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The great danger to this country is not the danger from railway rates; is not the danger of municipal ownership of your public utilities, but the great danger to the republic is the danger of corruption. When you see men in this country whom you know have corrupted your public officials, who have lived on the graft that they have been able to get from the public service—when the people see them welcomed into high places and given a front seat— when they see men of character and dignity and standing take the hand of the man who has corrupted their officials, who has debauched their public government—hen they feel indignant and rise up in public and protest that it shall be changed.



We want men in office of character; men who are beyond reproach. It is about time we taught our children and those who are to come after us that there are some things worth having and worth making besides dollars. You are drifting just as the old republic of Athens and Rome and Venice, back to a government by an oligarchy of wealth, and not of the people. You must stop, or else the end of this republic, like those of old, is written What we want and need, as I have said, is a higher standard of character and integrity. To educate the people to this there are no bodies of men better, or whose work would be more effective, than these clubs.

secret understandings which are going
on now to be stopped, and they want
and are bound to have it-equal and
fair treatment to all.

The condition of affairs with reference
to labor unions which our friend Mac-
Veagh has alluded to is another one of
those things which probably have come
to life and grown on account of the
times. The arrogance of labor unions
and the arrogance of wealth was never
more in evidence than at the present
time. The captains of industry who
thought they could run things to suit
themselves must be checked. The labor
unions who thought they could beat the
captains of industry at their own game
must also be held up. The ordinary
people have seen both going on just as
they did in the French Revolution and
have protested against these things and
have demanded a remedy.

Why is there such a demand for municipal ownership? It is not because of the bad management of these public utilities, but it is because the people believe them to be managed corruptly, and because they believe and have seen in many cases the managers of these public utilities buy that which should not be sold; have seen them corrupt their public service and debauch their public officials, and they have demanded that this shall stop. And in many cases they have seen no way to stop it, except by municipal ownership.



In the field of railroad life, various types of individuality are assembled into a society distinctively a class.

The management of this body polity have incorporated a broad, liberal policy, educational, and with just discrimination throughout the branches of the entire service.

The rules prescribing each individual duty are so harmonized co-operatively that all who are personally associated with these rules are individually more or less responsible, that when such rule is disobeyed, the results are relatively on the shoulders of, not only those who disobey an order, but upon those who

knowingly allowed their co-employes his school for promotion, the improveto commit such error.

ment of method and the efficiency of serWhile, in face of all this, many serious vice languishes, deteriorates, and bemistakes occur annually, but almost in- comes deficient, without purpose, and a variably there is a point where accidental general disorganization follows, with anresults might have been avoided, if some archistic elements in social upheaval one had not failed to act promptly. through the entire body politic.

Success in the management rests upon Man found his emancipation through the concrete structure of these duties- work; it enabled him to throw off the the principles wherein a deep unity of slavery of ignorance. The man going purpose prevails for the betterment of to his day's labors goes to his school of conditions, and where fellowship exists emancipation, not only of freeing his and discordant factions are extinct. mind from ignorance, but the gradual

Railway management strives to edu- establishing of character, by freeing the cate its employes along lines of system individual from himself. improvement, and the first essential With the proper appreciation shown to this endeavor is the establishment of the man of marked stability of characmoral force in the individual employe, ter, the management will always reach so marked and permanent that his ver- to gather in its ripest fruit, and developacity and conduct with alerwess can al- ing the system conditions from this ways Le depended upon.

character brought out by its system of Here naturally follow grades of this integrity. moral attribute, of greater or less degree, The day of the intoxicated employe and it requires the rigid surveillance of

has been spent.

