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FOR THE "HERE AND NOW."
must give time and strength and study, then they will be yours.
Furthermore, if you are to enjoy beautiful things, you must give them your sympathetic interest. No one can enjoy music, flowers, sunsets, pictures and scenery, if he systematically neglects them. The arm that is not used soon becomes paralyzed. The brain that not exercised soon becomes dull. The talent that is not employed is soon taken away. These all cry,
“Give! Give! Give!” before they say “Receive!”
And what about love? Did you ever secure another's love by demanding it? What is it that makes you rich in the love of your wife and children? It is because you have first given your own love. No man ever enjoyed the beauty of true love until he gave his own heart, and until he was ready to lay down his own life, if need be, for the one whose love he prized.
And that is the secret of getting richgiving to others. Jesus said, “It is more blessed to give than to receive," and ever since He said it, this saying of Jesus has been made the subject of many a joke. But Jesus Christ was never more serious than when He said it, and He knew what He was talking about.
Not a word has been said about treasure in heaven. We shall have that by living out the principles here given. Unselfishness and love and devotion pay in this world, and they are the only things that do pay, either in this world or in the next.
How, then, may you organize an AntiPoverty Society? First, by constituting yourself such a society.
Second, by making other people rich. Have I been talking “up in the air”? Then the philosophy of Jesus and the best men who ever lived, is false. But you know better than that.
The experience of the human heart tells you that these things are true. And all that has been said applies to the "rich” as well as to the “poor". God help us to live out these thoughts, making the world richer for our having been in it, and thus enriching our own lives.
In this spirit let us enter the labor movement. Many there are who have already done so, equalling in devotion and in sacrifice the missionary of the church, who, forgetting himself, is spending his life in true service for his fellow
THE BOOMER BRAKEMAN.
One morning in June, 'twas just a little before
But switchkeys he has gathered far and near by
"the galore." He showed some fifteen or twenty, said he had a
dozen more He has them from the c. &0., the B. &. O. and Q., C. M. & St. P. and two or three from the soo, I believe he had a B. & M. and one or two U. P. And Southern, an L. &. N, a C. N. O. & T. P.. An A. C. L., a P. G. & N. 0. & N. E, he showed a
broken finger from.the M. K. & T., He has battled with the elements in heat and cold
and rain, Broke on the slop freight and on the time freight
trains. And has drifted north, then south, and finally sought “We make a specialty of furnishing you with any kind of operatives to be put to work among your employes to obtain union reports, and also to report to you whatever occurs among your employes in order that you may be able to sift the good employes from the bad
noon, A boomer to Mr. Blake's office did go, With a smile on his face, he asked for a place, and
the old man didn't say no. Permits were quickly issued for him to learn the
road and That day he jumped Crane Creek, the trip sure
did him good. You could see he knew his biz., as on the train he
got, In switching and coupling, he was Jonny on the
up to the Janney time,
they can belong to two.
job, Keeps up a good front and wears the emblem on a
fob. Has no service letters 'bout him or other written
the West. And drifted in here one day to give our'road a test. He found some fine officials here, the best he ever
saw, From M. J. C. to E. A. B., the call boys, one and
all, Has made up his mind to stay with us until his dying
day. He will find none better to work for than the N. & W. Railway
-C. L. Stahi.
THE RAILWAY CONDUCTOR, PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND ENTERED AS SECOND Class MATTER AT THE Post
OFFICE IN CEDAR RAPIDS, Iowa.-Subscription $1.00 per year.
W. N. Gates, Advertising Agent, Garfield Building, Cleveland, O.
C. D. KELLOGG, ASSOCIATE.
If our Order and its sister organizations of railway employes were in the habit of employing underhanded or deceptive methods in the conduct of their affairs, they might feel some over such proposals as are contained in the following letter, which was recently sent by the general manager of a detective agency to the general manager of a railroad company:
“The demands of labor unions upon employers, especially among railway companies, have become so arbitrary and outrageous that some effective means are required to resist them. “As you are
no doubt aware, all unions hire agitators, sometimes called organizers, to secretly organize men in machine shops, conductors, brakemen, or section hands, and this is often done where conditions are satisfactory to working men, and where harmonious relations exist between employes.
The business of this company is to inform the management of railway companies where secret organizations are hatching, among their workmen, where agitators are trying, or are about to try, to incite labor trouble; and also to help the employers. to resist the insolent interferences with their rights which now so generally prevail
“Our rates are very moderate and better than any other agency can give
If you desire to avail yourself of our services we would be pleased to hear from you at an early date, and can give you the best of services.
