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results of cultivation and training; but it receives in exchange for the music of isolated voices the volume and strength of the chorus.
The Settlement, then, is an experimental effort to aid in the solution of the social and industrial problems which are engendered by the modern conditions of life in a great city. It insists that these problems are not confined to any one portion of a city,
It is an attempt to relieve, at the same time, the over-accumulation at one end of society and the destitution at the other; but it assumed that this over-accumulation and destitution are most sorely felt in the things that pertain to social and educational advantage. From its very nature it can stand for no political or social propaganda. It must, in a sense, give the warm welcome of an inn to all such propaganda, if perchance one of them be found an angel. The one thing to be dreaded in the Settlement is that it lose its flexibility, its power of quick adaptation, its readiness to change its methods as its environment may demand. It must be open to conviction and must have a deep and abiding sense of tolerance. It must be hospitable and ready for experiment. It should demand from its residents a scientific patience in the accumulation of facts and the steady holding of their sympathies as one of the best instruments for that accumulation. It must be grounded in a philosophy whose foundation is the solidarity of the human race, a philosophy which will not waver when the race happens to be represented by a drunken woman or an idiot boy. Its
residents must be emptied of all conceit of opinion and all self-assertion, and ready to arouse and interpret the public opinion of their neighborhood. They must be content to live quietly side by side with their neighbors until they grow into a
sense of relationship and mutual interests. Their neighbors are held apart by differences of race and language which the residents can more easily overcome. They are bound to see the needs of their neighborhood as a whole, to furnish data for legislation, and use their influence to secure it. In short, residents are pledged to devote themselves to the duties of good citizenship and to the arousing of the social energies which too largely lie dormant in every neighborhood given over industrialism. They are bound to regard the entire life of their city as organic, to make an effort to unify it, and to protest against its over-differentiation.
The Settlement movement is from its nature a provisional one. It is easy in writing a paper to make all philosophy point one particular moral and all history adorn one particular tale; but I hope you forgive me for reminding you that the best speculative philosophy sets forth the solidarity of the human race; that the highest moralists have taught that without the advance and improvement of the whole no man can hope for any lasting improvement in his own moral or material individual condition. The subjective necessity for Social Settlements is identical with the necessity which urges us on toward social and individual salvation.
SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA.
F. H. BLOODGOOD.
With your kind permission for space, , I will endeavor to give you a sketch of my trip in the South Seas. Having just returned to Mexico from a four-months sojourn through Central America, South America, and West India Islands. Leav
ing Salinas Cruz, we made our first landing at San Benito, a small town on the southeast coast of Mexico. This town has been totally destroyed eighteen times in the history of the world by volcanoes. The most prominent one,
the Santa Marias, can be seen in action, from the sea. From Buena Ventura throwing out a stream of hot lava hun our next stop was made at Punar, the dreds of feet in the air, presenting a mouth of the Guayaquil River, where, most beautiful sight at night. Volcanic after being well looked over by the ashes are said to be four feet deep for doctor, we sailed 84 miles up the Guayamany miles along the coast.
quil River to Guayaquil, Ecuador, a Leaving San Benito, our next stop city of 45,000, located directly under was made at Ocos, Guatamala, a small the equator, and from which it derives place which also raises principally coffee its name—Ecuador. They raise everyand earthquakes. Next stop at Cham thing that you ever heard tell of here, perico, Guatamala, where we also took and some things that you never will a cargo of coffee. Leaving Camperico,
, hear tell of. Seventy-five per cent of next stop was made at San Jose, Guata the world's supply of chocolate is grown mala, having a stop of four days here. in Ecuador. Ivory nuts, from which Changing cargo. I took the train and buttons are made, monkeys, smallpox, went to Guatamala City, a distance of and all varieties of fevers. From here 84 kilometers, where they charge twenty the Guayaquil & Quito Railway, a narfive cents per kilometer first class fare, row gauge of 128 miles, 48 miles of their money exchange being 18 for one which is 54 per cent grade. Leaving dollar gold. Leaving San Jose at 8
Guayaquil, we go back down the river a. m., and passing through some beauti and get out into blue water, and make ful mountain scenery, arrived at Guata next stop in Callao, Peru, a city of 40,000 mala City at 7 p. m., finding a most pic composed of all races of people and very turesque and progressive city of 45,000 progressive. From Callao, next stop people, natives and Euopeans; altitude, is made at Autofagasta, Chili, the heart 7,000 feet. This city has many buildings of a most progressive mining district, of historic wonder. The Saint Mary's large producing mines of nitric, tin, coal, cathedral, said to be four centuries old, copper, and gold.
