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this class. There are many other accidents, no doubt, classed as 'falling from cars' in which the injuries are partly due to violent movements of cars which would not occur if all the cars in the train were under the full control of the engineman, by means of his air-brake valve."

The “Every Evening” argues in favor of the old hand brake, and says that had it not been for the Safety Appliance Law “this terrible accident in all probability would not have happened." It is quite probable that had the speed of the train been controlled by the hand brakes, it would have collided with the shifiing engine, the sight of which caused the engineer to apply the air brakes, and thus no doubt have interposed the same obstructions to the track upon which the passenger train was to pass.

The beneficial results of the use of the air brake, aside from the life saving feature, have been so great that to again resort to the use of the old hand brake would be a step backward which no railroad manager would be willing to take. The use of the air brake has been one of the greatest factors in the safe and prompt movement of the enormous railroad traffic of today, and this is attested by the railroad managers of the country, I believe, without exception.

That this would be the result of the adoption of this appliance, was, from experience, well known to all interests, including the representatives of the railroads, who appeared before the committees of Congress when this legislation was under consideration, for at the time of the passage of this law, in 1893, a large number of freight cars in the country had already been equipped with air brakes, and freight trains were then being successfully operated by them. But notwithstanding this the “Every Evening” says:

“The application of air brakes to freight trains was the result of a law of Congress, and the railroads of the country were compelled (and under urgent protest) to comply with its provisions, without the opportunity of ascertaining, by complete investigation, whether the system was the proper one or not.”

It is true that the roads were conpelled “under urgent protest" to comply with this law. But this is nothing remarkable. Can the distinguished editor point to an instance wherein a railroad company, or any person for that matter, submitted without protest, and "urgent” protest too, to the passage of a law which meant to it an expenditure of money? The railroads not only opposed the passage of this law, but they have opposed the passage of all laws which have been passed by Congress in the interest of her employes.

If the men who own Tilroads were not human this might not be true, but since they are only like the rest of us, I suppose they dislike as much as we do to be put under restraint, and I am sure they have as much right to.

It is suggested that it would have been better to have left this matter "ertirely with the managers,” rather than trying to control it by law.

This is precisely the argument which was used by the railroads against the passage of this law, but still Congress, and wisely 100, thought it best to make it obligatory upon the roads to adopt these appliances, rather than to leave it optional with them.

Could it be reasonably expected that the railroads which were to stand the expense of this equipment, would look at it in the same Mght, and realize its necessity to the extent that Congress did? It would have been unnatural for them to do so, but the question might better be answered by the following quotation from an address delivered by a railroad officer before the Central Association of Railroad Officials at St. Louis:

“We had to be driven to the general use of the air brake, without which we would not now think of railroading, and it looks very much like we will have to be driven to the greater use of it. The result, I am sure, will prove beneficial in the long run."

When the managers of the Pennsylvania, and some other railroads, will permit themselves to take cognizance of the true conditions brought about by the use of only a portion of the air brakes, and

look more to the safety of the operation of trains, rather than to the trouble and expense of keeping their air brake equipment in position and condition to be operated, and “buckle” down to the use of all of the air brakes in each train as contemplated by the Act of Congress, then, and not until then, will the “buckling" up of trains, such as occurred at Harrisburg, cease. And in this regard we are pleased to note that the Pennsylvania Railroad Company has at last seen the light, for already one newspaper reports

that the management of that road has isued orders that no less than 60 per cent of the brakes in each train shall be operated from the locomotive, instead of 50 per cent as heretofore, and another one reports later that they have finally decided that all of the brakes are to be so operated. But will the Harrisburg accident also serve as a sufficient example for the other roads which have followed the same dangerous practice, or will they too continue their folly until its dire results strike nearer home?

SPEECH OF GRAND CHIEF W. S. STONE.

AT THE PUBLIC RECEPTION TENDERED THE TRAINMEN BY THE

CITIZENS OF BUFFALO AT THEIR RECENT CONVENTION.

