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lege, who addressed the annual convention of the Association of Officials of Bureaus of Labor Statistics of America in a spirit so sympathetic and appreciative of the ideas of trade unionism that the association voted to circulate his address on the relations of labor and education, and it has therefore been included in the bureau's report. The third of the churches previously mentioned, the Presbyterians, has gone
still further than the other two in that its Board of Home Missions has established an industrial department and placed it in charge of a minister, who is still a member of a trade union, the object being to encourage
better understanding between the church and the working
Through his influence Presbyterian ministers are now joining the city federations of trade unions as delegates of the local ministers' associations.
“Inasmuch as public opinion does in the ultimate analysis regulate the relation between employers and ployes these numerous evidences of an increasingly intelligent understanding of the labor problem on the part of so many influential organs of public sentiment make the year 1904 one of good omen, despite the records of its industrial controversies in this state as well as in Chicago, Fall River and other outside centers of industry.
“Until 1904 there had been for at least decade a steady growth of workingmen's trade organizations in this state, the number of which in September, 1903, was 2,583.
The largest aggregate membership recorded was only 268 short of 400,000 in the early months of 1904. At the end of Sep. tember, however, there were only 2,505 unions in the state and their total membership had declined to 391,676. The principal losses were in the metal, building, clothing, and woodworking trades and they affected nearly all the cities of the state, Buffalo being the only one of the large industrial centers to reveal a net gain.
“In that part of the report devoted to the Bureau of Factory inspection, the
commissioner says, under the heading "Complaints":
“The total number of complaints received by the bureau during the past year was 1,006. This total is exclusive of the complaints received in relation to the eight hour day and alien-labor law, which complaints are referred to elsewhere. This is a slight increase over the number (929) filed during the
The increase was due to the fact that the amendments to the child labor law became operative on October 1, 1903, and complaints relative to that subject increased about 100 per cent.
“Of the 1,006 complaints received 54 per cent were fully sustained, 3 per cent partially sustained while a fraction less than 40 per cent, were not sustained, and less than 4 per cent of the complaints were against concerns that were either closed at time of inspection or had removed.
“The principal subjects relating to which complaints
filed were sanitation of buildings and safety appliances, illegal employment of children, illegal employment of and minors, tenement work and bakeries. Out of 104 complaints relating to bakeries 67 were sustained.
“We again repeat what last year, that effective administration of corrective legisl ition cannot be secured without recourse to the courts, and that the proceedings be made as public as circumstances and conditions will permit, thereby supplementing punitive action with the moral effect of publicity'.
“During 1904 the bureau undertook the prosecution of 49 cases, of which 25 resulted in conviction (aggregate amount of fines imposed being $630) while 24 were either dismissed by the police magistrates or acquitted after trial. We feel it unnecessary to repeat in full what was written last year regarding the result of our court proceedings in certain
sections of the state. It is however, a lamentable fact that so · little attention is given our cases by those who are clothed with the power of making effective every
The social side of our organization is one of which a variety of opinions is expressed. The remark is sometimes made by members who do not go very deep into the matter or consider it from all of its standpoints, that they are not in favor of using money which may have accumulated in the treasury for purposes of entertainment, and express doubts as to the advisability of social functions at which employer and employe shall meet on a level to indulge in generosities toward one another while enjoying the good things of earth.
But it would seem as though this is rather a narrow view to take of this particular phase of an existence.
It is customary among all secret organizations, whether social, charitable, benevolent, or working along labor lines, to indulge occasionally in some form of social relaxation, and those of our Order who are also members of the Freemasons, Odd Fellows, K. P.'s, or, in fact belonging to any organization of the kind will, we think, bear us out in saying that a great deal of good is accomplished by these fraternal merry-makings. It may be argued that those in the purely fraternal or benevolent field are justified in efforts of this kind, and that one end and aim of their existence is to furnish at times wholesome entertainment for their members and families; while we on the other hand, being simply a business proposition, must attend to the working out of labor problems only and saving for that purpose our financial strength against a time of need. In reply we
would say that in all ages of man it has been customary to supplement the efforts of statesmen, diplomats, financiers, political workers, and in fact any one doing in a large way, for the common weal in a carefully considered appeal to the social as well as the æsthetic side of the situation. It is a common saying among those in the political field that the avenue patronage, power and favors lies through the stomach, as well as by appeal to the higher senses; and the foundation of many important moves in the history of the world has been laid where choice viands and vintages tempted the appetite; where, in brilliantly lighted apartments, amid perfume of flowers and strains of music, fair woman lent her seductive presence to charm away the senses of the obdurate and obtain concessions which in the glare of daylight and under ordinary business conditions could never have been negotiated. Let it not be inferred from this that our Order or any of the Divisions thereof have any ulterior designs upon the financial strongholds of our country, or that they contemplate bringing any undue influence to bear upon the powers that be; but if those who are disposed to belittle the social side of our Order could have been witnesses to scenes which have occurred in the history of our organization, when those high in authority, from the venerable president of one of our great railway systems to the least of his subordinates, joined hands with members of our Order around the festive board, and
where assurances of confidence, regard and mutual esteem were in evidence, they could not in all fairness have said, “This is all in vain.” We can hardly overestimate the advantages which may result from these gatherings, where those of high administrative ability are brought so closely in contact with those in subordinate positions, even if we do not make an immediate financial gain, it shows both parties both sides of life and therefore the human sidc—that the difference is one of condition only and not fundamental. If the members of our Order are so sordid as to weigh all of our conditions in a monetary scale, what shall we say of the chances for increased mentality and the quickening of our moral perceptions?