No matter how skilled the management to bring the scope of a man may be in his special line, if he be this force out plainly, as duties are mul- a man who can not extricate himself tiplied from time to time, to reach the from periodical debauch, or even tempopoint of success.

rary indulgences, he is regarded as deRaw material coming into the service, cidedly unreliable. while held rigidly responsible for its acts The specific duties lie greatly in the (as the rules are plain and instructive), individual effort to adhere to this sound yet the employe must carry much of its teaching of experience, and not encourresponsibility of mistakes made, as it is age undisciplined methods, but to set his their duty to keep watchfully in sight, light to so shine that its radiance of comand with instructions, the act and move- petent energy will illuminate in general ments of such new material.

harmony with the great and lesser light The men are at their best when so dis- of those above and below. ciplined to the work, as it creates char- Disciplinary methods are necessary, acter, and character is the foundation and men should not feel that its method upon which the structure of efficient is a system of endless duty to the system service is established.

they belong to; but, when properly The character of men in service de- looked at, its cultivation of the employe pends not alone upon their own and in- brings results whereby the individual dividual conduct with the company,

but learns to govern himself. they must not let a lack of character Men not forming bad habits progress mar the completeness of subordinate rapidly under its method, as it has endaction by a violation of the specific du- less opportunities for new thought. ties by other employes.

The genius of our great systems is the The aims of the employe should be result of this progressive schooling, as it high, and unless the choice between leads into the very heart of administrahigher and lower aims be granted the in- tive, inventive and constructive achieve dividual, character can not be estab- ment. lished.

It leaves him who has obtained such If the management in no way dis- improvement so nobly enriched, with criminates between these two points in his emancipation of conditions, that it

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affords him the high gifts of the working leisure class. In using that phrase I mean he has reached a state where he is capable of leisure, of being left alone with his own time from duty as he has become able to govern himself, having passed through this school of disciplinary methods.

He enjoys a liberal salary, and has environed himself by men of culture. He will enjoy his recreations in the best and most instructive literature and music. His family are able to throw off old conventionalities, and cultivate life from a more liberal privilege gained through travel and leisure economically spent.

His children have the advantage of better schools; and in fact, his character has placed him nearer his superiors.

While many an employe regards the disciplinary school as a mortgage upon their individual liberty, they are wrong. If he is upright and moral, his being watched while off duty will bring him good results; if otherwise, “the way of the transgressor is hard."

There is no real freedom in idleness. Those races who have lived in idleness have never been able to master themselves. When man cannot incorporate government over his daily life, he disregards law to the limit of fear, and only obeys that which he is afraid of, leaving him but temporarily subdued. This disciplinary work appeals to reason,

and men must learn to discriminate between that which is right and wrong, and all positions to-day are governed by this exactitude.

There is no real freedom, save that which is based upon discipline. The chance simply to do as we please is not liberty. Liberty involves knowledge, self-mastery, capacity for exertion with the power of will and of resistance. Emerson disclosed the fundamental principles of liberty when he declared that “character is the only definition to freedom and power.

“Character is the result of educational progression, of mastery over self. The

discriminating and gleaning the good from the evil is the voice of the soul uplifting through knowledge the light of truth and morality toward the final good -virtue.

“Virtue is life's grand achievement. It covers a road with many turnings, many marks of conquest between right and wrong, it means the carving on the sands of time the noble achievement of mastery over conditions of temptation and weakness, and it leaves man so mellowed with wisdom's full fruitage that he stands out, reliable. He co-operates with God in the divine development of the world. He stands before man in the full capacity of his genius, his grand personality is recognized through an established character."

Regularity, promptness, obedience, fidelity and skill require a certain degree of character. To establish these requires much self-government, and throwing off of the habits of licentiousness; it is a specific duty to perpetuate such principles.

When the employe begins to take pride in his duty, and feels a sense of mortal humiliation from his mistakes, he is then becoming reliable, and has laid the foundation to character; and it. is the birth of his possibilities for better conditions.

He who cares to perform some worthy activity and gives himself to it, will find. many happy hours, while he who does not, will have woes real and imaginary for which no one has the least sympathy. Duty calls to but those who are willing to forget self in the upbuilding of an enterprise, be it railway or otherwise. It is the test weighed by every organization, no matter be it fraternal or commercial. He who forgets self to do his duty is the one who is advanced; because to do this requires a diligence in application and fortitude in adversity and adherence to purpose, which calls upon duty, for both the negatives and affirmatives which underlie and make up the foundations of character.


and unhappiness, if they have come to you, have come because of something from within you, not because of something from without. Somebody has said that the successful man does not look out for opportunities; he looks in, for that is where they come from.

