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department in charge seems to have been vation, particularly during our second the least affected during the period of visit, we no such thing as dead confusion. With the greater

trains running to Monkey hill, the place placed at his command by the present where so many persons were buried durcommission, Colonel Gorgas, it is not un- ing the French regime, and which is still likely, relatively speaking, will parallel used to some extent as a cemetery the splendid achievements attained in Moreover the percentage of fatal cases his fight against fevers in Cuba. At has been exceedingly small. The dread present there are three hospitals within which this disease inspires in the average the Canal Zone—the name given to the person is explained by its past history, ten-mile wide strip of land controlled by Modern medical science has come to be the United States-one at Ancon, one better able to cope with yellow fever, at Colon, and a temporary one at Cule- though as yet the bacilli have not been bra. The first mentioned is one of the discovered. Still, it is true that there is best equipped hospitals in the world and yellow fever on the Isthmus, and while is about to be enlarged. Even with the the stegomya mosquito finds unacclimeans at hand the work of fumigation is mated persons to bite it is likely to conbeing constantly extended.

The dispen- tinue. Everything is being done, howsaries located along the route are to be ever, to exterminate all speciae of mosincreased in number, and hereafter are quitoes. Though this should prove imto be better provided. The successful possible of accomplishment, the strenuinstallation of a water system in the city ous efforts being made should greatly of Panama has encouraged the officials reduce the danger of yellow fever in the in their effort to provide this necessary course of a little time. It is not to be throughout the Zone. At the present thought that the bite of this mosquito time there is but little good drinking always means infection. It is only when water outside of this city, except at two it has bitten a yellow fever patient after or three points, where it is kept in cis- a certain time and bites another person terns. Sewers are now being put in in from three to five days later that the this city, and similar work is in progress disease is transmitted. We know whereat the more important places along the of we speak, for we were bitten by the route.

stegomya and experienced no distressing The houses for employes are of five results beyond being made the subject types. The first is known as a hotel, of of peculiar regard by over-timid persons. which there are three; though built for Malarial fever in its various forms single men, these have been opened to claims far more victims than does yellow some extent to married men. Homes fever. Anyone disposed malarial for married men and their families con- infection should keep away from the stitute the second class; the third is com- country. Many of the suspected yellow posed of buildings where employes may fever cases turn out to be of the other live apart from the hotels; the fourth is kind. It is needless to say that these known as barracks, for laborers.

fevers also are receiving the attention of few instances employes have had to live the medical department, though to an in tents; but the conditions responsible even less extent can their eradication be for the lack of quarters this circumstance hoped for. points to, the commission is making spe- We do not wish to be understood as cial efforts to overcome.

School houses, painting a rosy picture of conditions on to the number of forty-two are to be the Isthmus. We have tried, in our erected. Each' will have a capacity of own way, to answer those responsible forty pupils.

for the many false impressions now exStories told of the prevalence of yel- isting. We desire to be equally well low fever and other dire diseases do not understood as wishing to warn against comport with the facts. We have been going there persons unaccustomed to to the Isthmus twice, and although each roughing it. Even with the execution time we had unusual facilities for obser- of the present plans of improvement,


In a


Panama will still be a tropical country, pations that will be required. Wages will still be in the same latitude as Abys- and general conditions of employment sinia. It is no place for the man who we have given in another article. makes much of the conveniences and

RATES OF PAY, ETC. comforts of life in the modern city. Men who intend to go there should be Bricklayers, per month

$150.00 men who have the ability to accommo- Carpenters, per hour..

.56 date themselves to circumstances.

We Painters and other building would especially advise to stay at home tradesmen, per hour

.56 those who have not lived for some time General foremen, per month 150.00 in the more southern parts of our own Ordinary foremen, per month :: 125.00 country. Above all, it is no place for Master mechanics, per month... the man who is fond of drink. In their

·$175.00 to 200.00 study of the disease the doctors hold a

These employes are paid in U. S. curpost-mortem examination in every fatal

rency; natives are paid in silver. case of yellow fever, and in each instance

Wages in some trades are lower; but the kidneys are shown to have been

these lower wages are paid native memore or less diseased. Not that the non

chanics, those who are not able to earn drinker is not liable to infection, but his

When not engaged by the month, chances for recovery are infinitely better. mechanics in these trades invariably re

