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up at the sales by unfair practices. The public loses inmensely by illicit trade in this article, no less a sum than one million seven hundred and thirty-four thousand nine hundred pounds having been paid to smugglers, which is now turned into the channel of the fair trader.

• To those who are killed in political arithmetic, the ad. vantages which must result from fo large a balance being thrown into the l'ap of this country, by fo fimple an operation, are obvious. The wonderful effect which it has contributed to produce upon the foreign exchanges, by reducing the price of gold and filver, is matter of the utmost importance and adyantage lo' the Bank of England, as well as to the public. And although the demand for our manufactures, &c. together with the general prosperity of the British empire, have also contributed thereto; yet that demand must fluctuate ; whilst the balance which this kingdom will possess, arising from the bene. ficial consequences resulting from the commutation-act, will be permanent and lasting ; if the legislature shall, on their part, adopt such measures as are calculated to secure and perpetuate the benefits so obtained; and which it is molt indubitably in their power to do.

The late rapid advance in the value of property is a subject of aftonishment with many persons; and, without ascere taining precisely the whole of the cause, there cannot be a doubt, but that two circumstances have, in a most essential manner, contributed thereto ; namely, the great influx of wealth, which has increased the number of purchasers; and the confidence, which augments daily, in the public funds, from the prospect of the taxes becoming more productive, in consequence of the suppretion of smuggling.

16. At the same time, the great and unexpected success which has attended a fingle measure, will naturally lead the true friends of the first commercial country in the world to wish to pursue the advantage fo happily obtained ; and to adopt, as a general maxim, for the whole of our commercial fyftem, the Jame principle, which has been attended, in its first application, with such great and falutary benefits to the trade, finances, public funds, and landed interest of the kingdom at large.'

The author goes on to mention other advantages, particularly in the application of the furplus of the Bengal revenue, for the purchase of tea in China, and, by that means, 'to lessen the exportation of bullion from home. He says, that the increase of the tea-trade will require forty-five additional Ships, and employment for three thousand four hundred and fifty men; which, ab/tracted from every other consideration, must make it an object of valt national concern.--He concludes by juftly observing, et

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• These advantages, which have arisen from a single operaa tion, are of fuch magnitude and importance, as to satisfy every impartial person of the beneficial consequences which must result from a general application of the fame liberal principle to the duties Aill subsisting upon various branches of the inanufactures and commerce of Great Britain.'

From this specimen, the reader will no doubt think the whole pamphlet worthy of his perusal and attention, A fert Address to the Public; containing fome Thoughts how the

National Debt may be reduced, and all Home Taxes, including Land-Tax, abolished. By William, Lord Newhaven. 8vo. 18 Debrett.

The reduction of the national debt is a problem which has exercised the ingenuity of many political writers; and, what is remarkable, on a subject so much agitated, not two of them correspond entirely in the methods proposed for the purpose. Amidst the discouragement arising from this diverfity of opi. nion, however, it is some consolation to find, that each of those public-spirited enquirers seems not to entertain any doubt with respect to the practicability of the plan suggested by himself. It always affords us particular pleasure, when, in our monthly progress, we meet with a nobleman employed in so laudable a specuiation. By this conduct, such an author not only evinces a patriotic anxiety, highly becoming his elevated rank, but fets an example to those who have leisure and opportunity for pro• secuting researches of the same kind.

The commissioners of the public accounts, in their Eleventh Report, having occasion to speak of the national debt, expressed a defire that recourse might be had to public benevolence, for discharging this enormous incumbrance. Proceeding upon a plan of a limilar kind, lord Newhaven proposes, that all the fubjects of Great Britain should pay a certain annual rate out of their real and personal property and that this sum should be faithfully applied to the liquidation of the public debt. Ad cording to the calculation which he institutes, the amount of the fum proposed to be thus levied would be so great as to difcharge the whole debt in a very few years. As a compensation . for this extraordinary advance of money, he farther proposes, that all internal taxes whatever should be abolished, after the first payment of one per cent, was made at his majeity's exchequer. His lord ship observes that, according to this scheine, no individual will pay near lo much on his rental or expenditure as he now does for taxes of every kind, and be relieved from the perpetual irritation and disquietude of tax-gatherers of every denomination.

To the plan above mentioned there naturally arises this ques tion, if the home taxes are abolished, how are the army, navy, and the various departments of the civil government to be provided for: To this his lord ship replies, that as he concludes

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explain; and how the extinction of the custom-houle duties,

foreign nations will not take off the daty on our commodities imported into their respective countries, he proposes to conti. nue the duty on goods imported, which he thinks will be nearly adequate to defray all expences, civil and military, in time of peace.

Such is the plan suggested by lord Newhaven for reducing the national debt; a plan, we must confess, not less bold and interesting in the conception, than apparently difficult of being enforced to the extent proposed by the noble author. In order to be adopted, there seems reason to think it would require an universal apprehension of danger the most imminent to the state, and such aš threatened the extinction of government. At least, it appears to be so arduous in the execution, that it could only be accomplified by unparalleled alacrity, and a general spirit of patriotism," that has sometimes, indeed, blazed forth, in war, among a people in the most desperate cireumítances, but which there is little hope of ever being kindled' by the prospect of any civil emergency, not immediately destructive of pablic freedom. The proposal, however, 'affords-a proof of his Jordship's zeal for the public interefts; and we sincerely with that his merito. rious example might excite that ardour which Icoaght to in. spire in all the true lovers of their country: t!! tbtos dr. Address to the Landed, Trading and Funded Interests of Eng

the Prefent State at Public Affairsa 'y8vo.'' is. 6à. **:Stockdales no 2017.