In my

Mr. Chairman, Your Excellency, (Governor Higgins), Ladies of the Auxiliary, Members of the B. of R. T. and friends: It. is with a feeling of pleasure that I come before you tonight with a message of good will and good wishes to your organization. We have watched your growth for years with pride, and in your present deliberations and in the coming years I wish to assure you that no organization wishes you better success than the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, which I have the honor to represent. (Applause.) I stand before you as a firm believer in union labor and the right of the laboring man to organize, but I do not believe in some of the things that are done in the name of union labor. I recognize the fact that capital has its rights as well as labor and that oftentimes both are wrong and want more than their fair share. But higher than the rights of either stands the third party, the public, whose rights are too often not considered and who, no matter which

way the question at issue is settled, have to pay the freight. Archbishop Ireland has said that capital is simply saved-up labor. If that is so, then the interests are mutual, and between them there should be no strife. The question of labor we have always

with us.

Labor organizations, like empires, rise and fall, other questions come and go, but the question of labor is always one of the paramount questions of the day. It always has been and it perhaps always will be. opinion there is no question before the public to-day that is of so vital interest as the varied phases of this question of labor and capital, nothing in which the public should be more interested, for it is a question which concerns not only some particular locality, but upon the right settlement of the varied interests at stake depend the future welfare of the country and our existence as a nation.

Many do not believe in organized labor, yet organized labor has elevated the standard of living for American workmen and has diminished accidents in railroad operations by insistence upon the adoption of safety appliances, and the stand which organized labor has taken upon what in my opinion is the greatest curse of our modern civilization, child labor, should commend it to every right thinking man and woman. In the United States tonight we have 1,700,000 children under the age of fourteen, of both sexes, working through long hours in the dirt and grime of our mines and breathing the hot reeking air of our

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Mr. Stone was born on a farm near Ainsworth, Washington County, Iowa, on February 1st, 1860, He led the life of the average farmer boy, getting his education in the public school, then attending the Academy at Washington. Iowa, then Western College at Western, Iowa. In 1879 he commenced firing on the Rock Island Road, was promoted to engineer in April, 1884, in which capacity he was employed by the same company until May 1st, 1903, in freight service. On May 1st, 1903, he became the first Salaried Chairman the Rock Island had, and from that position he was called, on August 11th, 1903, to fill the position of Grand Chief Engineer of the B. of L. E., made vacant by the death of P. M. Arthur, and was elected to his present term at their convention in Los Angeles, California, May, 1904.

hours, dwarfs it in mind, body and soul, and then, undersized, uneducated and ignorant, turns it out upon the world to make a future citizen of it, with the result that each year our class of tramps and criminals increases in number, and

ceeded are the ones that have learned to profit by the mistakes and failures of the past and to build broader and better for the future. Any labor organization to succeed must learn this one thing, that any contract entered into by a labor

we

care

are

organization must be carried out with absolute fidelity to the terms of the contract. (Great applause.) The desire of some to hold capital to the strict letter of an agreement and reserve the right for labor to vary from it at will, is neither just nor fair and should be condemned by every honest workingman. Any such course can only end in labor's dishonor.

The question of organized labor should be of vital interest to the public. There is no question that so concerns the public as railway la bor organization. All that you hold dear on this earth you trust into the keeping of railroad men every day. So they have a special claim upon you. It does not matter how each particular individual of the public feels toward organized labor as such, this one fact remains, that the wages the railway employe receives, the hours and conditions under which he works and the personal character which he develops, concern not only those who are interested directly in railways, but every one of the vast public who daily travels on our railway trains. When you realize the narrow margin that often intervenes between safety and disaster, you can understand why the railway service requires men of the highest standard of efficiency, men who are trustworthy, men who will have quick brains and quick hands. A tired, muddled brain has no place on our railroads. The stand which the railway organizations have made for sobriety and uprightness of living, and the stand which they have made for shortening the long hours which on many of our railroad systems amount to almost physical exhaustion, have done much to increase the safety of the traveling public. But they have done much more than this. While the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers was the pioneer of railway organizations, today we have every branch of the service fully organized and each engaged in doing a grand and noble work in the upbuilding of the character and standing of the railway men of our country. In addition to this we have tried to elevate the character and standing of

the men. We have tried to give to the railroads and to the public steady, sober, reliable railroad men. We have tried to educate our members to pay their honest debts, we have tried to educate them to save their money and to become good citizens. In addition to this