Hardly less care needs to be exercised ceive 56 cents per hour, and they may in the matter of food. But little meat at any time apply for promotion to the should be eaten-the kind now supplied monthly class of their respective trade, is anything but tempting Strange and thus obtain higher wages and the fruits should be avoided. Plenty of

privileges granted to those of that higher sleep should be had; the sleep in the class. Tropics is had before midnight. The Employes, whether paid monthly or night air is dangerous. If wet, one by the hour, are paid from the time they should change clothes at the earliest embark aboard the steamer at New York, possible moment. Woolen underwear Free transportation is granted from port should be worn every day, and a stom- of departure, which includes meals on ach band of the same material at night. steamer; but transportation to place of It is the rainy season there now, and it sailing is not supplied. will be until November; so a rubber coat When practicable, monthly men or cravenette and an umbrella should be

provided with quarters, and if quarters part of one's outfit. Boots or leggings are not available, they are granted; in are indispensable on account of the many lieu thereof, a sum, payable monthly, ants and other crawling creatures. A

equal to 15 per cent. of their monthly large bottle of Warburg's Tincture, a compensation. Quarters, or additional time-tried febrifuge, should also be pay, is also provided in the case of mebrought along. As all persons who are chanics engaged by the hour, with this to remain upon the Isthmus any length difference, that the additional

pay is of time are vaccinated before disembark- based on not more than 208 hours per ing, one or two vaccination shields should

month or twenty-six working days. be provided, for the government does Monthly employes are not allowed not at present furnish these.

overtime. But employes of the other Lastly, no one should think of going to class are paid time and a half for all the Isthmus without sufficient means for overtime, including Sundays and holia return passage, and this money should days. be kept intact; the fare to New York is : Monthly employes are granted an cabin, seventy dollars; steerage, thirty annual vacation of six weeks. In addidollars.

tion to this these employes are allowed As for employment, it is needless for a reasonable number of days' sick leave us to say that there is room for any num- per year in meritorious cases, the length ber of men of the many trades and occu- of such leave and merits of the case being


the army


left to the discretion of the authorities sons employed merely as laborers, peron the Isthmus. When given this leave sons whose appointments are confirmed of absence employes are entitled to the by the Senate, and officers detailed from Government rate of twenty dollars each way on the steamship line between New The United States Civil Service ComYork and Colon.

mission maintains registers of eligibles Employes engaged by the hour are for the various employments, and it is granted no leave of absence with pay, from these heads of departments make though upon termination of satisfactory requisition for men. service—that is, at least after eight When these registers cannot be mainmonths—they are granted free trans tained—that is, when the Civil Service portation to a port of the United States. Commission cannot supply the required

Free medical and hospital attendance number of employes in any trade or callare provided all employes.

ing--the Canal commission may, and is Members of immediate families of em doing so now in a number of cases, make ployes sent to the Zone, are, upon re appointments without the formality of quest, when the exigencies of the steam a Civil Service examination. In such ship service permit, also granted the case nothing more is required of the apGovernment fare between New York and plicant than that he should be able to Colon. No charge is made for children show certification of fitness. under six years of age, and half rates are In all cases a blank (Form No. 115) charged for children between the age of should be executed. This blank may be six and twelve years. Employes are not obtained from the office of the Isthmian permitted to take their families to the Canal Commission, Washington, D. C. Zone until they have gone there first and Briefly, this blank or application form, secured quarters for them.

requires the applicant to state: (1) the

position sought; (2) what experience he EMPLOYES. -MAR

has had in the same, and what is the

highest pay he has received; (3) present Kitchen-Range, plain table, two

employment and salary;(4) lowest salary chairs and refrigerator.

he will work for on the Isthmus; (5) age Dining Room-Table, set of six chairs,

and place of birth; (6) whether or not he sideboard and serving table.

uses intoxicating liquors, and, if he does, Bedroom-Double bed with springs, to what extent, and to give names, emmattress, pillows, chiffonier, dresser,

ployers preferably, of three persons who washstand, table, two chairs, one rocking are able to certify to his qualifications. chair, one towel rack (nickel) and one

When an application is forwarded it is mirror.

placed on file, and appointment may be Parlor or Living Room-One settee,

made direct by the Canal commission, or, two rocking chairs, two plain chairs and

as already explained, if the Civil Service one center table.

Commission has a sufficient list of eligiBath Room-One chair and one mir

bles, a regular examination will need to

be entered into under the last named Porch-One double

and two

commission. chairs.

At the present time, however, the

chances of any applicant who can satisOne bed, mattress, pillow and mos factorily meet the requirements outquito bar, bureau, washstand and table,

lined in Form No. 115 for direct emthree chairs, lamp and hat rack.

ployment are good; that is, for positions

in the building trades, particularly for HOW EMPLOYMENT IS OBTAINED.

carpenters. Bricklayers are not being Under executive order of the President appointed at the present time, though employes for the Panama service are ap there will be need of more of the craft pointed under the provisions of the Civil later. Service Act and Rules, excepting per Applicants writing for this application






blank also receive copies of Form No. nation is in no way different from such 111, which states the conditions govern- examinations when ordinarily made. ing employment.

