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• In those parts of the work which relate to the origin of nations, and their manners and systems of religion, the addi. tions are too numerous to be specified. The latest discoveries and observations, from the most approved authorities, are blend. ed with the former narrative; and enlargements, equally au. thentic, have been made with respect to the geographical and hiltcrical accounts of each country.
That the work might farther merit its distinguished reputation, the maps have not only been accurately examined, and greatly improved, by the most eminent artists, but feven new plates are added, illustrating the alterations refulting from the establishment of the American states, the dismemberment of Poland, the late acquisitions of Russia, and other European powers, the discoveries in the Southern Ocean *, &c.
6 When the great number of maps, with the addition of at least one hundred pages of letter-press, and a considerable en: largement of the Index, are confidered, the proprietors may with truth assure the public, that the alteration in the price is far from being adequate to the attention, pains, and expence, which have been employed to give this work an additional claim to general notice and approbation.
This advertisement does not exaggerate the merits of the present edition, and, in some respects, leaves them undirplayed, particularly with regard to chronological, and other. fcientific improvements.
* In the account of the northern countries, we observe that due attention has been paid to Mr. Cox's judicious remarks, relative not only to the topographical state of the different nations, but their revenues, institutions, and many miscellaneous circumstances, derived from this intelligent traveller, and others of respectable authority.
In what relates to the Netherlands, we perceive that the history is enlarged ; and a perspicuous account is given of the late differences between the Dutch and the emperor of Germany.
Many enlargements are made to the narrative concerning Switzerland, and likewise to that of Spain and the Two Sicilies, froin the entertaining Travels of Mr. Swinburne.
We observe also, that the history of Spain and Portugal, which in the former editions was delivered conjunctly, is now very properly separated; and a particular account is given of the sovereigns, and all the memorable transactions in each kingdom.
• * Besides a large chart of the World, comprehending the tracks and discoveries of captain Couk, &c. the niaps of Hindoftan, China, Rusia, England, the Seven United Provinces, the Austrian, French, and Dutsh Netherlands, the British dominions in America, and of the Thirteen United States, are entirely new.'
In describing the manners and customs of the Turks in Europe and Asia, the editor has added to the narrative, fron: different sources, among which we find the respectable authorities of colonel Mance, and baron de Tott. We lhall inferti the following defeription of Conftantinople.
• Constantinople is at this day one of the finest cities in the orld by its situation and its port. The prospect from it is now: ble. The most regular part is the Beseitin, inclosed with walls and gates, where the merchants have their shops excellently ranged. In another part of the city is the Hippodrome, an oblong square of 400 paces by 200, where they exercise on horseback. The Meidan, or parade, is a large spacious square, the general refors of all ranks. On the opposite side of the porc are four towns, but considered as a part of the suburbs, their distance being fo small, a person may easily be heard on the other side. They are named Pera, Galata, Pacha, and Tophana. In Pera, the foreign ambassadors and all the Franks or ttrangers refide, not being permitted to live in the city; Galata allo is mostly inhabited by Franks and Jews, and is a place of greac trade. The city abounds with antiquities: the tomb of ConHantine the Great is ftill preserved. The mosque of St. Sophia, once a Christian church, is thought, in some respects, to exceed in grandeur and architecture St. Peter's at Rome. The city is built in a triangular form, with the Seraglio standing on a point of one of the angles, from whence there is a prospect of the delightful coast of the Leffer, Alia, which is not to be equalled. When we speak of the feraglio, we do not mean the aparțments in which the grand fignior's women are confined, as is commonly imagined, but the whole incloure of the Ottoman palace, which might well fuffice for a moderate town. The wall which furrounds the feraglio is thirty feet high, having barțlements, embrasures, and towers, in the style of ancient fortifications. There are in it nine gates, but only two of them magnificent; and from one of these, the Ottoman court takes the name of the Porte, or the Sublime Porte, in all public transactions and records. Both the magnitude and popula. tion of Conftantinople have been greatly exaggerated by credulous travellers. It is surrounded by a high and thick wall, with battlements after the Oriental manner, and towers, defepded by'a lined but shallow ditch, the works of which are doable on the land lide, The best authors think that it does nor contain above 800,000 inhabitants, three-fourths of whom are said to be Greeks and Armenians, and the rest are Jews and Turks. Others suppose the inhabitants fiot to exceed 600,000. The city hath been frequently affailed by fires, either owing to the narrowness of the streets and the struclure of the houses, or the arts of the Janizaries. In August 1784, a fire broke out in the quarter fituate towards the harbour, and spread into other quarters, and“ about 10,000 houses (most of which had been rebuilt since the fire in 1782) were consumed.'
Amidst the enlargements made by the editor, he has not been inattentive to Palestine, that country which must always be held in particular veneration by every Christian reader. We thall only transcribe the following paflage.
• Under the government of Sheik Daher, the ally of the famous.