From Antofagasta and while badly “shook" several times we go to Valparaiso, Chili, a city of by earthquakes, still is in good preser 300,000, wide streets, progressive people, vation. Returning the second day to mostly natives, Europeans and Chinese, my ship and setting sail some hour in the a strictly modern and up-to-date city. night, made our next stop at Acajutla, Here is where my running orders expire Salvador, a small place from which you and I chase over by land to Buenas can also see several volcanoes in action.
Ayres, Argentina. This is a modern Has a narrow-gauge railway to San Sal city of one million people, Europeans vador, the capital city. Our next stop and natives; has thirteen different lines was at La Union, Salvador, situated in a of railways running to all parts of South most beautiful bay some twenty miles America, the greatest port of entry in from deep sea. From here we sailed the world with one exception. From across the bay to beautiful Amapala, Buenas Ayres sail north to the West which is built on the highland over India Islands, Burmuda and Jamaica. looking the crystal waters of the bay, These islands are the most beautiful and where fish can be seen at a depth of ideal spots on all earth. They are so twenty fathoms.
Our next stop was at situated in the Carribean Sea as to have Pt. Arenas, Costa Rica, and from there a uniform climate not varying 5° from to Panama, a city where you are immedi 78° the whole year around. The people ately given a sanitized circular before are American-speaking and are a bundle going ashore to beware of the female of kindness itself. From Jamaica I mosquito if you don't want to get small sailed direct to Vera Cruz, Mexico. pox. After a three-days stay in Panama There are no good jobs for conductors we sailed along Columbia, the first of in South America. The greater part of South America's countries, stopping one the railways are English lines, and are day at Buena Ventura, which is pictur run as all English railways are, the via esquely situated in a bay a few miles Libre system, and they use their own
enough money to get back with. Prepare for a two-months trip on water, “including 15 days quarantine.” L'nderstand the Spanish language perfectly. Get good and seasick a few days before you start.
Now, after this, if you want to go, go ahead.
subjects mostly because Americans won't stay. They pay from £16 to £19 per month. The living is principally rice, bananas, frijolles and black coffee, and about half the time you are working in an altitude from 11 to 13 thousand feet and the weather very cold. Now, just word to any Brother contemplating a trip to South America for work: Get the job before you go and be on the pay roll when you step on board the ship. Throw
friends in your native land. Don't expect to receive any mail or papers from home. Never write to anybody yourself. Be sure you have
I've seen the golden sunlight fade, I've watched the moonlight, the most
beautiful made; I've had my stomach turned wrong
side out On the deep blue sea, thrown out, en
For surely very surely, will come the Prince of
Peace To still the shrieking shrapnel and bid the Maxims
cease; Not as invaders come
With gun-wheel and with drum, But with the tranquil joyance of lovers going Home Through the scented summer twilight when the
Oh, doubt not, wrong, oppression and violence
spirit has release.
TRAPLOI UNION COUNCIL
Tas RAILWAY CONDUCTOR, PUBLISHBD MONTHLY AND ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER AT THB Post:
OPTICE IN CEDAR RAPIDS, Iowa. Subscription $1.00 per year.
W. N. GATES, Advertising Agent, Garfield Building, Cleveland, O.
C. D. KELLOGG, ASSOCIATE.
THE 30th SESSION OF THE GRAND DIVISION.
The Thirtieth session of the Grand Oregon, and back, covering in the agDivision is history; the accomplish- gregate over fifteen thousand miles of ments of it will go marching on.
track, without the slightest mishap of It seems to us it was successful from any kind, shows to what marvelous every point of view, actual experience in perfection the science of railroading has the workings of the changes in some of arrived. The managements of these the by-laws, is of course lacking, but great railroads have our sincere and we have faith that the combined wisdom hearty gratitude. The Chicago, Burof the membership of the Grand Divi- lington & Quincy, the Chicago, Milwausion will become apparent as time goes kee & St. Paul, and the Chicago & Northby.
