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country from which they travelled: but it is most The Leopard is much inferior in size to the tiger, probable that they were Gentile Philosophers, who, by and differs from that animal in the marks upon its the Divine influence on their minds, had been led to skin, which take the form of roses or rings, made up improve their knowledge of nature, as the means of of a number of spots, which are very thickly scattered leading them to that of the one living and true God. over the whole of the upper part of the body, legs, From passages in the Sacred Writings, we may conclude and tail ; its rapacity is also less, and it very rarely that the word Magi denotes those who were proficients
in learning, and especially in astronomy, and other branches of natural philosophy: and it is reasonable to suppose, that these wise men had heard the prophecies concerning the Messiah from the Jews who lived upon their borders. They watched, therefore, with attention, for the tokens of his coming, and followed the sign given them, to do him homage, thus becoming the first representatives of the Gentile world. With regard to the country from which they came,
Grotius and other writers think that it was Arabia, which is often in Scripture called the East, and was famous for gold, frankincense, and myrrh ; of which, we learn, they brought portions, as offerings to Him whom they recognised as a king. It is customary, even at this day, in Eastern countries, for people to offer some present to any illustrious person whom they visit, as a mark of respect to a superior.
The Old CUSTOM OF DRAWING KING AND QUEEN
ON TWELFTH Night.
SELDEN (in his Table Talk) says, “Our choosing The Leopard.
Kings and Queens on Twelfth Night has reference to attacks mankind. Great confusion existed among the three Kings." To explain this, we must observe naturalists as to the proper mode of distinguishing that the Magi, or wise men, who followed the guidance this animal from the Panther; in the latter, however, of the star, after the Nativity, to Bethlehem, were, by the markings are always in the form of spots, but a common, but not well-founded notion, supposed to the different species of each are not easily ascertained, be three kings : and some fanciful persons went so as the marks on the skin differ so much in those that far, as not only to invent names for them, but to deare known to be of the same kind, and even on both scribe their persons. “Of these Magi, or Sages, sides of the same individual.
(vulgarly called the Three Kings of Colen,) the first, The Leopard is frequently met with in Asia; named Melchior, an aged man, with a long beard, but in Africa it abounds, and is very destructive, offered gold; the second, Jasper, a beardless youth, committing dreadful havoc among camels, horses, offered frankincense; the third, Baltasar, a black, or antelopes, goats, sheep, and other domestic animals. moor, with a large spreading beard, offered inyrth."
Frequenting the banks of rivers, it takes its prey In consequence of this strange conceit, therefore, by surprise, either lurking in thickets, from which it of the wise men having been kings, and from an idea darts when it approaches within a convenient dis- of doing them honour, the ancient custom of choosing tance, or creeping on the belly till it reaches its King and Queen on Twelfth Night is thought to victim : it climbs trees in pursuit of monkeys and have taken its rise. This choice was formerly made smaller animals with ease. Travellers relate that the by means of a bean, found in a piece of divided cake, flesh is of an excellent flavour, and white as veal. the person who happened to select it being the King The negroes take the Leopard in pit-falls for the of the Bean. It appears to have been very common sake of the flesh, as well as for the skins, which latter in France; and among the Cries of Paris, a poem, sell at a very high price. Collars, bracelets, and
Collars, bracelets, and written about six hundred years since *, beans for other ornaments, composed of the teeth of the Leo- Twelfth Day are mentioned. pard, also constitute an article of finery in the dress We also find, from some verses of the time of of the negro women, and are esteemed valuable as Queen Elizabeth, that the Twelfth-cake was made charms to prevent the power
with plenty of plums, and with a Bean and a Pea. The chief food of the larger beasts of prey is the Whoever got the former, was to be King; whoever antelope, of which there are upwards of forty varieties found the latter, was to be Queen. known in Africa alone.
In Queen Elizabeth's progresses through the coun
try, she was entertained with poems, speeches, &c., at TWELFTH DAY.
the houses which she visited. The following is part of a Which is so called from its being the twelfth after dialogue, recited at Sudley, on one of these occasions : Christmas-day, is termed also the feast of the Epi- (Melibæus). Cut the cake: who hath the beane shall be phany, from a Greek word signifying manifestation, in King; and where the peaze is, shee shal be Queene. memory of our Lord's having been on that day made (Nisa). I have the peaze, and must be Queeno. manifest to the Gentiles.
