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merely that the business shall not be and diligence consistent with maintain

at a loss, but that the business ing himself in good condition to work shall be run under such conditions that thereafter, and leaving himself the leisthe owner of the capital on the one hand ure necessary to the performance of his is willing to risk his capital in the busi- duties to his family, to his state and for ness, and the possessor of that special his own development and pleasure. ability which is required to organize The hours of labor should be reasonand conduct a successful business will ably short; but during working hours be led to use his greatest efforts in that each individual should work hard and direction.

earnestly, and under conditions leading Unless the profits of businesses are to the greatest possible efficiency. such as to tempt capitalists to risk their Any restriction upon the output of the money, the money will seek, not par- individual reduces the fund of profits ticipation in business, which necessarily available for distribution, besides demorinvolves great risks, but will be put into alizing the man who is so restricted. classes of investment where there is It follows also that differences in efsupposed to be no risk whatever.

ficiency between different individuals Unless men of exceptional business must be recognized and rewarded; and ability have the promise or possibility that those who can work faster and of large rewards they will not be led better than others must not be retarded to develop or use those special talents by the less efficient. The industrial suor capacities which wé find in the periority of America is largely due to leaders of great businesses—the men the absence of restriction upon

indiwho have made or managed them. vidual effort; to the encouragement of

What the exact amount of profit is the individual by giving him the fruits which is necessary to make men risk of his efforts. their money in business, and how great Your federation opposes socialism, the rewards must be in order to develop but to ignore the difference between inthe leaders of industry are, of course, dividuals would lend strength to socialmatters which cannot be decided by ism and communism. any general rule.


A limitation of the production of the Second--The employes should strive individual is pure waste. The business to make the earnings of any business as is merely rendered less profitable, and large as possible.

the man whose production is restricted There can be no greater mistake for is injured also. the workingman than to restrict the Nor does the restriction of the output output of the individual.

of the individual make more work for You must make the total earnings of others. The amount of work to be the business in which you are engaged done is, in a country like ours, in no the largest possible. By earnings in sense fixed; for the amount of goods or this connection I mean the aggregate service men buy is not fixed. The fund available for paying workingmen, amount bought is as a rule limited only capitalists and managers. Make that by the ability to buy. aggregate large and there will be plenty If you waste human effort you make for all among whom it is to be divided.

the product cost

If you raise The most potent factor in securing prices without increasing incomes you large profits is the avoidance of waste, have simply limited the amount that and the greatest source of waste in the will be bought. You have not made industrial world is unused, undeveloped work for more people. You have merely or misdirected human effort. To the given people less for their money. correction of that evil trade unions Another great factor of waste in most should direct their attention.

businesses is the cost of inspectors, foreLet every one engaged in the business men and assistant foremen-men whose work with the greatest possible efficiency services are in large part required only




because so many employes work, not effort were duly made the amount of as hard or as well as is possible but only slack time could be greatly reduced. hard enough or well enough to pass the Where men

are engaged in trades inspector or foreman.

which on account of the physical condiEvery man should look out for him- tions can be followed only during a part self, should do the work without inspec- of the year, there ought to be found for tor or foreman watching him like a them work at some other trade for the policeman. The dishonor and the ex- remainder of the year. pense of unnecessary inspectors and

PROVIDE AGAINST IRREGULARITY foremen should be avoided.

:: No industrial condition can be satisTrade unions have already done much factory which does not tend to remove for the manhood of the workingman. the thing called “day labor," which They should teach him that it is a dis- does not seek to make the work of the grace to manhood to require watching. workingman as steady as that of the WORK SHOULD BE STEADY.

clerk or salesman. Third-The unions should demand for No adequate effort to provide against the workingman steady work.

irregularity of work has been made. If In order that the pay of the individual the unions once formulate demands for may be large it is necessary not merely steady work and coöperate with emthat the business as a whole be profitable, ployers to secure it, an immense imbut also that the individual be given full provement on these lines will undoubtopportunity to work for his share of the edly result. profit.

Steadiness of work is nearly as imMost controversies between employers portant to the employer as to the emand employes have arisen upon claims ploye. For instance, the great aim of for what is called higher wages; that is, the manufacturer must be to run his for a higher rate per day or per piece. factory full all the time. Many facBut the rate per day or per piece is only tories can earn their profit only if they one of the factors which go to make up do. If the factory runs all of the time, wages.

and the employes work all of the time, The important question is not how it is obvious that the owner can be satmuch a man is paid per day nor how isfied with a much smaller rate of profit much per piece, but how much can he and the men can be satisfied with a earn in a year. He may have high smaller rate per day or per piece than wages and an opportunity of working they would have to get if the factory only half the year.

and the employes were idle part of the For instance, it appeared in the an- time. thracite coal strike inquiry that the The manufacturer and the men will men worked only about 181 days in the get less per piece, but more in the aggreyear.