Western were the initial lines for these It is of course gratifying to the mem- trains, and they were delivered by them to bership to know that all the Grand Off- the Northern Pacific and Great Northern cers were re-elected, and we know the at St. Paul, Minn., and to the Union Canadian Brothers will all feel glad that Pacific at Omaha. The Union Pacific the Dominion is to have a Grand Officer delivered to the Oregon Short Line and who will devote his whole time to the the latter to the Oregon Railway & Naviupbuilding of the Order in Canada, dur- gation Company. The Denver & Rio ing the next two years, at least. The Grande took the train from Salt Lake new position is appointive by the Grand City to Denver on the return trip. Chief Conductor, and has not been made It would be practically impossible to at this writing.
give a detailed account of the trip of The arrangements for transportation either one or of all three of these to and from Portland by three special trains, but as we went a part of the trains, were successful and happy in way on all of them, we are prepared to practically every particular. It was too
more congenial, satisfied bad that all could not have lower berths, and enthusiastic lot of people would be but as long as the sleepers are not built hard to get together. Perhaps it is only that way, it was useless to attempt it. truth to say that the Eastern continThe fact of three great special trains, gent looked at the wondrous expanse loaded to their full capacity, speeding of the West with opening eyes and from Chicago and St. Louis to Portland, minds. Those who had never been out
“There's not in this wide world a valley
on the great plains, deserts, and mountains of the immense country over which these trains traveled, will carry back with them a lasting knowledge of its bigness and the possibilities of its future, albeit, of course, that no single trip can impress one with the almost limitless vastness of that country. The great railroads over which we traveled are reaching out with ceaseless energy for the ever increasing trans-continental traffic and that which extends over and beyond the great ocean at whose shores they deposit and take freight, from the beautiful and hustling cities of Portland, Seattle and Tacoma.
We speak of the beautiful city of Portland with bated, almost reverential awe and breath, and of its hospitality with swelling emotion and thankfulness. Those of us who had never visited Portland before were simply dumb with admiration for the wonderful natural beauty of its situation and the evident coöperation of its citizens to let the works of man “help great nature's plan.” The hospitality of its citizens was in keeping with the bigness and evident possibilities of its future.
We predict that those who go hence to view the buildings and see the exhibits with which the Oregonians are to celebrate the stupendous achievements of those rugged pioneers, Lewis and Clark, and the not less rugged Sacajawea, will go back to their homes with a feeling that hospitality inheres in those Portlanders, even as beauty inheres in all their surroundings. The bigness of the mountains and the valleys and the ocean has touched them with the wand of their largeness, and they gather inspiration and courage accordingly. The scene presented from the observatory on Portland Heights, overlooking the city, the Willamette and Columbia Rivers and valleys in the distance, Mt. Hood, Mt. St. Helens and Mt. Adams, forms a picture the exquisite beauty of which will be enshrined in and impressed on the tablets of our memory as long as life lasts. If more beautiful pictures exist on our earth, they are rare indeed, for has not the poet said:
As that in whose bosom the bright waters
meet.” Evidently he was not gazing upon the meeting of the Willamette and Columbia, for if he had been, surely the mute though poetic appeal from snow-capped Hood would have given him inspiration for a volume. Mt. Hood has been described so many times, and pictures of it taken from so many points of view, that it is useless and perhaps egotistical to attempt anything new, and we will therefore content ourselves with the statement that the view of that majestic peak which we had from the deck of the good boat “Potter" going up the Columbia is the one which will live in our memory-live because, forsooth, the beautiful river, the evergreen mountains and the eternally snow-capped peak, formed an harmonious, and composite picture, the beauty and purity of which will flash on our memory whenever, in the future, the superlative beauty of the scenes of the trip are brought to mind. And we shall remember the rare beauty and wondrous profusion of the flowers and other flora of Portland-the wealth and variety of roses, the meekeyed, large-faced pansies, the prolific and sweet-scented carnations, yea, and others and others whose bigness and quantity partake of the spirit, individuality and extent of the country. And we shall remember the rivers, the lakes, the sound, the cascades, the falls and the Dalles—remember them for the beauty, grandeur and inspiration gathered from them-pictures which will be with us always. And the great Oceanthe Pacific-symbol of eternity, emblem of strength almost infinite, will live in our memory as the grandest sight of all the world, a vision which should enter into the tempestuous struggles of man and bid his soul rest in peace-a feeling that its wondrous unrest and mysterious depths hold secrets from the ken of mortal man which only the infinite future will reveal. It seems
as if on the broad bosom of this great ocean, or peaceful shores, the troubled spirit of