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drawing with great uncertainty a tiny car with a handful of timid passengers, or a few pounds of merchandise over a few miles of road, must be compared with present conditions if we would appreciate the significance of the transformation that has been wrought. To-day there are in service on the 213,904 miles of railroad in the United States in the neighborhood of 50,000 locomotives. During the last year for which the official figures are available this motive power carried nearly 715,500,000 passengers, and moved 1,309,899,165 tons of freight. To handle this traffic 1,798,561 cars were required, 39,752 of which were for passengers and 1,692,194 for freight. So varied is the service required of this vast train equipment that the lists have to be divided and subdivided properly to classify them for the needs of the statistician. Thus we read of four distinct types of locomotives, each in turn classified according to the number of driving wheels, pilot wheels and trailers. Under the heading of freight cars, again there


result of improved communications has operated to produce changes in the condition and welfare of the inhabitants of the world comparable to those fundamental discoveries which ethnologists tell us led to that growth of the human intellect which first differentiated man from the lower animal orders. Just as the discovery of the use of fire and of the means of creating it at his will lifted the primitive man, and in a way analogous to the mathematical principle of permutations widened and extended his powers, so the perfection of transportation methods opened the way for the modern expansion of human activities.

Without the railroads and the parallel development of steam navigation, communities would have continued in a state of isolation, and there would have been neither room nor occasion for the spread of modern commerce, with all its attendant marvels and advantages. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad does well, therefore, 10 mark the anniversary of its own early experiments in the first use of steam for the moving of passenger traffic in America. Historians may differ as to the actual details of the story of the locomotive in America, and there may be ground for dispute whether the date of the engine to which Peter Cooper first applied gun barrels in lieu of water tubes for the boiler was not 1831 instead of 1830; but the main facts remain that seventy-five years ago the steam locomotive was practically unknown in this country, and in the interval this marvelous piece of mechanism has been so perfected and strengthened that many of the railways of the country are being reconstructed to enable it to exercise its

many types and sizes-box cars, flat cars, tank cars, stock cars, refrigerator cars, etc., each classed according to capacity. These figures hardly convey an idea of the magnitude of the operations they represent, and when placed beside the tiny figures of the equipment at the beginning of railroad history, are truly staggering. Even then they tell only a part of the tale, for the record takes no account of the enormous number of locomotives and cars that have performed their service and gone to the scrap heap. With the rapid changes going on to-day, and with more radical ones forecasted by the prospects of electrical development, the record of the coming seventyfive years promises to be still more impressive and amazing.

full powers.

The one or two little locomotives of that time, weighing about four tons and


The moving finger writes, and having writ,
Moves on; nor all your piety nor wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a line,
Nor all your tears wash out a word of it.

-Omar Khayyam.




For the clouds that brought us sunshine, for the sunshine with its showers,
For the trees that rustle, murmuring of birds and bees and flowers;
For the low call of the mother bird, the whistle of the quail,
And the busy whirr of happy wings as through the air they sail;
For the glow of Summer's happiness, the dark of Winter's cold,
For the young with smiling faces, for the patience of the old,
For the kindness born of sorrow and the brightness born of gloom,
For the sweetness won from sadness and the lives that learned to bloom,

Accept my thanks, O Lord!

For the wee chirp of the cricket, for the music of the wind,
For the friends whose smiles of welcome bring a pleasure keen to mind;
For the tinkle of the cow-bell as it calls up memory's train,
For the twinkle of the dew-drop and the ripple of the rain;
For the pain that taught us sympathy, the woe that cleared our eyes,
For the heartbreak and the yearning and the weary, long-drawn sighs;
For the joys that came at last to bring the message from above,
For the days of bliss that followed, walking hand in hand with love,

Accept my thanks, O Lord!

For the soaring of the eagle, for the silver sheen of mist
That caresses haunting hill-tops like a lover's smile, sunkissed;
For the dreams that beckon, waking, for the dreams that lure, asleep.
For the castles that our fancy builds and holds in faithful keep;
For all of these and more, far more, I raise my grateful praise,
To One who knows and understands the wherefore of our days;
With thankful heart I turn my eyes, a-mist with happy tears,
Toward the gracious future as she beckons down the years,

Accept my thanks, O Lord!