This author takes an extensive view of the present fate of the nation, but rather by a random excursion than with any precise and accurate enquiry. In every department which he confiders, he meets with objects which excite his apprehension. Our specíe is drainted out of the kingdom, in annual payments to foreigners, who have property in the public funds; the landed'intereft is groaning under insupportable burdens; and the national debt is accumulated to fo extreme a degree that it threaten's to become fatal. For remedying these disasters the author propofes an equal representation of ihe commons in pacliament, and a total abolition of duties at the cullom-house. The effect of the former of these measures, towards removing

the evil complained of, our author has not thought proper to while fo great a pary of the public revenue is necessary for pay ing the intereft of the national debt, should restore our polpe. rity, is a proposition which, we mur own', appears not very Coitipatible with found argument. We are inclined, however, to impute the motives of this address entirely to the author's impartial sentiments; for, though not a profound politician, he appears to be a candid writer, and to wish well to the interelts of the nation.

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'Tis all my Eye. Svo. Wilkie. This pamphlet is addressed to Archibald Macdonald, esq. on account of its relating to the police of Westminster, concerning which, a motion was made by that gentleman during the last session of parliament. The author makes some just observations on particular topics ; but he seems to be no friend to the eltablishment of a new jurisdiction ; contending, that a proper enforcement of the existing laws are sufficient for the prefervation of order. Should we admit this to be really the case, it mult follow, that the remissness of the magiftrates in the discharge of their duty deserves the severest reprehension. Collection of Aits paled in the State of Massachufetts Bay, rela

tive to the American Loyalists and their Property. 8vo. 15. Stockdale.

The wisdom and policy of these laws can be no object of attention to our readers ; and it is, therefore, sufficient for us to observe, that the work appears to be authentic.

M E DI CAL. Medical Cautions, for the Confideration of Invalids; those especially

who resort to Bath. By James Makittrick Adair, M. D. 8vo. 35. 6. in Boards. Dilly.

It is rare to see a volunteer start up from among the difcharged invalids; but our author tells us that he is independe ent of business, and a : volunteer' in some of its branches. We think, however, that he has been well employed in pub. lishing this work, which contains good sense, just reasoning, some humour, with little novelty, and a few occasional errors.

His observations on Fashionable Diseases, are acute and humorous; on the Effects of hot crowded Rooms, and noxious Air, folid and judicious. The Essay on Regimen, and the Enquiry into the Propriety of using other Remedies during a Course of Mineral Waters, contain many useful obfervations, which, with a few exceptions, we would Atrongly recommend. The Essay on Empiricism also deserves great attention ; but empiricism is now the fashion, and, like Antæus, 'will only jaile, with fresh strength, from every attempt to overthrow it, We cannot refrain from extracting the following fpirited, and, we fear, well founded censure.

• When phyficians (I do not mean quack doctors) adopt ex. traordinary modes of obtruding themselves and their wonderful abilities on the notice of the public, it would be no breach of charity to place them on the same form with noftrummongers; and the similarity is more obvious, as, in both in stances, the merits of the regular doctor and his brother quack are always-much exaggerated; whilst that public, to which the L3

appeal

appeal is made, is equally unqualified to judge of either. It is with regret, mingled with indignation, that I thus animad. vert on the conduct of such of my brethren as have juftly incurred this censure. In the preceding essay I took notice of their illiberal treatment of the Bath phyficians; and it may fairly be presumed, that they are of the number of those, whó, conscious of deficiency in personal merit, endeavour to compensate for that deficiency by cultivating, most affiduously, the good graces of apothecaries, midwives, nurses, abigails, toad-eaters, and puffing gossips, But, not contented with this indirect attack on their brethren, they generally proceed to die rect hoftilities, and by the dark and malignant infinuations of themselves or their emiffaries, endeavour to blast the reputations of all their competitors. This serious charge may, by some of my readers, be deemed incredible ; but it is not less true, Such ungentlemanly arts may reasonably be considered as truly empirical, and those who practise them as swindlers of reputation, and therefore greater peits of society than swindlers of property ; insomuch as they, in a great degree, deprive the public of the services and talents of modeft men, who are generally as much their superiors in ability as in urbanity, That I may, in fome degree, qualify the severity of this stricture, I take, with pleasure, this opportunity of dealaring, that as I consider my profeffion as a most useful and respectable Science, fo I have a moft sincere and affectionate attachment to all such of my brethren as discharge their duty with honour and in, tegrity,' When we reco

ecommended the treatise on Regimen, with some exceptions, we meant not to avoid particulars. Butter, even in a melted state, is allowed by our author; and roasted meats aro preferred to boiled. We fufpect that he is mistaken both in his reasoning and facts. There is some empyreuma always con. tracted by melting butter ; and the fat of roasted meat is often strongly empyreumatic. In these respects, both muft be injurious to invalids; but we would refer to experiment, Hectical patients are more easily and quickly affected by the leaf diforder in the stomach, the least impediment in digestion, than any others. With these we have always found melted butter and roafted meat produce a confiderable febrile exacerbation ; and of course they have been generally forbidden, A meal of Aeth meat has frequently occasioned less difturbance than melted butter with their vegetable food. Even butter, in its solid ftate, is not easily assimilated,

In the table of foods, which are arranged according to their digeftibility, we also fine some erroșs. Oysters, when fresh and small, are more easily digested than any other hell-fifh, or than any other animal food. We speak from frequent obfervation, and suspect that our author has been misled by Sanctorius and Keil." Crabs are more digeftible than lobfiers; and

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