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maid is preserved at length: a little ironical archness is, however, too conspicuous; and the ancient virgin will, probably, look at it with no little distrutt, respecting the intentions of the author.
The latt volume concludes with a dream, and a sermon. The author supposes that he is appointed paftor to a secluded society of the filterhood. Hie rejoices in the lot, and introduces the sermon, which, in his sleeping state, he delivered to this venerable audience. But,
It is not Homer nods, but we that dream. We may, indeed, alledge, that few waking discourses are more strong, animated, and pathetic. This sermon will not fail, if compared with the most forcible and excellent, with the most tender and affecting scenes which the pen of Sterne ever traced. The text relates to Jephtha's daughter, who
went with her companions, and bewailed her virginity.' We shall select the following paffage, which is, in our opi. nion, highly interesting and pathetic.
• Shall we say to this folitary virgin, bewail not your condition ; for, if you are a good Christian, you should be happy?" no! we will not addrets her rhus; and ihame on those ill-instructed ministers of Christ, who insult the wretched with such abrupt and unfeeling admonition! it is our duty to penetrate; with infinuating tenderness, into the painful receffes of a fuffering spirit. Let us gently search into the natural train of chought, which deprefies the unfortunate virgin, and pursue that line of confolation, which the present turn of her owa mind may effectnally fuggelt ! - By what is she depressed ? by the contrast, which memory presents to her, between the gay festivity of her early days, and the neglect and solitude to which the is now reduced; by the comparison, which imagination fuggesis to her, berween her own desolate condition, and the different deiliny of those female companions of her youth, who were so fortunate as to marry. Let us follow this clue, and it mey y enable us to lead the dejected sufferer from the labyrinthe of perplexed and gloomy thoughts into light and peace! Let us first indulge and humour the melancholy of her spirit ! let us allow the seeming severity of her lot! let us say to her,
you have, indeed, been unjustly overlooked by men, who have pitched upon companions lels attractive, and have hared their wealth and fplendour with partners far less deserving but, before you eliimate their fupposed felicity, examine the real ftate of those a fociates of your youth, whom marriage has placed in a condition to different from your own! let us try the firit.- She is a woman of rank, of opulence, of gaiety; but her innocence was undermined by the fupposed constituents of her visionary happiness; and your heart is too pure to envy even pleasures debased by infamy or loaded with remorse.'
• Let us proceed to a second.Behold a woman whom na ture and education has rendered a lovely compound of. vivacity and virtue! me was wedded to the man of her choic',
with the fanction of her delighted parents. The figure, the reputation, and the fortune of her husband, made her the envy of all her fair single friends: but alas! could they have read her dettiny, she would have excited only compassion; for the foon found, that the pleasing manners, the enchanting talents, and the bright semblance of integrity, in the man whom she tond. ly thought all perfection, covered a mind corrupted by licentious pleasure, and a heart that could only counterfeit, for a very short period, all the generous characteristics of genuine love. His pallion was extinguished by a few weeks poffeffion; and the then experienced, in return for real and anxious affection, mortifying neglect, contemptuous farcasm, and perpetual infidelity: His vices foon produced their natural effect, the ruin of his fortune, his temper, and his health. Haunted by every painful recollection, he now vainly tries to drown, in deeper intemperance, all ideas of his misery; while the innocent and still lovely victim of his various crimes, surrounded by indigent and delerted children, looks up to those, her former companions, who have remained unmarried, as the moft enviable of human beings.
• But to let us pass on to a third, and a much happier ex- , ample of married life.--Here, indeed, as you truly observe, here we find every circumstance of character and condition, that is juftly entitled to the name of fortunate.