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OPFICE IN CEDAR RAPIDS, Iowa.-Subscription $1.00 per year.
E. E. CLARK AND W. J. MAXWELL, Managers, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

W. N. GATES, Advertising Agent, Garfield Building, Cleveland, O.


THANKSGIVING. Be thankful; 'tis better so. Thankful "I answer not, and I return no more!" for our country, for our freedom, our As a nation we should be thankful. homes, our loved ones, the sunshine, the We are at peace with the whole world. showers, our pleasures, our work, our Our position in the family of nations is pains, our joys-yea, and our sorrows. certainly one which should be gratifying Each phase and condition of life has its to

us all.

Without egotism we may lessons and in none of them is there en take to ourselves the feeling that the tire lack of reasons to be thankful. A example of self-government which we spirit of thankfulness grows even as does are showing to the world is silently, a spirit of discontent; hard it is to think surely, irresistibly penetrating the whole of a misfortune which might not have earth. The love of peace is spreading been worse. It is not best to forget our among all the nations of the earth and blessings and dwell continually on our our President is looked upon as the adversities. Looking back at our mis great peacemaker. takes and blunders is a good occupation The general business prospects of the if we do it in a spirit calculated to fortify country were probably never better. us against a recurrence of them in the For those who wish it, work was never future; but if we look back only to re more plentiful. We see gigantic frauds gret, it would probably be better to be and a lamentable lack of commercial building air-castles for the future. If morality and civic virtue in many parts. opportunity knocks at your door and of the country; but thankful we are that you do not recognize the knock but let in those same localities there are men it pass by, do not think it has gone for whose rugged honesty and superb men

Nay, nay, it will come again; per tal endowments will clear out the rottenhaps not in the same guise, but in some ness and hold the malefactors up to guise it will surely come. Only wait and public scorn. watch and work, depending not upon We are thankful that the cause of orfate, but push. They who

ganized labor is making progress all over "Give every flying minute

this country and other countries--thankSomething to keep in store" ful because it is right. Thankful that need not fall back upon that spirit of own Order is making progress, a discontent which makes “Opportunity" bulwark of right and strength in our say, having once passed,

field of action. Let us be thankful.





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So much is being said and written almost seemed, in the last few years, that about graft. bribery and corruption of there was a feeling abroad in some of every kind, that really there is danger the big cities, where boodling was the of it becoming so common that the gen- rule rather than the exception, which eral public will lose sight of the enormity almost amounted to a boast that their of the crimes being committed against boodlers were the biggest, brassiest, freethe present and future generations. It est and most unique of any in the whole is entirely unnecessary to start to point country. Indeed, such salutations as, out particular towns, cities or states, the "Hello, Bill! Have you bought any delesame general symptoms are to be seen gates today?" or, “What did the votes in all-symptoms of an awful deadening on that franchise cost you per?" Were of the consciences of an alarming number you in on that loop deal?" "What did of people all over the country. It is idle it cost that big brewing company to to say that the condi ions being un- get that street vacated by the city earthed throughout the country are the fathers?" “What did that manufacresult of some sudden change in the turing plant pay to get that spur track temperament, condition or thought of laid along that street up to their buildthe people; such a condition must have ings?" would seem to indicate a general been the slow insinuating creep of insidi- and constant pushing back of the “still, ous evils to meet conditions which a small voice." Or, as was said of one more or less lax public scrutiny had al- large city, “They are corrupt and satislowed to become opportune. Generally fied." Such a condition could only be speaking, people do not get good or bad brought about by pitiful inefficiency in all at once; it takes a general condition thought and work by the heads of the of apathy lasting through a long space city government and petty graft and of time to bring conditions to the point corruption in the ranks of those holding shown by some of the brazen doings of subordinate positions. This state of some of the gangs in different parts of vulgar and low morality with its deterthe country. People are wont to think iorating influences has undoubtedly, in that the crimes which are being constant- large measure, been transferred to prily unearthed in public places have little vate life to the end that many cities effect on the civil life of the nation. No have come to a standstill in their progress greater mistake could be made, for in and upbuilding. many cases the “System” is evolved We know there are men, but they have from the doings of men in civil life, or been hard to find, who will tackle the at best it is an even stand-off. A man difficulties of breaking with these condiwho can and will buy a few votes at an tions and supplying a zeal and honesty election one time and a few more at an- and a patriotism that has been sadly other gets to know how to do it all the wanting. The thing hard to bring time in increasing ratio, and soon gets about, hard to make men see, is that the to know how and think it easy to buy business of the public demands the same the city delegates and councilmen and careful, watchful attention that a man from them to the state legislators, and would give to his own business. Surely those in the business world who want there is no reason why this same spirit franchises or "things done by the leg- should not be demanded in all public islature hunt out this man, if they don't service. Certain it is that the responsialready know him, and he does the work bility of poor public service rests priwhile they sleep; and they only know of marily upon the people; nevertheless it the finished job ‘and so can go to their is evident that the executor of such a church or club or noonday social club trust or service may help or retard progor a civic purity club with a conscience ress immensely and he owes it to himas clear as a two-year-old. Really it has self and the future of the service to