But bringing the subject nearer home and speaking of our mutual relations previous to the advent of our Order with its valuable satellite, the Ladies' Auxiliary, the conductors as a whole were far from being a social entity. The intermingling of families was on a very small scale indeed, and it was the rule rather than the exception that on many a system of road the feminine majority—and a large majority, toc-were almost entirely unacquainted and had never met even as strangers. This is now all changed, and thanks to the many
elements which have been set in motion, all may have a chance to extend their acquaintance and broaden their field of vision and activity. This in itself has proved a boon to many a conductor's wife who, owing to circumstances, has moved in rather a small orbit, and into whose life many a pang of lonesomeness and regret have cast their shadow.
Let us take a broad view of these matters. The thrifty side is of course to be considered, and the member who advises economy and stands for retrenchment is to be commended in the abstract; but looking at the main chance" let us see to it that we do not lose in one way more than we gain in another. There are
two sides to the shield, as the knights of old discovered. These social gatherings break in upon the ordinary humdrum of life in a very agreeable way; many delightful quaintances are made at such times; the opportunities have a tendency to broaden both mentally and morally, and under such circumstances who will say that a financial loss is not a spiritual gain? We have talents entrusted to our keeping which must be used to keep from rusting Let them appreciate-grow; for the time is coming when render an account of our stewardship.
THE NEW EDUCATION.
By O. LEONARD, in "Maxwell's Talisman."
The world lives by eternal growth. Nations come and go; institutions are born, develop and die. What is good today will be bad to-morrow. This is the everlasting law of life. Change, ever and anon! The state changes.
The church has undergone and undergoes changes. Morality is not what it was. All our institutions put on new mantles and keep up with the march of time. Education is not exempt from this law of life and of progress.
There was a time when to handle an ax, a spade or a hoe was considered a disgrace for an “educated” man. A
distinct line was drawn between the man of learning and the laborer. To know Greek and Latin was more important than to sow seed. And the man who knew all about the celestial bodies and could recite Virgil and Homer in the original did not know how to drive a nail in the wall to hang up his hat.
On the other hand, there was a man whose eyes were blind to letters and whose mind was enveloped in darkness. He could do everything but brain. He could work, pray, and kneel before lords of heaven and lords of earth, he could fight battles for his mas
ters, he could make chains for himself, but he could not think. Such was the contrast.
It is to our shame and sorrow, however, that this condition is not a thing of the past.
Our big colleges and universities still turn out men and women unable to perform an honest day's labor, because an abnormal development has been foisted upon them. We still handle our boys and girls as if they were either all head or all hands. Instead of strengthening their bodies by useful labor and thus stimulating their brains to a healthful development, we cram their brains and arrest the natural growth of the body. Or we send them for a long day's work to the mine, shop or factory, and thus by overwork of the body we stupefy their brain.
What is the result of this abnormal condition. We have degenerates instead of normal men and women. We have two castes, one of poor, ignorant laborers and one of feeble “intellectuals," both equally unfit to do real good work in the world. Work becomes drudgery if it is not fully understood by the workers, To be enjoyed, work must be done intelligently. But how can an ignorant man perform his task intelligently. Let a man understand the law of mechanics and physics; let him know something about chemistry, and he will have a glimpse into the law of cause and effect. As a result we will have workers absorbed in their work; men interested in the revolutions of the wheel, and ever watchful over the wonderful laws of nature. Mind and body will work together and the outcome will be a beautiful harmony.