Ali Bey, some part of Paleitine revived. He enlarged the buildings and walls of St. John de Acre, formerly Ptolemais, and thewed great indulgence to the Christians. Its in. habitants were lately computed at 40,000. Caifa, which stands on the declivity of Mount Carmel, distant about 20 miles from Acre, was also new built and enlarged by Daher. The ancient Joppa, now Jaffa, 50 miles west from Jerusalem, stands on a rocky hill, hath an harbour for small vessels, and its eircumference is about two miles. The number of inhabitants is 7000;: the western part of the town is inhabited by Christians. The present state of Ramah is deplorable, its walls in decay, and most of the houses empty, though the number of inhabitants is still between 3 and 4000. Not a house is standing of the once magnificent city of Cefarea, but the remains of the walls teftify its former grandeur. Azotus is about two miles in cir. cumference, the inhabitants are near 3000, and mostly Mahometans: an old structure is thewn here, with fine marble pil. Jars, which is said to be the house that Sampson pulled down, when insulted by the Philistines. Gaza is itill respectable, it extends from eait to west three miles, and is a mile in breadth, divided into the old and new town. The last is inhabited by the inferior Turks and Arabs': the number of the inhabitants is reckoned to be 26,003. It is about five miles from the fea; and outside the town is a market for the country people to dispose of their commodities to the inhabitants, for they are not permitted to enter the town. The country around is very fertile, but its chief produce is corn, oil, wine, honey, bees-wax, Hax, and cotton.'
Additions are made to the account of Hindoftan, relative to its divisions under different princes and rajahs, its government, inhabitants, religion, and customs. These subjects had formerly not been treated with sufficient precision, and, from our increasing connection with that country, they become daily more interesting to British readers. Additional accounts of Egypt, and its chief cities, are likewise introduced, and the late revolutions in that country are distinctly related.
In the account of America, equal attention is observable. In particular, we meet with an accurate description of the remaining British provinces in that quarter, with those now depominated the United States,
With regard to the discoveries of the late circumnavigators, many pages are added to the former description of the islands in the South Pacific Ocean, and the researches which have
been made in the western parts of North America. The cira cumstances are selected with judgment, and afford a comprehensive view of those numerous acquisitions lately made to geographical knowlege.
We observe large additions in what relates to the history of the British empire, accompanied with a detail of the important transactions which preceded and followed the last general peace - The state of the East India company, now so closely connected with the most essential interests of the nation, is a subject which merits
attention. The editor has accord. ingly given a distinct account of their possessions and trade, and of the late act of parliament for the regulation of the company's affairs,
So numerous are the improvements which have been made in the present edition of this valuable work, rendered ftill more worthy of the public favour, by the maps with which it is now enriched, in a separate volume. We must, therefore, acknowledge it to be the most comprehensive, and most useful system, of the kind, that has hitherto appeared.
The Hiftory of Wales, in Nine Books: With an Appendix. By
the Rev. William Warrington. 4to. il. is. in Boards. Johnson. T commencing the review of this work, we are naturally
led to a comparison of nations in a state of civilization and barbarism. It is the glorious privilege of the former not only to flourish in the arts of peace, but to confer superior lustre on the warlike atchievements of their own people; while the latter are destined to live in rude obscurity, and, perhaps, to sink into oblivion. The fate of the Welsh refembles, in some measure, that of the ancient nations, which became successively a prey to the irresistible inundation of the Greek and Roman power. They fought for their liberties with a perseverance, which affords unquestionable proof of their valour ; but the history of their wars being chiefly transmitted by the conquerors, there is reason to think that the narrative is not only written with partiality, but must often be. deficient with respect to true information.
Considering the extraordinary attachment of the Welsh to the renown of their ancestors, it may juftly appear surprising, that no native of that country has ever yet attempted a regu. lar hiitory of the nation. But of a composition of this nature their language afforded no example ; and while the valiant exploits of their progenitors were celebrated in the songs of Vol. LXI. Feb. 1786.
their bards, they were little folicitous for that fame which could hat faintly strike the imagination through the medium of inanimated records. They may now, however, congratulate their country, that a writer has arisen, with a genius very different from that of the monk of Llancarvan, and traced the various fortunes of the ancient Britons, not only with a'. dignity suitable to historical composition, but with such a degree of liberal sympathy, as, had he not thought proper
to inform us he is an Englilman, we might have entertained an opinion that he derived his descent from ancient Cambria.
The reverend author sets out with a review of the Britiih history before the retreat of the Romans from this country; and, in the second bock, continues the subject from this. epoch to the period when the ancient Britons were driven into Wales, Cornwall, and Armorica. · He justly observes, that the most obvious defect in the national character of the Britons was a negligence in establishing a naval poiver ; thougly experience, and the nature of their situation, pointed out the propriety of this measure, as the only effećtual means of contending with the Saxons, and of counteracting their designs.
The third Book contains an Account of the Wars between the Saxons and Welih, to the Donth of Roderic the Great. About the commencement of this epoch, towards the end of the fixth century, Cambria took the name of Wales, and the inhabitants ceased to be denominated Britons, by which title they had been hitherto distinguished. But their former leverity of fortune, Mr. Warrington observes, continued to purfue this brave people in their last asylum, as the conquet of this barren domain became the object of ambition and policy to the Saxen and Norman princes. In this pericd of the British biflory, Cadwalader attords an example of that fuperiitious weakness, which has actuated a few other princes, even since the decline of the dark ages.
• Efter residing some time in the court of Bretaigne, says the historian, Cadwalader prepared to return into Wales; baving heard that the famine and pestilence had ceased, and that the Saxons, with increasing power, were endeavouring to extend their conguests. With this view he collected an army, composed of his own subjects and his allies the Bretons, with a suitable fleet to transport thein across the channel. In such a fituation, a magnanir ous prince would either have rescued his country from its danger, or would have buried himself in its ruins. But just at the time that Cadwalader was going to em. bark, he was warned in a vision, which he fancied to be a fudden impulse from heaven, which directed him to lay alide the cares of the world, and go immediately to Rome, to receive holy orders from the hands of the pope. This illusion, the