rise above all that is mean and sordid a time when the need for patriotic men and apply himself to his great task with in public affairs was greater than now. a feeling of thankfulness for the excep- We need more men actuated alone by the tional chance which has come to him to public good and fewer of those who are place his fellow citizens under lasting in politics merely for revenue. obligations and to satisfy himself with “The strength of the lawless element the consciousness of a duty well done. is great, but it is as nothing when it There is a wholesome public conscience comes in contact with a public conscience in this country, but oftentimes it is hard thoroughly aroused. The people can to get it sufficiently aroused to suppress a overthrow civic evil whenever they want growing evil. Quite recently Governor to, and get just as good government as Folk of Missouri addressed the citizens they deserve or as bad as they permit of Philadelphia and we clip the follow- it to become. The law-abiding people ing words from it which have a world- are in the majority, and there is hardly wide application and significance: a community in this country of which

“The most conspicuous fact of munici- this cannot be said. They are usually pal governments in the United States quiet, however, while the lawless are today is that they are governments by so vociferous as to deceive many as to the few and not by the people. There is their number. They may bluff and bullmore aggressive rottenness and less ag- doze, but they are cowards, and if resogressive patriotism in our large cities lutely fought they can be overcome. than anywhere else. If the patriotism They are always active, however, while can be made as aggressive as the rotten- the average good citizen becomes active ness, the problem of good government only occasionally. would be solved by the people taking the The moral revolution that is now government into their own hands. If

sweeping over the land is a revival of corruption exists in Philadelphia the the rule of the people. Four years ago people are to blame; if corruption is to the laws against bribery in all of the be eradicated the people alone can do it. states were considered as practically

The fight you are making here is a dead letters. Not because the offense battle which will be felt by every town, was uncommon, but because it was uncity and state in the land. The benefit common for officials to be prosecuted of a victory for good government will be for it. universal, and the evil effects of a de- When the prosecutions were feat will demoralize those who believe menced in St. Louis, members of the in good government by the people. The house of delegates claimed that this average man does not appreciate the bribery had been going on so long they solemn duty he owes his city, his state were entitled to notice to quit before and his country.

being prosecuted. Some of them argued “The moral revolution now sweeping that members of the house of delegates, over the land means the patriotism that having been taking bribes from time imcomes from the heart, not from the head. memorial, had acquired a right to do so, Many men would be willing, if need be, and it was just as proper for them to to give up their lives for their city or sell their votes as for the merchant to state if they are needed sometimes, and sell his wares.

Here was a crime worse this kind of patriotism cannot be too than any other, for their offense violated highly commended; but the man who the law, while bribery strikes at the founis willing to live for his city and state dation of all laws. Yet the law deevery day is the man that is needed just nouncing it was not enforced; bribery now. There may be as much patriotism became the usual and expected thing all in giving one's time to the betterment over the land; corrupt men feasted and of civic conditions and the election of fattened at public expense; laws became good men to office and in purifying the merchandise on the market, and all this ballot as in baring one's breast to the time the public conscience was asleep. bullets of an enemy. There never was When the revelation came the people


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