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Apoftacy, This Period will not begin till the Seventh Trumpet sounds, and will probably end at the same Time as the Visions of the Little Book, about the Year 2000.~Chap. VI, Of the Millenium, or the Reign of Christ during the Seventh Millenary of the World, or from the Year 2000 to 3000. After which follows the Resurrection and last Judgment.-Chap. VII. The Glory and Happiness of Heaven, to continue for. ever.- The Conclusion.'
As a Specimen of the author's style, which we think excels in point of perspicuity and neatness, we fubjoin his seventyfourth annotation on the concluding verse of the Apocalypse; it being difficult, within our limits, to detach such a portion of the text as would, by itself, be clear and intelligible; befides that we are warmly disposed to recommend the whole to the serious perusal and attention of the public.
• Be with you all, Amen.] On looking back on the visions in this Book, and comparing them with the History of the Chriftian church, one Reflection seems very natural. Let us suppose that St. John had as clear a view of the events that were to befal the church, when he wrote this book, as we have now by the records of history. Let us fuppose that he knew the Christians would be persecuted for the two next centuries, and then gain an establishment under the Christian emperors; together with all the circumstances attending these facts, which we now read in the annals of those times. Let us suppose that he knew perfectly the ravages of the northern nations; the religion of Mahomet, enforced by arms; and the devaftations of the Turks. Let us suppose that he knew that a Christian bishop Mould rise to such a degree of power as to be the tyrant of the church, a promoter of idolatry and various superstitious'ceremonies, and a persecuter of them that adhered to the word of God. In a word, let us suppose that he knew as much of the then future history of the church as we know now. Let us farther suppose that he meant to describe all he knew, under a series of prophetic vifions, and that with so much clearness as to convince an attentive reader, that he really had such a knowledge of future events, given him by God, for wife purposes.
Now, supposing all, this, it may be asked, could he have executed his design more effectually, and with greater beauty and propriety, than is done in this book :
. For objects in vision, expressive of future events, he would naturally have recourse to the history of the Old Testament, and the circumstances of Jewish worship: for this language had already been adopted by the old prophets, and by the
Christian teachers. He would represent conquerors by warhorses ; a destroying enemy by locusts, a burning mountain, or the sea and rivers bloody: the agency of invisible spirits, by Michael the tutelar angel of Judea ; or by a ferpent or dragon, when he would express the invisible enemies of God's people. As the Jewish church was known by the name Daughter of Zion, it would be natural to signify the Christian church also by a woman; in whom the dress and other circumstances would be expreflive either of its purity or corruption; a state of perfecution, or worldly prosperity. The active members both of the pure and the corrupt church, would naturally be styled prophets; these being the chief directors of old, both in the pure church at Jerusalem, and in the idolatrous part that worshipped the golden calves at Bethel.
In a word, were a Jew converted to Christianity to de' fcribe, in prophetic language, the future history of the Christian church, made know to him 'by Revelation, it would probably be juft such a composition as this of St. John. The visions would follow in the same order of time as the events were to happen ; as is really the case, according to the account given of the book in this exposition : a circumstance in which it differs from all the expofitions known to the author.
• And as different actions done at the same time must be related separately, in order to distinguish visions representing contemporary events, from those that described such events as were to follow one another in point of time; this difference might be pointed out by placing the contemporary visions in a separate part, or Little Book.
? This would probably be the case, fuppofing the writer, to have a distinct view of future events, and to be left to himself to describe them in visions and prophetic language. But in fact the case was somewhat different. The writer seems really to have seen the visions which he describes, fome on the land, some on the sea, others in the air or heaven, while he was in Patmos. And we cannot conceive any visions better suited to express the events. He described what he saw, and probably might not know himself all that was meant thereby. For he seems to have written all he knew, except in the case of the Seven Thunders, in the tenth chapter, where he was forbidden to write what he heard. Neither this nor any other prophecy is of private suggestion, proceeding from a man's own will or imagination ; but holy men of old fpake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost : searching what manner of things and times the spirit that was in them did fignify.
Thus considered, the Revelation has in itself evident proofs of its divine authority. Indeed this, and some other parts of Scripture, that fortel things lately fulfilled, or now fulfilling, have, with respect to us, an increasing evidence of their authority. For when we see events in such a variety of instances corresponding to descriptions, which we know were written many ages before the events happened, and there being not one vision but what admits a fair application (except those which from their place in the book, and other circumstances, are judged to foretel events not yet come to pass) we find ourselves obliged to own, that no man could write this book unless God was with him.'