were really compelled to provide insurance companies for our members. Today we are giving our membersa class that is rated extra hazardous, that all the old line companies do not

to insure at any price-we giving them insurance for less than onethird of what they can get it for in any of the old line companies. If any of you who are present have read Mr. Lawson in his Frenzied Finance, you know that he tells you that less than seven per cent. of the money paid into the old line companies ever comes back again to the policy holders, and that has never been, contradicted. The difference between us and the old line companies, according to what Mr. Lawson says of them, is that instead of giving back only seven per cent, we operate our insurance companies at a cost of less than six per cent. and give 94 per cent back to the policy holders. And last but not least, in fact the best of all, each one of the organizations has a ladies' auxiliary fully organized. (Applause.) This noble band of women is striving in every way possible to lift the standard of the home life of the railroad men of our land, and they are succeeding because their effort is in the right direction. The daily acts of charity and kindness done by this noble band of women cannot be numbered. It is often said that the glory of a nation rests in her sons, and we are proud of them, yet it is the wife and the mother and the home training that makes the sons what they are, and the railroad organizations will never realize their best until the wives and mothers of our members more fully realize their vast influence.

In conclusion I wish to say that I do not believe the millenium is coming, I do not believe the time will ever come when no differences will arise between those who have labor to sell and those

who desire to buy, for in any exchange of values there is always this characteristic of opposite views, but I do believe as we come closer together, as we become educated to a higher standard of living, that some other means will be found of settling labor troubles than the present one of strikes and lockouts and boycotts and blacklists. I realize

that when we think of our complex civilization, we find that each year brings new problems to be solved, but I believe that if we meet and settle the questions of today in a spirit of fairness and just dealing, we shall be able to settle the questions of tomorrow in the self same spirit, when they come. I

(Applause.)

thank you:

PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S FAVORITE POEM.

WRITTEN BY WILLIAM KNOX.

Oh, why should the spirit of mortal be proud?
Like swift fleeting meteor, a fast flying cloud,
A flash of the lightning, a break of the wave,
Man passes from life to his rest in the grave.

The leaves of the oak and the willow shall fade,
Be scattered around and together be laid,
And the young and the old and the low and the

high,
Shall molder to dust and together shall lie.

The infant a mother attended and loved,
The mother that infant's affection who proved,
The husband, that mother and infant who blest,
Each, all, are a way to their dwellings of rest.

The maid on whose cheek, on whose brow, in

whose eye, Shone beauty and pleasure-her triumphs are by, And the mem'ry of those who have lov'd her and

praised. Are alike from the minds of the living erased.

The hand of the king that the scepter hath borne,
The brow of the priest that the miter hath worn,
The eye of the sage, and the heart of the brave,
Are hidden and lost in the depths of the grave.

The peasant whose lot was to sow and to reap,
The headsman who climbed with his goats up the

steep, The beggar who wandered in search of his bread, Have faded away like the grass that we tread.

So the multitude goes, like the flower of the weed,
That wither away to let others succeed,
So the multitude comes, even those we behold,
To repeat every tale that has often been told.
For we are the same that our fathers have been,
We see the same sights that our fathers have seen,
We drink the same stream and view the same sun,
And run the same course that our fathers have run.
The thoughts we are thinking our fathers would

think.
The death we are shrinking they also would shrink,
To the life we are clinging they also would cling,
But it speeds from us all like a bird on the wing.
They loved, but their story we cannot unfold,
They scorned, but the heart of the haughty is

cold, They grieved, but no wail from their slumbers will

come, They joyed, but the voice of their gladness is dumb. They died-aye, they died, and we things that are

now, Who walk on the turf that lies over their brow Who make in their dwellings a transient abode, Meet the changes they met on their pilgrimage

road.

Yea, hope and despondency, pleasure and pain,
Are mingled together in sunshine and rain,
And the smile and the tear, the song and the dirge,
Still follow each other, like surge upon surge.
"Tis the wink of an eye, 'tis the draught of a breath,
From the blossom of health to the paleness of

death, From the gilded salon to the bier and the shroud, O, why should the spirit of mortal be proud?

The saint who enjoyed the communion of heaven,
The sinner who dared to remain unforgiven,
The wise and the foolish, the guilty and just,
Have quietly mingled their bones in the dust.

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