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herself several psalms every day; and repeated aloud the 8th chapter of the Epistle to the Romans every Sunday in the year, knowing it by heart from beginning to end. When dying, the last words she uttered were some appropriate verses of that chapter.

At her castle of Brougham the Countess died, March 22, 1675, as her epitaph records, “ Christianly, willingly, and quietly.” She was interred at Appleby, under a monument which she herself had erected. This lady was in her own right Baroness of Clifford, Westmorland, and Vesey; and surviving her uncle and cousin, who successively inherited her father's Earldom, was the last true-born Clifford of that energetic race, excepting only her cousin's daughter, Elizabeth Countess of Burlington Granger mentions a whole-length picture of Lady Pembroke at Apperley * Castle, Cumberland, and a painting in the possession of Mr. Walpole, besides a very scarce engraving, in which she is represented at the age of thirteen. The one in the Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors' is doubtless taken from the portrait at Strawberry Hill. The countenance beams with energetic life, and the figure looks full of elasticity.

* Query Appleby.

CHAPTER V I.

1675-1700.

Introductory remarks - Mary Countess of Warwick - Lady Pakington

Lady Fanshawe - Anne Killigrew- Anne Wharton - Lucy Marchioness of Wharton - Aphara Behn -- Elizabeth Walker --- Lady Gethin — Lady Halket -- Retrospective observations and remarks on the true purposes of Biography, and on the abilities and writings of Women.

“ In every age, while wits of men

Could judge the good from bad,
Who gat the gift of tongue or pen,
Of world great honour had.”

William HOLME, 1595.

The accurate knowledge of dead and living languages, the study of theology and philosophy, history and poetry, were combined in the high-bred matrons and maidens of the Tudor times with practical skill in music, adroitness in spinning silk and flax, excellence in all kinds of needlework and “loops of fingering fine,” dexterity in the arts of the apothecary and the minor operations of surgery, aptitude in culinary and cosmetic inventions, and practical ability for domestic management. To their successors of the third generation descended only the manual part of these various and valuable acquisitions—a reaction taking place which reduced the literary knowledge of Englishwomen of the upper classes to bare reading, writing, and the first four rules of arithmetic.

Mr. Hallam has said of the period 1689-1702, “ William's reign, always excepting Dryden, is our nadir in works of imagination."*

Addison, writing of his contemporaries, declares that in those days learning was “not thought a proper ingredient in the education of a woman of quality or fortune.”

Nevertheless, under every disadvantage and discouragement, there arose gifted women, who brightened their own times, and have left their memories to posterity.

Mary COUNTESS OF WARWICK. Mary, daughter of Richard Boyle, first Earl of Cork, and wife of Charles Rich, Earl of Warwick, died April 12, 1678. To her, George, first Earl Berkeley, dedicated his · Historical Applications,' avowing that she had “a sovereign power over him, and was pleased to encourage him to write religious meditations ;” and to him the Countess of Warwick addressed a letter full of excellent advice, in which, with great felicity of phrase, she especially recommends “the gaiety of goodness.” Her claim to a place among literary women rests chiefly upon her Occasional Meditations upon sundry subjects, with pious Reflections upon several subjects, by the Right Hon. Mary, late Countess Dowager of Warwick.' London, 1678. It appears to have been her ambition to use her moderate abilities for the promotion of good morals and piety.

An engraved likeness of her is prefixed to the funeral sermon preached at Felsted, in Essex, by Dr. Walker, rector of Fyfield, in which her noble and beneficent character is highly praised.

LADY PAKINGTON. Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Lord Coventry, the Lord Keeper, married Sir John Pakington, Bart., of Westwood. * Lit. of Eur.,' ed. iv., vol. iii., p. 489.

She led a retired life, and devoted herself to learning, piety, and good works. She was the author of several religious books – The Gentleman's Calling,' • The Lady's Calling,' “The Government of the Tongue,' • The Christian's Birthright,' and · The Causes of the Decay of Christian Piety ;' and she was for many years reputed to be the author of "The Whole Duty of Man.'

She enjoyed the esteem and friendship of the most eminent divines of her time, and, in the days of their deprivation and need, rendered them the most substantial services. The excellent Dr. Hammond found a home in her hospitable house during several years, and was at last buried in the chapel of the Pakingtons at Hampton Lovett, Worcestershire. Lady Pakington died May 10, 1679, in a good old age.

Lady FANSHAWE. Anne, eldest daughter of Sir John Harrison and Margaret Fanshawe his wife, was born in London, March 25, 1625. Her mother took great pains with her education, directing her attention more especially to domestic usefulness, and, dying when Anne was only fifteen years of age, left her capable of managing her father's household with discretion and economy. At nineteen years of age Anne Harrison married her cousin, Richard Fanshawe. The following year, 1635, she accompanied him to Spain, where he became Secretary to the British Embassy. Returning to England in 1641, her husband exerted himself strenuously in the cause of King Charles I. Being taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester, he was for a time closely confined; and his wife, not being permitted to visit him, exposed herself to great hardships in order to alleviate his painful solitude by standing to converse with him

outside his window in the dead of night and in bad weather. On his release they withdrew to Tankersley Park, in Yorkshire, where he occupied himself with poetry and polite literature, and his wife entered with delight into all his pursuits. In 1656 they went to Breda, where he was knighted by King Charles II.

At the Restoration, Sir Richard was made Master of Requests, and sent to Portugal to negotiate the marriage of the King with the Princess Catherine. In 1664, he was sent as British Ambassador to Spain, whither his wife accompanied him. Sir Richard translated into English the ‘Pastor Fido’ of Guarini, from the Italian, and the • Lusiad' of Camoens, from the Portuguese. His letters written during his embassies were printed after his death, which took place suddenly in 1666, to the extreme grief of his devoted wife.

In the first anguish of this dreadful bereavement she was exposed to such distressing poverty that she long wanted pecuniary means to convey his remains to the tomb of his fathers, and to maintain her orphan children. Sir Richard's salary was in arrear, and no remittances could be obtained from the Ministers of the profligate King, who wasted the public money in vice, instead of paying his faithful servants and compensating the losses of his suffering adherents.

The Queen of Spain offered Lady Fanshawe and her five children a handsome provision, on condition of their conforming to the Roman Catholic Church, but the pious widow withstood the temptation, even while the embalmed corpse of her beloved husband lay daily in her sight. Means were furnished at last by the Queen Dowager of Spain; the removal to England was effected, and Sir Richard's remains were interred within the chapel of St. Mary in the church of Ware.

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