In this person we may behold the beloved wife of an affectionate and a sensible husband; the healthy and opulent mother of a numerous and lovely offspring. She has a heart and spirit to relish happiness, and she is surrounded by every thing that is likely to give and to increase it. Her condition is, in truth, opposite to that of the elderly, indigent, and folitary maiden.-But let us take a nearer view of this fortanate personage ! let us visit the man. fion of felicity !--where is the gaiety that should surround it? good Heavens! what evil has befallen it?--all is disorder and diftreis.mischance has happened to one of the young and favourite branches of this nourishing house.-it is the cry of the diftracted mother over her darling, torn from her by a calamitous death.--let us re:ire! for her we cannot comfort!-her grief can be alleviated only by that Almighty power, who has permitted it to be inflicted. But we have received our lesson in the piercing found of her distress. A fingle thriek of the mother, on the expiration of her child, ought to drown for ever all the petty murmuring of maidenly discontent.'
On the whole, we have feldom seen such varied scenes of entertainment, in any one work: let no one exclaim against the ancient virgins, as gloomy, four, and unsocial; for if he hould ever feel in their society an effect benumbing as that of the torpedo,' and gloomy as that occasioned by the interior aspect of the cave of Trophonius, let him turn to their histosian and panegyrist, and he will be again restored to mirth, chearfulness, and society.
Animadverfiones Philologicæ in nonnulla Corani Loca. Accedunt,
Illustrationes in V. T. ex Arabismo, necnon Perfismo deprompta. Pro Specimine edidit R. Antonius Vievra, LL. B. ac L. L. Hisp. et Ital. P. Reg. in Col. S. Ș. et Ind. Trin. Dublin. 410.
il. is, in Boards. Robinson. SINCE our more intimate connections with the East com.
menced, the Oriental languages are no longer the ornament of the scholar only, nor are they confined to the illustration of the sacred writings : they direct the politician, by explaining the languages of treaties ; they open the treasures of eastern learning, and are essential even in the counting-house. Of these languages, the Arabic is the principium & fons;' and, of the Arabic, the Coran is the purest and most copious source, The extent of territory occupied by the followers of Mohammed, the zeal of the Mussulmen, which leads them, on the most common occasions, to employ the phrases of their sacred writings, and the real elegance of the work dictated, in a great degree, by their prophet, render it the moit useful book for the direction of the learner's ftudies, and the faireft object for the criticisms of the commentator. Our author, who wishes to assist a measure in agitation in the university of Dublin, viz. the establishment of a professorship of Oriental languages, has published the Animadverfiones,' and some Etymological Enquiries, as specimens of the great utility of the eastern, particularly the Arabian and Persian languages, This volume may be considered, in its present state, as imperfect : indeed it is announced only as a specimen; but it displays the acuteness, the judgment, and the erudition of the author. The Oriental languages are now become a necessary part in a fyflem of education, and every institution fhould comprehend this branch of philology: M. Vieyra seems well qualified to assist so beneficial a design.
The remarks on the Coran are the first in this work; and we hall give some specimens of our author's execution in this branch. We shall select those passages which are more gene. rally interesting, and more easily understood. As the Dedication and Preface belong rather to the etymological part of the work, we shall give some account of them, previous to our obfervations on it. All the Animadversiones are indeed philological; and, in many refpects, etymological.
COM. 58: Urbem. Ex voce hac Arab. quæ eft in textu, kariat fc. i. e. urbs, pagus, villa, derivantur voces quirites, i.e. cives, necnon quirinus, i. e. rex urbis; quamvis utriusque vocis etymon Romanos fcriptores latuerit, ut ait cl. Gebelin. Hinc pariter dignoscitur prima pars Punicæ vocis, fc, Cartag urbem
Carthaginenfem fignificantis. Verum non una eft opinio de altera voce ag sc. totam vocem Cartag cum priore kart constituente. Antequam vero opinionem meam proferam fequentia libet in anteceffum afferre. In numis Carthaginenfibus videre eft cqui caput generofæ indolis, egregie infculptum, et juxta Palma arbor est, cum dactylis in ramis. Cæterum hoc equi caput in numis Carthaginensibus insculptum videtur in memoriam illius, quod e terra eruerant, cum prima urbis fundamenta jacerent; idque poftea in omen verfum. Justinus ex Trogo, 1. xviij. ait : Ibi quoque caput equi repertum, bellicofum fortemque populum fignificans, urbi auspicatam fedem dedid. Hinc Virgil, 1 Æn.
