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it an air of what may be called primary tain sense a duty--not only to oneself worth. That is to say, land values are if without dependences for in the natural essentially non-reducable-land will not course of time, if no provision for the take unto itself wings and fly away, and future is made, the poorhouse or there is always an air of stability and other charitable institution will be the intrinsic worth about it which does not last home, and in which case one is beobtain in most other forms of invest ing cared for by people whom he never
And while we would not inti benefited in the least. Most people mate that it only takes muscle to run a count such an ending in life as among farm successfully, we yet believe that a the most regretable of all ways of ending man who has spent his robust manhood, this earthly sojourn. or the best years of his life, can yet "get However, in a more far-reaching, wider an acre and live on it” with a great deal and deeper sense do we consider the manof satisfaction, comfort and profit. It
date of save as being incumbent on railcertainly does not take much book
(And we wish to be under"larnin” to “tickle” the soil between stood as being perfectly well aware of the rows of corn or around the other the fact that the line of demarkation bevegetables, with a hoe, and there are a tween saving and stinginess, or between few localities in our country where, with economy and waste, is as well defined only moderate effort, a man
can raise as between day and night.) When we from the soil a good wholesome liv contemplate the vast amount of money
-cash-paid to the railway employés of We are constrained to believe that this country every month, and of the among railway managers and owners years this has been going on, and of the of today that these outward manifesta vast residue that might have resulted tions are indicative of an inward desire from this had a liberal economy been —that they are the promptings of hu practiced, we incline strongly to the bemanitarianism and show a growing be lief that not only might a goodly number lief in an universal brotherhood. Many of the railways of the United States be a man may be perfectly willing or even now virtually owned by the employés, anxious to save if the way to do so but many of the vexed questions which safely were shown to him; but seemingly have and are engaging the attention of the safety of investments is so difficult the very brightest minds and deepest to find out and often those which are thinkers would never have come up, or supposed to have every appearance of possibly would have arisen in a very being perfectly solid and reliable, turn much modified and less intricate form. out to be terribly the reverse, that it is Nor do we believe but what the future small wonder that men lose confidence is just as tense, holds potentialities and in almost every sort of offering in that possibilities more far-reaching and imline and so fall into the habit of “spend portant than the past, and the economiing as they go" or of knowing how much cal hand of labor has but to reach out they are worth by counting what is in and grasp with firm hold a share of the pocket. Truly, saving is in no uncer prosperity that is to come.
WORK OF THE CIVIC FEDERATION.
looked upon the widely-expressed belief, at the time with suspicion, or as utopian; subsethat the late Senator Hanna was playing quent history has also proved this view
or at lest manifesting his great to be erroneous. Its aims and intentions interest in the Civic Federation claims, are no longer doubted, but are subjects for an ulterior, or not genuine pur of general national commendation and pose. Indeed the claims and purposes confidence. Indeed, the intent of the
Civic Federation may be regarded in labor, and those other representatives some sense as a counter action or irri- of what we may call the great public, tant of the National Manufacturers' As
President Eliot of Harvard, sociation. This latter association was Archbishop Ireland and others. Mr. quite active when the Civic Federation August Belmont, who was chosen presiwas started, and has since grown and dent of the Federation, has recentiy flourished until it seems it has borne its come into a good deal of public notice fruitage (whatever that is) and is cer- in connection with the troubles with emtainly not proceeding with the velocity ployés of the Subway, and in the settleit once had. Indeed, two wings of the ment of which no fault has been found, Association have seemingly been evolved, with him. His remarks at the Federaone of which, the conservative, veers tion dinner were manly and to the point, strongly toward Civic Federation ideals, promising in brief language, but with or away from the very radical wing of evident sincerity, to use his best endeavthe movement.