“Hoping you will take advantage of this opportunity and awaiting your prompt reply, we are, very truly yours.”
The requests of any class of employes which are adjusted with mutual satisfaction as a result of business conferences between the representatives of the company and of the employes can not be fairly termed “arbitrary and outrageous demands”. There are very few instances in recent years in which matters affecting the employes especially referred to in the letter have not been amicably settled in friendly conferences. Therefore, the first paragraph of the letter contains a misrepresentation.
The conductors and the brakemen (of whom we can speak knowingly) are
represented by the Order of Railway Conductors and the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen respectively. These organizations do not “hire agitators, sometimes called organizers, to secretly organize men”. They organize the men in their respective fields who desire to attach themselves to the organizations, and they do it in broad daylight and so as to be seen of all men. The second paragraph of the letter therefore contains a misstatement.
The third paragraph of the letter probably correctly states the business of the agency, but the "insolent interference” spoken of does not exist unless in rare and exceptional cases.
The fourth paragraph, if taken literally (and it may be that is the way it is intended), offers the services of any kind of operatives”, “to obtain union reports”. The only way in which an operative can furnish accurate reports as to internal affairs of a union is to be a member of the union. It is not difficult to conclude as to the “kind” of a man he would be who would treacherously
and traitorously secure and use membership in an association of his fellows for
If he told the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth in his reports, he would be neither dangerous nor feared.
It is doubtful if a pervert of his stripe could tell the truth, even if so disposed. His ability to do harm and to create mischief, as well as his retention in employment, depend upon his more or less artistic lying.
We know, and so does nearly everyone else who is in touch with railway affairs, that members of the several unions are being used by detective agencies, and by some railway managements, in the manner proposed in the above letter. Some such members have recently been unmasked. They are too low in the moral scale to give any hope of redemption. They must be traitors and liars before they can furnish the information promised, and if they will lie and be traitorous to their associates, what dependence can an employer place in their statements? These fellows are no part of a square deal.
WOMEN IN INDUSTRY.
Some recent investigations, together with some hysterical utterances, in regard to the growth of the number of women in the United States engaged in gainful occupations, make timely a brief summary of what are the facts in the case.
In 1890, the census reported 3,917,571 women employed in gainful occupations. In 1900 this number had increased to 5,329,807. This seems and is a large number, but it must be compared with the increase in the number of males in industry. In 1890 there were 18,820,950 men in gainful occupations. In 1900 the census reported 23,754,205, thus showing that while women have increased more than men, the increase, after all, is not so alarming. Men increased 26%, while women increased 36%, but it must be remembered that 36% of three millions is considerably
less than 26% of cighteen millions; so that while woman has gained on man, it is, after all, not so very marked. In some industries women, in proportion to men, are actually falling off in numbers. Relatively to men, the proportion of women engaged in domestic and personal services shows a decrease from 1890 to 1900. The main gain in the proportion of women is in trade and transportation. In 1890 there were 228,309 so engaged; in 1900 there were 503,347, the number having more than doubled in ten years. In most manufacurting and mechanical pursuits there gain, although not so great. In professional service, also, there has been a slight gain. In 1890 women were 33% of those engaged in professional service, (mainly teachers), and in 1900, 34.2%; in agricultural pursuits, women have also increased from 7.9% to 9.4%. Tak
ing the various industries reported in the census, women have increased in proportion to men in 86 occupations; in 25 there has been no appreciable change, and in 29 the proportion of men has increased.
It must still, however, be remembered that in the greater portion of occupations men are still in the large majority; in agriculture men are 90%; in trade and transportation, where women gaining fastest, men are still 89% of those engaged; in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits men are 81%. The occupations in which women are in the majority are as school teachers, boarding house keepers, laundresses, nurses, servants, housekeepers, musicians teachers of music, stenographers and typewriters. The occupations in which
are gaining fastest upon men are as telegraph and telephone operators, stenographers and typewriters, in literary pursuits, in some professional services, as boarding house keepers, tobacco workers, bookkeepers, and trunk and leather case workers. The main gain is as saleswomen, cash girls and typewriters.
