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its real or imputed virtues are omitted. In the conduct of the articles, the botanical descriptions are very generally fuller in the London edition ; though in each, the Linnæan names are mentioned : in this too they are longer, sometimes on account of the more diffuse style, sometimes occasioned by additional information. In this last respect, the articles of columba, colchicum, dolichos pruriens, cenanthe crocata,' and some others, are more valuable : those on the pulsatilla,' the • quassia,' and the ricinus,' are, we think, less satisfactory, though farther extended.

The value of the Edinburgh edition is greatly increased by the chemical and pharmaceutical essays in the introduction, extracted from Dr. Webster's Syllabus : in this view it is unrivalled. The additions to Dr. Lewis are very numerous, and highly important. The chemical part iş new, accurate, and satisfactory. One or two typographical errors of some consequence have, however, been overlooked ; and two passages are marked with inverted commas, as new, though really co. pied from Lewis. These are trivial imperfections. The des fcriptions of the new furnaces, and the new table of elective attractions are very valuable; but they would require a plate to enable us to describe them.

From the new articles of the materia medica we can select no fpecimen ; for they are very generally compiled from works pretty well known, and, except in one or two instances, are not very important: it would not have been difficult to have rendered them more useful. We ought, however, to add, that, though on old subjects, the account of the bark and opium, in the Edinburgh edition, are new. The botanical discoveries relating to the first, and the additional knowledge we have acquired of the last, since we have been less afraid of it, seem to require a new compilation. We must be allowed to with, that the materia medica, in both works, had been fuller in the number of articles; and that the editors had not been confined by the limits of either college.

We shall select no specimen even from the part which wc have said is almost wholly new; since its great merit consists in the very clear concise manner, in which subjects, well known to the chemist, are detailed ; and we have little room for compilations, even of the greatest merit. On the whole, after having made a careful comparison of these two works, we must recommend the Edinburgh edition, as the most useful companion and instructor. We cannot give it a higher character than to observe, that, in the present itate of science, it is, what the original work was, at the time of its first appear,



A Key to the Mystery of the Revelation : whereby all its dark

Meanings, being reduced to one regular System, are easily aco

counted for, and explained. 8vo. 45. in Boards. Goldsmith. N°

O object of theological disquisition feems to have been

more fertile of keys, comments, and expositions, than the Revelation of St. John. And indeed the mysterious nature of its contents, and those delivered in a style of the utmost folemnity and grandeur, afford a very natural and proper subject of enquiry to those divines, who have learning and leisure to pursue it. But whoever fits down with an intention of explaining the whole of this ænigmatical book, will probably miscarry in many points. Sir Isaac Newton fays, that

among the interpreters of the last age, there is scarce one of note, who hath not made fome discovery worth knowing, but that our greatest obligations are owing to three particularly, Mede, Vitringa, and Daubuz.' But neither fir Isaac, nor, we fuppose, any rational divine, has adopted all their solutions or conjectures. The learned bishop of Bristol, whose Illustrations of the Apocalypse deserve no mean share of credit among those of the present times, observes that to explain it perfectly, is not the work of one man, or of one age; and probably that it will never all be clearly understood, till it is all fulfilled.' Whoever undertakes to develope its mysteries with wisdom, fobriety, and reverence, will probably contij. bute some new light for our guidance, and merit the thanks of the serious part of mankind.

The anonymous author of the present publication tells us, in his introduction, that he flatters himself he is poffefied of the happy clue, which, he adds, was many years ago accidentally discovered to a friend. It is no more, he informs us, than the simple hint of considering these mysteries as a regular series of ecclefiaftical events, from the beginning to the end of time, but yet variously expressed, agreeably to the seven parts into which shey seem naturally to be divided.' The author gives us to understand, that he has found, from many years experience, the great efficacy of this Key, or manner of explanation now offered to the public; and that it is astonishing to see such a heap of seemingly wild and jarring matters, so easily yielding themselves to order and arrangement, by so simple a means. We were led, by this declaration, to expect more satisfaction than we can confefs ourselves to have found. The scheme it, self is, however, far froin wanting ingenuity; but its fimplie city, which the author probably thinks its first recommendation, we are inclined to regard as its principal defect. A key, too simply contructed, cannot be applied with success to VOLI LXI. Feb. 1786.



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wards of a lock very intricately formed. But the author, without doubt, having conceived ideas very different from our own, of the machine he meant to open, lays just claim to approbation, for his fincere and earneit endeavours to effect a very laudable purpose.

After all, we are candid enough to allow, this method may carry conviction to other minds; and if it should not, that at leait those discoveries which it has produced, may be of great use to other learned men who shall consider the fame subject; and, united with preceding efforts, and the fullness of time, may contribute no contemptible share to the complete ecclairciílement of this august mystery. We, therefore, with this performance may

fall into the hands of all such as are able and disposed to pay due attention to the subject,

Whatever the Protestant churches abroad, or those of the diffenters at home, may think of this author's scheme in general, we are apt to bolieve his idea of restraining what relates to Philadelphia, in the prophetic vision, fo partially to the church of England, will appear, in their judgment, to want liberality, and perhaps draw upon him the imputation of bi. gotry; a charge from which, on this account, we cannot imagine him to stand entirely clear, even within the pale of his own church.