Once a man came to Jesus and said:

“Master, speak to my brother that he divide the inheritance with me."

Jesus replied: "Take heed-beware, for a man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth."


The dawn of day for the toiler has been brought nearer through the men who have labored morning, noon and night, in the interest of the industrial movement. And the realization of this progress has been the best reward of those who have made many sacrifices for their fellow-men.

Speed every movement which has for its object the betterment of the physical condition of the workingman! As I write on “The Organization of an AntiPoverty Society," will you keep in mind that I am in hearty sympathy with every organization which has that as its aim?

And yet, in this materialistic age, there are some things of which we need to be reminded. When I say “We”, I mean the whole human race.

Ever since poverty came into the world men have accepted it as an evil, and they have organized societies of many kinds in order to abolish it. But somehow they have not touched the root of the matter, and as that is the most vital part of the whole thing, poverty has not been abolished.

Men have been tinkering with those things which appear upon the surface, forgetting, or being ignorant of the fact, that there is much that does not appear upon the surface, and that that which does not appear, is, after all, the most important. In this study of the abolition of poverty, there are a few underlying principles, of which we must never lose sight.

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The savage chief from Zululand, visiting London, appreciated nearly everything but the libraries.

He was poor mentally. You may become rich in knowledge. No man can prevent you from doing that.

Others are poor because they do not appreciate the beautiful things in the world-a sunset, scenery, pictures, flowers and music. Some men go through life with their eyes closed to all the inspiring things that God has given them. They think and plan simply for a square meal, a can of beer and a night's sleep. Their motto for life is this: Meat, Malt and Mattress. Life has no meaning for them beyond this. And yet money cannot buy this appreciation. Even some so-called rich men go through this world with their eyes closed.

Some people are strangely poor in love, while possessing other graces. The In

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choose between a rich poor” man or a "poor rich" man, I would rather be a "rich poor” man--and anybody may be a rich poor man.


spired Book tells us : “Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not love, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love, it profiteth me nothing."

Oratory, the gift of prophecy, wisdom, knowledge, faith, charity, self-sacrificeall these without love—are nothing. The chapter closes with these words:

And now abideth faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love."

It is the most important thing in the world. Suppose it should suddenly be taken out of your life. No love of wife, of sweetheart, of children.

Could money take its place? Never! Life would not be worth the living.

The worst kind of poverty is that which sacrifices the inner life for the sake of outward show, or material advantages. It is bad enough to have the body hungry. I know what that means. But it is far worse to starve the soul.

Poverty cannot be abolished by wholesale, for the reason just given. Scores of schemes planned for the abolition of poverty have been tried, but have all failed. No matter how they may have been advocated in good faith, and no matter how earnest and sincere were the men who promoted these schemes, yet selfishness and laziness, the lack of individual effort, dependence upon the community-these are the reasons given for their failure. No society can do for a man what he will not do for himself.


You have discovered that I have been preparing you for the statement that the best kind of an Anti-Poverty Society is an organization composed of one member. He must be president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer; he must do his own committee work; he must get up his own constitution, and principally, he must amend his constitution. Most of us need to change our attitude towards things in general before we can become rich in the best sense. We must get rid of many false ideas concerning foundation things. We must get the right estimate of values.

We must learn to see things in their right proportion.



After all, poverty is an individual matter. It does not belong to any particular class. Some people tell us that our country is divided into two great classes, the capitalistic and the proletariat; the wealthy and the working class. There are generally four kinds of people in the world today:

The poor poor—those who have no money and nothing else.

The rich poor—those who have no money, but who have the other things that I have been writing about.

The poor rich—those who have money, but nothing else.

The rich rich—those who have money, as well as the other things.

The last class, as a rule, ought to be the happiest people, but if I had to

We have been talking about the things that you are to receive. Let us go down deeper into the problem-into the secret of getting and enjoying the best things. Suppose you should go to the librarian and say to him:

“I demand the wisdom contained in the books on your shelves!”

You might threaten until you black in the face, and you would not

The librarian would tell you that you must give heart and mind to the study of the books before you can obtain the wisdom which they contain. You must burn the midnight oil; you


get it.

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