ors and efforts for the work of the Civic The work of the Civic Federation has Federation and for the promotion of been and is one of deeper significance the principles for which it stands. We than a mere present settlement of differ- know that the Federation numbers ences of wages in any particular direc- among its membership some of the very tion; it aims to discover some foundation best friends of trade-unionism-men on which can be built industrial peace. like Colonel Kilburn, Mr. Robbins and The concensus of opinion among its mem- others, who believe with President bers seems now to that this can best Roosevelt when he points out the fact be conserved in this country by a form that “under our system of State and known as the 'trade agreement,' under Federal Government, it belongs chiefly which employers and employed meet di- with the States to deal with labor probrectly through their accredited repre- lems and conditions. Nevertheless the sentatives and make their proposals, Federal Government can in many ways try to understand one another's point set a good example of intelligent regard of view, learn to recognize one another's for the advancement of the interests of fundamental rights, and then settle by wage-workers. The general usefulness 'give and take' those practical ques- of trade-unionism is recognized among tions which are matters of bargaining men employed in the government serrather than of conscience or conviction.” vice, but such unions must not interfere It is a well-known fact that when the with the equal rights of other public emopposing forces of capital and labor ployés who do not choose to join private agree to
come together and submit and voluntary organizations." We their differences to each other “face to know that the Federal Government has face" it is a pretty sure harbinger of an opportunity to deal with questions peaceable settlement. Or, as one of the relating to labor upon the most apnoted labor-leaders puts it, “it is better proved and enlightened plans, and thus for employer and employed to get to- to set an example which may have ingether and talk a week than for them fluence upon State legislatures in dealing to fight by means of strike or lockout with similar questions. It is to be hoped for a year.” This, as we understand it, that the Civic Federation will take the has been and is the aim of the Civic 'hint conveyed in these wise words and Federation, and it is certainly interesting let its influence be felt in those State and cheering to see how heartily the legislatures where men prominent in its leaders of labor and the representatives councils are regarded as being those of capital, in this recent public-spirited whose convictions could be wisely folorganization, have come to esteem and lowed. It seems a natural thing also respect one another.
that legislation of this character should In the recent public meeting of the originate in State Legislatures rather Civic Federation we see the mighty cap- than be left wholly to the National Contains of industry, the noted leaders of gress, because of the fact that the former
body is nearer the people and its members are supposed to be in closer touch and know more of the needs of those whom they represent. The great doctrine of brotherhood in which most of the members of the Civic Federation believe may seem to some utopian and unreal, and while, as the able editor of the American Review of Reviews states, “it is perfectly true that lofty generalizations will not settle the hard workaday problems that men meet in the carrying on of their business affairs and while it is doubtless true, as John Mitchell holds, that for the present, in matters industrial, the best safeguard for peace may lie in the ability to fight-the man who does not see how valuable it is to establish kindly personal relations, and to cultivate a love of justice and a sense of mutual regard, is a man not only of low conscience, but of narrow and meager mental development. There remain some heads of great corporations and some large employers of labor in this country who regard with distrust, and even with abhorrence, the leaders of organized labor; yet no impartial judge at the Civic Federation dinner would have assigned to the labor leaders any lower rank, either in character or capacity than the capitalists and financiers who sat at the same table with them, or the numerous representatives of the press, the church and the university. Undoubtedly, in directness and force, the labor leaders were better public speakers than any of the other elements that made up the body. The great object of our American society, whether political or industrial, is to promote the general welfare and advance the good.
We did not begin with classes in this country, and we must not end with classes.