A View of the great Events of the Seventh Plague, or Period,
when the Mystery of God shall be finished. Rev. X. 7. By
Robert Ingram, A. M. 8vo. 3d. Robinson. TH HE leading idea of this pamphlet is, that the mystery of
God, under the seventh trumpet, shall owe its accomplishment to the conversion of the Jews. "The Jews, says the author, when they are converted and restored again to their own land, out of an abhorrence of themselves for their late crime, (Ezek. xxxvi. 21.) and to obliterate it as much as possible, and that they may even outdo the Gentiles on this occasion, will be more remarkably zealous and diligent than ever any people were before, in converting all nations to the Christian faith. This active and zealous fpirit will, accord. ing to the author, excite against them hatred, perfecutions, and wars, on the part
of the princes and potentates of the world, who will look upon them as forming conspiracies to overthrow their ancient establishments of civil, as well as religious polity. The cruel treatment they must experience in consequence of this jealousy and hardness of heart, will drive them from one nation and people to another, till at length they shall have carried the light of the Christian revelation to every part of the earth.: Those nations or indivia duals who, after all overtures for their conversion, thall remain obdurate, and turn a deaf ear to the voice of divine truth, as well as that grand corrupter of it, the church of Rome, who shall refuse to be reformed, will at length, though probably at periods of time fomewhat successive, draw down that vengeance of the Almighty, represented to St. John, by the seventh angel pouring out his vial into the air, when there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, it is done. And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such
as was not since men were upon the earth ; and the great city was divided into three parts ; and the cities of the nations, and great Babylon, came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath, &c. Rev, xvi. 17, 18, 19.
There appears little novelty in Mr. Ingram's View of the Seventh Plague, except his idea of its being brought down on the unconverted and unreformed part of the world, in conse. quence of their persecutions of the enlightened Jews, and their rejection of the Gospel at the hands of these zealous proíelytes. This idea is fupported on no improbable interpre. tation of several texts adduced by the author, both from the Old and New Testament.
Mr. Ingram considers this performance as completing and adding confirmation to An Explanation of the Seven laf Plagues, which he lately offered to the Public.
Letters concerning Education : addressed to a Gentleman entering
at the University. By Peter Williams, M. A. Chaplain of
Christ-Church College, Oxford. 8vo. 45. Rivington. A Young man, juft set free from the restraints of the earlier
scenes of education, and entering at the university, warm with all the vivid affections of that blooming feason of life, exulting in his consciousness of new enlargement and liberty, is not a little obliged to any fincere and intelligent monitor who may offer him advice at this most critical period. His fu. ture character, happiness, and eitimation in the world, will ever greatly depend on, if they be not generally fixed by his conduct during this itage of his education. The Letters before us are meant, and indeed appear well calculated, not only to direct the first outset, but to regulate each progresive Itep from his entrance on the academic walk to its termination on the con. fines of a perilous world. .
Our author does not profess to amuse his correspondent with novelties, to suggest any unheard-of plans of study, or recommend any change in academic discipline or cuftoms, (we accuse him of no want of respect for the established modes), but his chief design is to advertise the young student of every thing that will be required of him in the course of his studies, and to encourage his literary pursuits, and the performance of all his duties, by friendly and affectionate admonition. The author has made a frequent, but discreet use of the thoughts of Bacon, Milton, Locke, Harris, Monboddo, and other writers on learning and education, and he has been profuse in his quotations from the ancient Greek and Latin classics, al
mcft to a degree of pedantry ; unless we suppose, what perhaps in candour we ought, that, as all these paffages are untranslated, they were meant to give some exercise to his young correspondent, and, now they are published, to other readers in the same situation. These passages are selected with judgment, and are generally such as the classic scholar cannot but receive with prepoffeffion, and consequently with advantage to the author's probable intention. We do not advance the flight intimation we have given of the want of originality in these Letters, with the least tone of cynical fastidiousness; for the earneftness, good sense, knowlege, and perfpicuity, with which they are written, must claim our un feigned approbation.
To give our readers a general idea of this performance, we shall transcribe the table of contents.
• Of the Importance of making a good Use of one's Time when at the University; and of the Nature of this Correspondence.-Of having a correct Tafte in Matters of little Moment, Of what depends on the Choice of Company; and of using Oneself, in Time, to make Observations on Men and Manners, -Of regulating the Passions. Of entering upon a Course of Study. Of Perseverance and Regularity in useful Studies. Of Reading, considered in a general Way.-of studying Mathematics. Of studying the Classics.-Une Bagatelle. Some General Observations on the Greek Tongue, and of studying it.-An Effay on the Prepositions of the Greek.-Acursory View of the Revolutions of ancient Literature.–Some general Ob. servations on the Latin Tongue.- Of attending the public Lectures in experimental Philosophy, &c.--Of ftudying Logic. -Of employing leisure Hours.--Some historieal Account of Logic; with some Remarks upon Aristotle. Of taking Care of one's Health.-Of studying History. Of ftudying Rhetoric and Eloquence.-Some Account of ancient Oratory; and of those who made the greatest Figure in it.-A Sketch of a Country Curate's Manner of living. Some general Hints respecting polite Behaviour. The same, respecting moral Behaviour. The Story of Antonio.--Of ftudying Poetry.--Some historical Account of the Greek and Latin Poetry.-Of studying Ethics. --Recapitulation.--Some general Hints about it udying Divi. nity.'
The following extract from Letter IV. on the subject of the Paffions, will give no disadvantageous impression of the author's style, and mode of thinking.
• As long as man retains any thing that is decent and rational about him, he can never doubt of the wisdom and propriety of being able to regulate his paffions: the question is, whether and how this can be effected. That it can be effected, there remains not the least shadow of doubt. III, indeed, would man