The comparison of the seven golden candlesticks in the Revelation, with the candlestick of Mofes, consisting of a stem or shaft, and fix branches, is ingeniously supported. Our readers may not be displeased to see the pasiage, which we fhall lay before them, with a previous paragraph introducing the subject. There is on one of the letter-press pages a draught representing the candlestic of Moses, our omislion of which, we do not apprehend, will create any difficulty to the attentive reader.

• The first thing to be considered in the above vision must be the representation of the seven golden candlesticks. In the midst of these was seen walking a glorious appearance of Chrift, cloathed in all the pomp of majesty, as the great eternal high-priest of his people, both able and willing to avenge them of their enemies, and establish them in perfect peace and glory. These candlesticks are the seven periods or divisions of the church, and are made use of as a proper representation of religion, which is a strong burning light, illuminating the dark gloomy minds of erring mortals, and directing them in the way of endless peace and felicity.

• In order the better to illustrate the meaning of these candlesticks, we must compare them with that made by Moses, according to the express command of God. Though these are


represented as standing separate, and that of Moses as being only one; yet, upon a proper comparison, it will be found to have the same typical meaning and tendency, and to be explanatory of many particular terms used in these mysteries. The candlestick of Moses was to be made, with its several apurtenances, of a talent of pure gold, in the following manner. The middle part of it was the main fhaft, or item ; from which proceeded fix branches, three branches from one side, and three branches from the other side. The two lowermost, extending opposite to each other, were in a manner united by a knop, formed in that part of the shaft of the candlestick from whence they proceeded, directly under their connexion. Two more branches proceeded in the same manner above them, and two more still above these. Every one of these several branches had lamps fixed to their extremities, and on the top of the middle stem was likewise fixed a lamp.

The two lowermost branches, connected together with a knop, may fignify the two several periods of the church beny fore the law, here called the churches of Ephesus and Smyrna. The two other branches above them may represent the two churches under the law, called Pergamos, and Thyatira, and the two uppermost branches express the two Christian churches, called Sardis and Philadelphia. The middle item, being as it were the parent of these branches, is the third Christian church, called here the church of Laodicea, and in other places of Scripture, the Great Church, as being that into which all the nations in the world will bring their glory and honour, as the prophets have every where loudly súng. We may now see the propriety of Christ's walking in the midst of the seven candlesticks, he giving life and existence to them all, and, like the shaft of Moses's candlestick, bearing and supporting all the rest. Thus we see, likewise, the unity of our most holy religion, which, with its several branches, forms one glorious system, that will blaze and flourish to the end of time,'

The metaphorical words blaze and flourish, at the conelafion, are not happily, indeed not properly, connected.

The Book of the Revelation of Saint John the Divine explained;

In an historical View of the past and present State of the Chriftian World compared with the prophetic Visions. By Thomas

Vivian, Vicar of Cornwood, Devon. 8vo. 25. 63. Dilly. AFTER the state of doubt and uncertainty in which we

were left by the performance last reviewed, we were prepared to receive, without discontent, a much flighter degree



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of satisfaction from the perusal of the present work on the fame difficult subject, than we gratefully acknowledge it has given us.

This explanation evinces its author to possess no ordinary share of abilities, either natural or acquired; and he appears to have conducted his important undertaking in the true spirit of a Christian divine. Judgement, candour, and moderation, accompanied by a discerning and temperate spirit of conjecture, seem jealously to have watched his footsteps through the sacred labyrinth, and to have enabled him, from extensive reading and erudition, to form a more successful clue than perhaps any preceding adventurer. It gives' us pleasure to see this work, as its dedication announces, under the patronage of the author's diocesan, the bishop of Exeter. Its intrinsic merit, though it may not need such a recommendation, at least deserves the credit it will be thought to derive from this circumstance.

Mr. Vivian divides his exposition into seven chapters, which are preceded by a short introduction, shewing the design of the facred book, and the importance of the subject; and are followed by ample annotations, equally instructive and entertaining.

The plan of the work will be sufficiently conveyed to our readers by the heads of the several chapters, which are as follow.

Chap. I. Containing the Seven Epifties to the Seven Churches of Afia, under the Inspection of St. John ; in which are Directions, Reproofs, and Consolations, fuited to their different States.—Chap. II. Containing under Seven Seals, opened one after another, the prophetical History of the primitive, pure, and rising Church of Christ : a Period, extending from the Delivery of the Prophecy to the Reign of Conftantine, about Two Hundred and Forty Years.-Chap. III. Containing the Hiftory of the Christian Church, now delivered from the persecuting Pagan Emperors, but departed from the Simplicity of the Gospel. This Period extending from Conftantine, and not yet compleated, is described under Seven Trumpets.- Chap. IV. Exhibiting a permanent View of the internal State of the Christian Church, during the Period of the Seven Trumpets. Here the Contests between the and more corrupt Parts are described under Seven Contempo.

As this Part differs from the rest of the Book, it is distinguished by the Title of The Little Book.-Chap. V. Of the Seven Vials to be poured out hereafter on the apoitate Part of the Christian Church, and putting an End to the



rary Visions.

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