expected to appear before a council of warriors, like himself, who would decide on principles of honour, and the particular circumstances, whether he had violated the plighted faith between his tribe and the children of his Great Father. He did not expect, he said, to be tried by laws of which he was ignorant, and which, as it appeared to him, very unjustly fixed the punishments to his offence beforehand. On the following day, he requested Major Davenport to speak for him, and delivered his war-club, as a token that he made him his deputy, with full power to act for him in every emergency. He requested the major to shew the war-club to Claimore, the principal chief of the Osages, who, on seeing that symbol, would do whatever might be required of him. When I saw you yesterday, said he, 'I felt as if I had seen my father. I know you to be my friend; go to Claimore, shew him my war-club. Whatever you think ought to be done for me, tell Claimore, and he will do it.'
They parted; the one for Little Rock, the other for the