« Locus in urbe fuit media, lætiffimus umbra,
Monstrarat, caput acris equi."
" Oftentant caput effossa tellure repertum
Bellatoris equi, atque omen clamore salutant." Palma vero indicare videtur regionem, e qua profe&i venerant, Phæniciam nempe, palmis abundantem. Puto igitur vocem Cart-ag compositam effe ex Ar. Kariat et ag, quarum prima significat urbem, fecunda vero equum. Igitur ex capite equi inventi in illo loco nomen desumfit urbs Carthaginenfis ; quemadmodum ex aurifodinis nomen accepit Fela, feu Fezza, quod nomen Arabice aurum fignificat, Notandum insuper primigeniam vim vocis ag quæ equum fignificat, fitam efle in magnis tudine, Ex hac porro primitiva notione derivantur.
Lat. Equ-us, equ-es, equ-iso, aga-lo, &c. &c.
Hisp. vocis affert Aldrete, p. 46,
• Denique ex primigenia notione magnitudinis, quæ ineft primitivæ huic voci derivari existimo
We fall select another passage, on account of the remarkable affinity between the criticisms on the Coran and the New Teftament, in a very similar paffage,
• CAP. vii. Com. 41. Camelus per foramen acus. Vertendum potius puto : rudens per foramen acus, Arab. vox, quam Ma. sac. vertit, camelus, est ambigua, potestque camelum, aut ruz dentem fignificare, pro diversitate vocalium. Nam cum prima phatata, ac fecunda giesmata, eft Camelus ; fed cum prima dammata, ac fecunda phatata, eft rudens. Porro ex hac Arab, posteriori voce oriuntur
analogia major inter rudentem et filum, quod solet per foramen acus induci. Unde eft, quod Alcamus explicat
hanc vocem hic per rydentem navis. • Furtum funt hæc verba, ait Maraccius, ex Matth, xix, Verum meminisse oportebat vocem camilon in Evang. Matth. exponi per crassum rudentem, quo nautæ utuntur ad jaciendas anchoras, apud Theophylactum, Euthym. et Phavosin. Fruftra interim suspicatur Drufius, eos non scripfiffe Çamilon, sed Cabilon, ut Græca vox conveniat cum Belgica Cabel. Nam opus non erat græcam vocem cudere, unde Belgica oriretur; cum Hebræi, Arabes, &c. funem nauticum chebel, vel chabal vocent, ex qua voce primitiva oriuntur
Lufit. Calabre, Our learned readers know that the word xxundos, in the twenty-fourth verse of the nineteenth chapter of St. Mathew, has, by some commentators, been read nauíños. Parson Adams' remark is more generally known.
" It is easier for a. bell-rope,” • which for some reasons, says he, that I am un. acquainted with, our translators have rendered - camel," &c. Kauinos occurs in Ariftophanes, and some other authors, where it means a rope ; but we know not that xaunaos has ever the fame fignification. The change is, however, very minute, though perhaps unnecessary. In the Arabic it requires the transposition of one vowel, and the change of another.
In many respects, different parts of the Old Testament may, in our author's opinion, be corrected, from a knowledge of the Arabic and Persian languages. Of this kind the following is a specimen, better adapted to illustrate the connection than the remarks defignedly adduced for this purpose.
* Satanas. Ex Arab. voce quæ eft in textu derivatur Persicum vocabulum Shitan Diabolus, qui etiam alia voce Persica, azprudè, fc. indicatur, ex qua Auxit Latina Asmodaus, necnon Græca Asmodaios, quæ in verf. Job. iii. legitur. Porro de hujus nominis etymologia variæ extant conje&uræ. Quod fi, vel