gate, and if you can keep the price low Lack of earnings is only a small part the demand for the article, whatever it of the evil which results from irregularity may be, will be increased. of employment. It is the uncertainty That is, if you can get your goods as to a job which produces a large part cheaper and yet have the men who of the care of a workingman's life, and make them earn in the aggregate as the days of enforced idleness which lead much as when the price of the goods was to most of the bad habits.

higher, you are increasing the amount Every man should have the oppor- of work, not diminishing it. In other tunity of working every day in the year words, it is by increasing the output per excepting Sundays and holidays and man, not by restricting it, that you give such time as he properly wishes for a work to more men. vacation. In some trades this is im- And therefore every bit of efficiency possible, but in many trades where the that you can add to the ability of an irregularity of work is accepted as a ne- individual, and every bit of waste that cessity, it would be found that if the you can avoid and thus enable the goods

to be turned out cheaper, will increase the number of consumers, and increase the number of men employed, and increase your own means of comfort and improvement.

STUDY THE CONDITIONS. Fourth—The unions should adapt 'their demands to the conditions of a particular business.

In order to determine how large a part of these earnings of any business you can properly demand, it is essential that your representatives should understand the conditions of the business.

It is not sufficient that you should make a demand and have that demand assented to

or refused. sentatives must be able to understand the needs and the possibilities of the business you are engaged in.

John Mitchell was successful in the anthracite strike because he understood the conditions of the businesses of the employers and they did not understand the workingman's side of the question.

Your representatives must understand not merely the general line of the business, but the possibilities and the neces

sities of the particular business in which your demands are to be applied. Concerns engaged in the same line of business in one part of the country and in another, or even in the same community, have varying possibilities and necessities, and your demands must be tempered by those possibilities and necessities.

The possibilities of employers' businesses vary like the employes' capacities. If you attempt to apply rigidly a uniform rule to all you may kill the goose that lays the egg; and except in extreme cases the goose must be kept alive whether the egg be golden or not.

Don't assume that the interests of employer and employe are necessarily hostile—that what is good for one is necessarily bad for the other. The opposite is more apt to be the case. While they have different interests, they are likely to prosper or to suffer together. Like in the case of dealer and customer, coöperation and a mutual regard for the other's rights are essential to continued success.

This is the lesson that unions should teach.

Your repre

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It was a fine night for observation, but Seagraves, the

the astronomer, had worked hard on his new stellar chart for hours, and felt pretty well used up. Therefore he preferred to tilt his chair against the wall, with his feet on the edge of the table, puffing away at a mild cigar. While in this enviable position he fell into a light doze, being suddenly awakened by the undefinable consciousness of another presence in the same room. with him.

On opening his eyes the Professor was startled to see a shadowy figure bending alternately over his charts and peering into the giant telescope which

was mounted under the center of the dome of the observatory.

“Well, of all the impudent-" muttered Seagraves. “See here, my friend,

who are you, and what the deuce are you doing there?” The stranger surveyed Seagraves steadily for a moment, then shook his head, as if unable to comprehend, resuming his investigations with great composure. Seagraves rose from his chair. “I want you to understand, sir, that I won't be put off in this manner,” he began. “There are two nights set aside in each month for visitors, and you have no right to come here." The newcomer repeated his headshaking and unintelligible muttering. “Evident ly does not understand English," thought Seagraves. Try hard as he might, he could not make out the stranger's features or the charateristics of his personality. All he could distinguish was a pair of luminous eyes, a shadowy hat,

and long overcoat, greatly resembling his own.

An uncanny feeling stole over the Professor.

The stranger paused in his labors, seeming at a loss to continue. Then he began pointing at the various objects in the place, waiting for the Professor's reply each time. Seagraves got an inkling of his meaning.

“Table, chairs, telescope, chart, window,” he said in turn. But the stranger shook his head sadly at each rejoinder, as if unable to grasp its significance. Then Seagraves continued, hoping to strike some word which might start a logical train of thought in the visitor's befuddled mind.

"Hat, typewriter, lamp-post, man, woman, love"

"At last, at last!” cried the stranger, in a sepulchral tone, yet with a ring of ecstasy. “That magic word 'love'the keynote of every language, clime and sphere for ages! It is the shining link which joins me to my previous existence in this benighted world. Now, sir, I am prepared to listen to you. You were saying—?"

“The fellow is certainly mad!”thought Seagraves. Then he said, very mildly “I was about to suggest that, you are quite unknown to me, some explanation of your business here might be in order."

“I came to get my bearings. I have lost my way," said the unknown.

"Lost your way? Don't you know where you live? The street or housenumber?' He shook his head sadly. “But you certainly know your own name-why not consult the city directory?” asked Seagraves.