These statistics, however, show a permanent situation. Woman is in industry to stay; she is there, welcomed by employers because she works cheaper, and by her own will, because it gives her more freedom. No one can go today to city tenements and to city department stores without seeing that however hard the girls have to work, and however long the hours in the department stores, they are for the most part better off than in their tenement homes. A large majority of women in industry are young, many of them very young. They like to escape from the tenements into the department stores. The same is true, to a less extent, in a factory tenement of a factory village, and the factory itself. Women also like industry because it gives them an honest and honorable maintenance without dependence, of necessity, upon father husband; it means that women can be supported in independence without marriage; hence, women are less compelled to marry. To an extent it does away with marriage
If a woman cannot earn an earnest livelihood she is tempted to sell herself in marriage for a home, for support; but where she can earn, she then need only marry where she loves. It thus frees woman in the most serious relations of her life. It also enables a married woman to be more independent and more on an equality with her husband. If he does not treat her well, or if he does not earn enough to support the family, she can earn elsewhere. All these make conditions that will never make it possible for woman to be driven out of industry
Manufacturers welcome women in industry because they work more cheaply than men. In Massachusetts, in 1900, 17% of grown women received less than $5 per week, while only 4% of grown men received less than that amount. 16% of grown women received from $5 to $6 per week, and only 4% of grown men; 20% of grown women received from $6 to $7 per week, and only 7% of grown men. Thus, 54% of grown women in industries in Massachusetts earn not over $1 a day, while only 15% of the men receive so low wages.
According to an Ohio report of 1901, 6,920 women in the three largest cities averaged each $4.83 per week, worked 573 hours, paid $2.49 for board and lodging, and saved 14 cents per week. They got a bare physical existence and had at the end of the week 14 cents.
According to the American Journal of Sociology for May, 1899, the general pay of saleswomen in department stores is less than $5 per week. We thus sce why employers welcome women in industry. Nevertheless, it must be clearly understood that the employer is not to blame in most cases for employing women rather than men at low wages.
In most cases he cannot help himself. If he does not, some employer who will employ women will be able to undersell those who employ men, and drive the employers of men from the market.
These facts show that it is an economic situation that we are facing. The ways out, therefore, of the evils attendant upon the low wages of women in industry are the organization of women, which is grow
ing in many industries and checking the suicidal competition of woman with woman, and legislation which forbids at least the worstcases of underpaymentand overwork of women, and so prevents the greedy employer from driving the beneficent employer out of business. With these two factors must go, how
ever, first and foremost, the industrial betterment work of individuals and firms, which may not be able to raise wages, nor always shorten hours, but which can lighten in ways often better
an money, the lo of the working woman. American Institute of Social Service.
A LESSON AND THOUGHT OF LABOR DAY.
Labor's hosts have once again marched and counter-marched before the gaze of millions. In that gaze was probably represented all the different shades and degrees of feeling existing toward organized labor. To those who with indifferent or positively unfriendly eye look upon and contemplate the significance of these yearly gatherings, there must come thoughts of their deep import and universal bearing upon the future development and progress of the human family. We talk much of the rights of the individual, of personal liberty, and while these claims are true in the abstract, nevertheless the logic of an ever-increasing density of population tends away from these toward a collective right and liberty.
The Chicago Daily News recently gave voice to some wholesome truths along these lines in an editorial “Thought for Labor Day" as follows:
“By great parades and open-air assemblies trades unionists give convincing demonstrations on Labor Day of their numbers and their unity of purpose. The good of all who are enlisted in the ranks of organized labor is declared to be the concern of each. Solidarity of interests induces brotherhood in a state of militancy. Here is power indeed. The individual trades unionist drives his affairs with the impact of mighty units, into each of which are welded the men who follow a certain trade. When the onlooker contemplates these masses of united workers and thinks of their ability to act rith one mind, of their skill in collective bargaining, of the accumulated funds in their treasuries and of their ad
vanced views as to the rights of labor, he can readily understand the influence which they wield in industrial affairs.
“The worker who belongs to no union has no direct significance outside of his own personality. Standing for himself alone, when you have judged of his individual merits you know all there is to him. On the other hand, the business agent of the union or the chairman of the union labor committee gets his sig. nificance from what he represents, not from what he is in his own person. Because of his delegated power his voice is the voice of many.
So the views expressed by him on any subject which has to do with labor demand careful attention from employers dealing with members of his union. The trades unionist realizes with satisfaction that whenever a question of terms of labor comes up with his employer the business agent of his union speaks authoritatively for him and his fellow unionists in one breath.
“But whose are the views expressed by this union official. They must be the views of a majority of the members of the union in order to be truly representative. Are they so in fact. That depends on whether or not the matter in question has been acted upon at a full meeting of the union and whether or not the union's representative holds to the decisions thus arrived
If he speaks his own vier's merely, binding his comrades to those views without their knowledge, he is engaged in collective bargaining on his individual judgment. When his judgment leads him astray many suffer for the error.
“Trades unionists who show their