It is the same with the bookworm. He hears all about chemical combinations, about wheels turning this or that way, he knows all about the changes the seed undergoes after it is placed in the soil, but he misses the real poetry of all this because he does not take an active part in these processes.
Add to the miracles of nature your share of labor and you have found the fountain of real joy. Health will follow naturally because out of joy comes health.
Get the man of books away from the study table and you will give his poor overworked brain a much-needed rest. Put a shovel in his hands and his underworked body will be on the road to “Wel ille.” After a few hours of manual labor the brain will be ready for work, and much better work than before. Spinoza, Ruskin, William Morris, Tolstoi and many others have proved this.
Every one knows that there is such a thing in the world as overwork. Is there not also such a thing as “overthought”? And is not "overthought" just as bad overwork? Nature does not tolerate one-sided development. Her principles symmetry and harmony, and live up to them or else suffer. There is, however, one advantage in suffering, we learn by it, and just because suffering is contrary to happiness we always try to eliminate the causes of our suffering. Of course it takes a long time to get acquainted with these causes, but we get the knowledge little by little.
It took long centuries of experience to find out that freedom of thought is essential to progress and to happiness. Some people have not learned the lesson yet. And has everybody learned that man ought to be higher than a calf, even though the calf be made of glittering gold? They will learn it yet. Essential principles of life are learned some time, else the world would not be where it is, and so, with all due respect to Latin and Greek, Sanscrit and Hebrew, and with all due consideration for those who found nothing better than to grapple with these ghosts, we began to change our ideas as to the importance of the dead languages. We put a little more of the practical in the text-books, but, of course, this was not all the reform education needed. The beginning was made; the best is yet to come, and it is coming
on the threshold of a epoch in education. He who will write a complete history of education will have to call this “The Era of Rational Education” or the “Era of Industrial Education." Everywhere we hear com
plaints against the old system of cramming. The electic system begins to be adopted by nearly every school and university. In every part of the country industrial schools spring up.
Editorials and books are written on the subject, leagues are formed and conventions assemble to further the idea of this new education.
Like every newly discovered truth, it comes to more than one man at the same time. Booker Washington saw in it the salvation of his race, and years afterward the whites began to see in it the salvation of the world. For, indeed, industrial education has great elements of world salvation in it. It teaches the dignity, necessity and desirability of labor. It is the kind of education that does not divorce the son from his father, the brother from his sister, and the man from his fellow men. It is the education that makes men and women more independent He who
his bread by the sweat of his brow does not
to be a hypocritical preacher, fraudulent statesman or lying editor. For bread, nearly all men will cheat and lie, because self-preservation is the first law of life, and by teaching a man to earn his bread, you give him the possibility of being honest.
Men and women have felt this, experience has taught them this lesson and they wanted to give others the benefit of their sad experience. They were eager
the coming generations the troubles their ancestors went through.
So we see industrial schools coming into view. In a small New England village Edward P. Pressey quietly lays the foundation of such a school. Ruskin University and Leclaire
College are founded. The paths of these schools are not strewn with roses. The pupils who come do not all understand the spirit of these schools. The greater part of them come because they are desirous of an education, and being unable to get it in any other way, must work for it. But they work now in order to escape work later. This failure on the part of students to understand the spirit of the schools makes it so much harder for the teachers and for the promoters of the new
education. Like any other great movement, it finds men and women ready to pioneer the cause, and these, like
any other pioneers, have to contend with hardships and disadvantages. But in pioneering a cause men and women are not held back by hardships. idea takes possession of a man he will leave father and mother, turn his back on sham honors, riches will not lure him, nothing will be able to stand in his way toward realizing his ideal. So with all the hardships endured by the promoters of industrial education, the idea grows. Though to laugh and scoff at new ideas seems to be the business of all generations, new ideas will constantly be born and live to be realized. Industrial education, in the cradle now, will grow into manhood, and those who live long enough will yet see it universally adopted.
The Great African Cataract.
Since the success of “harnessing Nia gara” to dynamos eight or ten years ago scores of schemes for utilizing water power in similar manner have been carried into effect in America, Europe, and Asia. Nowhere, as yet, has the work been conducted on so grand a scale because the cataract in the outlet of Lake
Erie is practically without an equal in the world. One of the very few exceptions is found in British South Africa; and it freshly illustrates the far-reaching influence of the example set by American engineers and capitalists to be told that there, too, a plant of the same character is likely to be installed in the near future.