Were I an inhabitant of your city, or indeed of this world, I would be glad to follow your suggestion,” said the stranger. “But since I am a skimmer of the skies, an astral messenger bound for a given point, I am compelled to consult a directory of the heavens, having lost my way.”

“This fellow is liable to become violent,” thought the Professor, edging toward the door.

"Listen," cried the stranger, "ages ago I was Obeb, a Chaldean who loved

Zadie, most beautiful of maidens. But she was cut down in the flower of youth, and I, becoming inconsolable, embraced the science of astronomy, hoping to ascertain to which star of the heavens her gentle spirit had fled. Centuries have passed since then, and our two souls, passing through many separate and successive existences in different worlds have at length become ripe for final union. But tell me,” he said, suddenly, “have



scientists been experimenting at signaling Mars?

“Can't say,” replied Seagraves, “although it is possible. Why?"

As I traversed space on my way to meet Zadie, my spirit-love, I came in contact with an electric wave, which was speeding toward your nearest celestial neighbor. This caused me to be precipitated to your accursed planet. Here the incessant roar of traffic, the towering height of your buildings, and the strange antics of the natives, so befuddled me that I could no longer distinguish that bright particular star which is my destination. Seeing the dome of your observatory, I came here to get my bearings. I took the liberty of appropriating the shadow of your hat and overcoat, to make myself presentable," he added, apologetically.

Seagraves was amazed to discover that his hat and ulster cast no shadow upon the wall against which they hung.

“This fellow is a hypnotist as well as a madman," thought Seagraves. “He will have me believing him after a bit."

Then he joined Obeb at the chart.
Zadie! Zadie!—I never heard of it!"

“You call yourselves astronomers!” cried the astral visitor. “Oh, little earthly men! Oh, infants in the arms of infinity! Know, there are millions of stars which are not recorded on your charts! Where is Zadie, which should be in the constellation Leo? Where are Vini Gallici and Saccharum Akba, which should be in Virgo?"

He strode to the telescope and peered into it long and earnestly.

“At last!" he cried. “See yon twinkling point of violet velvet light? It is the star of my pre-ordination, the home of Zadie, my spirit-love, for is it not the


While Seagraves felt little disposed to doubt the agency which had prompted his wonderful discovery, he never accepted the story of the Chaldean and and his spirit-love as gospel truth. One day he was reading a deceased author, who made a specialty of fantastic tales. He was struck by the similarity of his style with the narrative of Obeb. Then Seagraves concluded that his astral visitor must be the ghost of this writer, who had perpetrated so many lies in his books while in the flesh that he was punished while believing them himself in the spirit; and who carried into the great beyond a hazy remembrance of the last pharmaceutical ployed to stay his fleeting breath!


very color of her eyes? She waits for me! I must go to her-farewell!"

“Hold on!” cried Seagraves, “how about Vini Gallici and the rest of them?" But like a flash his astral visitor was gone; the Professor's hat and coat once more casting a shadow the wall.

Seagraves peered into the telescope, then sank back into his chair with a gasp of surprise; for at a point in the heavens which had hitherto been blank and unbroken he distinguished a little speck of violet velvet light. Leaning over his chart the Professor recorded the appearance of a new star! Three weeks later the Astronomical Society, on the suggestion of the discoverer, named the new luminary “Zadie."




“There is so much bad in the best of us and so much good in the worst of us, that it hardly behooves any of us to talk about the rest of us." We came across that maxim some time ago, somewhere, and took a copy of it, which soon disappeared in that chaos a writer is apt to accumulate every few weeks, of fragments written by somebody

And so much of it is written in our days, foolish or wise, that it is almost impossible to take cognizance of but a small portion of what is published. Somehow or other the sentence or dictum in question made its appearance just in time for us to apply to the subject we desire to dwell upon in our present short essay.

It has often occurred to us that we are yet in the wrong track of too much time spent in foolish talk about each one

We thus forget to talk about what is needed for every one of us to live a sensible life. Perhaps it is worse than that. Perhaps we fall into the habit of losing all taste to talk on educating subjects, or prefer to remain silent when we should talk, or resort to the reading of insignificant events rather than to think on some of the important matters

of the day. And there is so much to think about worth thinking and talking for the daily improvement of all of us! And life is so short, after all! Why, then, to waste it in nonsensical talk or nonsensical reading? And we think we are great readers today. Are we sure that we don't often read for the purpose of saving ourselves from the trouble to think?

Before we plunge ourselves into a correct analysis of the problems above indicated, let us attempt to establish or suggest a simple classification of the word “knowledge.” The writer has never come across any such classification, and we have often asked our prominent people for it, and never received a satisfactory answer.

Who has time to answer any important questions today? It seems to us that the word knowledge should be subject to the simple and natural classification of fundamental, incidental, and ornamental, the two latter departments as complementary elements of the elementary one, the fundamental knowledge. Would we yet be entangled, mixed up in the meshy snares of our complicated prog

of us.

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