We must not cease to believe in the right education of every child, and we must make it a constant object of public policy to remove so far as possible the obstacles that would interfere with the moral and intellectual as well as the industrial advancement of every
workingman's family, whether in town or in country. And to a gratifying extent we are making progress toward this ideal. Vast as are becoming the fortunes of many individuals through their control of productive forces, the excessive centralization of wealth in few hands is more than counterbalanced by the growth, on the other hand, of diffused comfort and, above all, by the growth of the general intelligence. One of the greatest of all the benefits that the organization of labor has bestowed has been its training of men to think, reason, read, speak effectively in debate, and act together under the rule of the majority. Thus unionism becomes a part of the training of men for the duties of American citizenship, and for activity in all the relationships of a country like ours. One of the incidental evils of unionism in some foreign countries is its tendency to fix men as members of a class in their entire attitude toward the life about them. The freedom of conditions in America should in the future as in the past act as a corrective against this crystalization of men into classes. It is theoretically possible that the workers themselves may be, to a very large extent, stockholders in a corporation from which they derive their wages, and that thus, by a process of economic evolution, the men may actually become the capitalists, with no sharp opposing line of difference between the administrative organization on the one hand and the operative or working organization the other. Everything that adds to the intelligence and skill of the worker will increase his productive capacity and his earning power. With his training for politics under our American system, the worker may be reasonably certain that in due time the laws of the country will not in any manner operate to his detriment."
These are wise words, and we look earnestly forward to the future actions of the Civic Federation, believing it will fulfill the high expectations of the public, the employers and the employed.
A STUDY OF THE IMMIGRATION PROBLEM. Broadly speaking, the questions en- lems the Bureau of Immigration entering into the problem of immigration counters are those connected with the may be placed under two general heads- Alien Contract Labor and the Chinese
First, those legislative or mechanical Exclusion Laws. These difficulties arise restrictions, rules and regulations enter- chiefly, as Mr. Sargent says, from the ing into the policy of admission of aliens fact that " as a rule, both those who reinto this country; and,
sort to alien labor and the alien la borers Second, those questions involving our themselves are of exceptional mental treatment of them after they are here. acuteness, and the former, however high
The questions touching the admission their repute in the community where of aliens have changed materially since they reside for probity, exhibit that immigration first started—then the de- same abtuseness of moral perception sire was for numbers, which desire has which finds expression in the widelylong since ceased as a potential influence prevalent notion, even among some of on this side of the water. And still our worthiest and wealthiest citizens, within certain limitations this desire that it is rather a credit than otherwise should even now have attractions, as no to outwit a Federal officer and escape good reason can be urged against the the payment of duties on property conadmission of honest, independent aliens. fessedly dutiable." And “these alien The fear, expressed in certain direc- labor contractors seem to think the law tions, of an over-density of population, rather an edict of organized labor than is not a valid one, or one which the a statute of our National Government." logic of events, past, present, or probably The question involved in the Greek bootfuture, will cause any legitimate fear. blacking cases give the Bureau much For, admitting the alien increase to be trouble and are really nothing but exone million a year (it is not quite that amples of peonage or slavery. These much), it will be seen that it would take boot-blacking booths are found in almost about eighty years to double the popu- every city in the United States. Those lation of the United States, and it is not immigrants who are refused admission necessary to state that this country can to our country on personal grounds form support a population of much more than quite a large additional trouble for the two hundred millions and then not be Bureau; they are classified as idiots, particularly crowded.
insane persons, paupers, or likely to beGranted, then, that healthy immi- come public charges, with loathsome gration is desirable, we are confronted or dangerous contagious diseases, conwith the difficulties of keeping out the victs, polygamists, anarchists, prostiundesirable. In his very excellent and tutes, and assisted immigrants. In lookvaluable annual report for the fiscal ing over this list it is easily seen how year ending June 30, 1904, Mr. Frank
great the inducement is for the nations P. Sargent has entered into the details of the world to be rid of such representaand minutia of the whole problem of tives. This desire together with the admission of aliens, very exhaustively. constant reach of the transportation It seems as if he has covered the whole companies for business, entails constant question, entering into the mechanical watchfulness upon the Bureau officials, features more minutely than has ever with ofttimes a large admixture of symbeen done before. During the fiscal pathy for the unfortunate ones and year ending June 30, 1904, there landed with just disgust and provocation on our shores 812,870 aliens, of whom toward the officers of the transabout 300,000 were females, and we be- portation companies. For other nations lieve this is about the general average to get rid of their undesirable population
may be a natural inclination, but in Probably the two most difficult prob- reality it is as far from right for a
nation to do so as it would be for an during the six weeks of summer when individual to do such a thing.