When appointed, employes are A medical examination form, to be quired to execute the oath of office, filled in by a physician and signed by which is provided in another blank form, him and the applicant, is also provided; and to fill in a personal question sheet. this is not required until after appoint- The particular object of this latter form ment has been made, but must be sub- is to obtain in concise form the apmitted before appointee sails. Except pointee's statement that he has complied in the case of railroad men, the exami- with all conditions, etc.




Work, when intelligently executed, is when one's energy is closely related to those sources of power gained from proper relaxation.

It is when every faculty has healthful exercise upon a given course, and bears the stamp of individual mastership. Unintelligent work is activity without purpose, like motion without direction.

Our line of business calls for a special training of our activity, for a large per cent. of the energy spent through the channels of duty is instantaneous remedy to contemporary causes.

We are called to meet issues that require an application of immediate action, and, if that action does not subserve intelligently to the cause, the effect is felt detrimentally to every movement one is related to on the division.

One should try to reach a completeness of efficiency through self-development, with a strict observance of all of nature's law within one's possibilities. Hence, relaxation and recreation are absolutely essential to meet our issues of service. As nature calls us speedily to account when one of her laws has been vi ted and as intelligent work depends wholly upon the faculties, recreation and relaxation is the soul to that necessity. When work ceases to contribute joy in its undertaking, it has become a task, and the highest results are only secured when these principles are realized. How and when to secure recreative conditions should depend upon

the individual discrimination, as the mind must be in the mood for restful repose.

Thought diverted from those tasks of service serve to rest those faculties at work, and calls upon those that have rested. The spirit of play is as essential in man as in the child. It diverts the mind with variety.

The more strenuous the work, the more essential the joy from recreative occupation. Exhaustion in service leaves a poor record for the management, as well the individual. Strain robs work of its harmony, and exhaustion destroys its quality. The master mind is a healthful force, using all its material at hand to develop its possibilities, and seldom leaves an impression of effort, but of force and completeness. One in his active service, where responsibility rests broadly upon one's shoulders, will get keyed up under pressure like a stringed instrument easily put out of tune, and as easily strung out of harmony with overwork.

To overcome the crash that follows overworked nature, relaxation is absolutely necessary, for the relief from tension and concentrated effort.

It is during relaxation and man's passive mood that energy accumulates for active conditions.

The channels of thought during the period of relaxation are like the current of a slow-moving stream. It has time to form deposits and store up knowledge

during the period when thought runs There is no question but the lack of riot the current expels instead of con proper attention for the comfort of the centrates the substances of thought. forces employed is largely due the casThose under direct responsibility of

ualties each year. train movement should have time for Men have fallen asleep at their posts restful relaxation between every trip, of duty, because nature's immutable and the management will deteriorate law demanded it. We, as a rule, are a the service when these forces they rely wide-awake class. The nature of our upon for the public safety, are over business soon puts one in a state that is worked.

alertly receptive, and, under reasonable Man becomes stupid after a number and normal conditions, the possibiliof hours in service, and his mental en ties of disastrous conditions are almost ergy is not as acute as when proper rest reduced to minor cases of small note and has been his individual privilege. When little damage. But sleep lost against the management considers the men's re nature's law can never be recovered by laxation as much as they do their active a few hours' rest. Nature is so silent service, they multiply largely man's ef and slow in her building of tissue she will ficiency to the service. Man in his rest not be urged; and sleep once lost is lost ful mood finds greater range for thought, forever. The victim sinks into exhausand greater insight to those affairs he is tion from its effect, and the awakening directly associated with.

will not be refreshing unless nature, inIn the success of things depend insight, stead of the caller, governs the awakknowledge and sanity of its detail, and, ening. Man is fully reliable only when in the minuteness of detail may hinge proper rest, food and comfort have been the magnitude of some great enterprise, taken in connection with his duties of as one's healthful faculties are import service. For whatever impairs the viant details to his service. The dwelling tality of the subject at work impairs the of those senses for too long an applica service as well. tion of the faculties in a strenuous ser It is absolutely necessary that man's vice not only wears away the mental highest, vitalized condition should be strength, but puts the subject in a state the first condition for consideration. of stupor that demands constant effort The physical condition demands so toward self to keep an outraged nature much relaxation and recreation of the from collapse. This condition leaves senses, and when nature has been satisthe individual the predominating cause fied she releases one from it. But the for attention, and he is apt to neglect greed for the individual's service, prachis duty of service as nature's law, when ticed contrary to this has written outraged, demands the price, and will in its results in blood upon the tablets of sist upon immediate payment, regard disastrous accidents since the practice less of rules and regulations.

of it begun.



Seventy-five years is not a long period in the life of a nation, and is but little more than the traditional three-score and ten allotted by the Psalmist as the span of man's life in this world; yet that interval has witnessed the development of the whole modern system of trans

portation. That system has been the most potent factor in the marvelous revolution which has taken place, not only in the world's commerce and industry, but in all the relations of men and nations. The vast exchange of commodities and ideas which has been the direct

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