open. Lively work The second part of the immigration then, but plenty of time to eat them problem, that of our treatment of aliens dried and frozen through the rest of after having been admitted, is a field the year,' is the most sympathetic comthat has either been much neglected or ment he has yet received upon an exshunned by those whose lifework, in a perience which at least to him held the large sense, has been the development bittersweet of martyrdom.” of the human family. Truly this is a It is easily seen how a lack of sympavery intricate and far-reaching question thy in this direction and seeming infor the general government to study difference of the blessings of liberty we and worthy the best thought and largest enjoy, tends to confuse the minds of heartedness of our people. For the most the foreigner in both directions, and part these aliens neither know our lan which may easily lead his mind into ways guage nor do they have the remotest and thoughts contrary to a proper evoidea or conception of the duties and re lution of his future understanding of sponsibilities of citizenship in a free citizenship. As showing this lack of country; nevertheless they possess traits tutellage and adaptability of the alien of character and integrity of physique to mingle his former life in the great which might be assimilated with similar stream of our national life, there comes qualities in our people to the lasting a story from New York that is patheticgood of future generations. It certainly hideous, perhaps-of a young Russian would not be an unwise determination Jewess who was employed as a stenogon part of our scholars to study this rapher in one of the offices downtown, alien population in all its various quali where she became engaged to be marties—its spirituality, its hopes and aspir ried to a young man of Jewish-American ations--and to ascertain its relation parentage. She no doubt felt keenly ship in its new environments to that the difference between him and her it left in its former home. Not all are newly emigrated parents, and on the ignorant, but many are much
night when he was to be presented to learned in the arts and sciences than the them she went home early to make average of those who make up the popu every possible preparation for his comlace with which they will mingle. So it ing. Her efforts to make the menage seems as if our sociological economists presentable were so discouraging, the do not consider the standard of life of whole situation filled her with such.chathe aliens from the standpoint of the grin, that an hour before his expected alien. They fail to impress upon his arrival she ended her own life. The mind the ideas of his former life and ex explanation of her act
that, alistence in a way that might lead up to though the father was a Talmud scholar a desire in him to conform and imbibe of standing in his native Russian town, of the spirit of freedom of this his adop and the lover was a clerk of very superted country, and show him that it is a ficial attainment, she possessed freedom which carries with it an amount standard by which to judge the two of individual responsibility to which he men. has never before been subjected and in She neither understood nor realized the which the chief source of his freedom great difference in favor of her father's must develop He should be taught probably profound attainments and the that while his former habit was that smattering of current attainments of of doing the will of someone else, his her lover, and this lack of standard future actions must in large measure be can be charged to the whole community; evolved from a sense of inherent recti for why should we expect an untrained tude of the action itself and as it bears girl to be able to do for herself what the on the corresponding rights of others. community so pitifully fails to accomIt seems we often, or perhaps constantly,
plish? And herein is the aid of the fail to impress upon the alien mind the scholar invoked and neglect of the volunesteem and sacredness with which we tarily assumed obligations of the governprize the privileges of individual and col ment condemned. As to the tangible lective liberty which we enjoy, and as beauty and worth to be derived from illustrating the point the story goes that a close, patient, and scholarly study
a Russian in Chicago, who used to of the deeper and more spiritual side believe Americans cared first and fore of the immigrant problem, Miss Jane most for political liberty and would cer. Addams has to say this: “As scholartainly admire those who had suffered ship in the first half of the nineteenth in its cause, finds no one interested in century saved literature from a futile his story of six years' banishment be romanticism and transformed its entire yond the Antarctic circle, and is really method by the perception that “the listened to only when he tells to human is not of necessity the cultivated; sportsman the tale of the fish he caught the human is the widespread, the ancient