(Mel). I the beane, and King; I must commaunde. The customs observed on this day, in different And in a poem, of somewhat later date, called TWELFE countries, were originally intended to do honour to the
Night, or KING AND QUEENE, we have, Eastern Magi, or wise men, who came from a distance
Now, now, the mirth comes, under the guidance of a star, to inquire after Christ,
With the cake full of plums,
Where Beane's the King of the sport here; and, having been directed to Bethlehem, paid him
Beside, we must know, homage, and offered him presents there. Various
The Pea also have been the conjectures of the learned, relating to
Must revell as Queene in the court here, &c. these sages, both as to their station, and the particular |
* BRAND's Popular Antiquities.
THE PEARL-FISHERY IN CEYLON. accidental deposit or extravasation of the liquor The country round Aripo, on the north-western coast secreted by the animal, in the gradual enlargement of of the island of Ceylon, is flat, sandy, and barren, its shell,-very small in the first instance, but in : presenting nothing to the eye, but low brushwood.creased by successive layers of pearly matter. chiefly of thorns and prickly pears (amongst which is the plant that nourishes the Cochineal *), and here and there some straggling villages with a few cocoanut trees. But Condaachty, three miles distant, where, in general, nothing is to be seen but a few miserable huts, and a sandy desert, becomes, during the period of the pearl-fishery, a populous town, several streets of which extend upwards of a mile in length (though, as the houses are only intended as a shelter from the sun and rain, they are very rudely constructed), and the scene, altogether, resembles a crowded fair on the grandest scale. The people most active in erecting huts and speculating in the various branches of merchandise, are Mohammedans, Cingalese (natives of Ceylon), and Hindoos from the opposite coast of the continent of India. Apparently, however, from their natural timidity, none of the Cingalese are
Inner view, showing the Pearls. divers, and scarcely any of them engage in the other Sometimes the English government of Ceylon active parts of the fishery: they merely resort hither fishes the banks entirely at its own risk; sometimes, for the purpose of supplying the markets.
the boats are let to many speculators : but, most freAbout the end of October, in the year preceding a quently, the right of fishing is sold to one individual, pearl-fishery, when a short interval of fine weather who sub-lets boats to others. The fishery for the seaprevails, an examination of the banks takes place. A son of the year 1804, was let by government to an certain number of boats, under an English superin- individual for no less a sum than 120,0001. tendent, repair in a body to each bank, and having, At the beginning of March, the fishery commenced, by frequent diving, ascertained its situation, they take and upwards of two hundred and fifty boats were emfrom one to two thousand oysters as a specimen. ployed in the fishery alone. These, with their crews The shells are opened, and if the pearls collected and divers, and completely equipped with every thing from a thousand oysters be worth three pounds ster- necessary to conduct the business of the fishing, come ling, a good fishery may be expected. The“ banks," from different parts of the coast of Coromandel. After
going through various ablutions and incantations, and other superstitious ceremonies, the occupants of these boats embark at 'midnight, guided by pilots, and as soon as they reach the banks, they cast anchor, and wait the dawn of day.
At about seven in the morning, when the rays of the sun begin to emit some degree of warmth, the diving commences. A kind of open scaffolding, formed of oars and other pieces of wood, is projected from each side of the boat, and from it the divingtackle is suspended, with three stones on one side, and two on the other. The diving-stone hangs from an oar by a light rope and slip knot, and descends about five feet into the water. It is a stone of fiftysix pounds weight, of a sugar-loaf shape. The rope
passes through a hole in the top of the stone, above Meleagrina Margaritifera.
which a strong loop is formed, resembling a stirrupor beds of oysters, are scattered over a space in the iron, to receive the foot of the diver. The diver wears gulph of Manaar, extending thirty miles from north to no clothes, except a slip of calico round his loins, south, and twenty-four from east to west. There are swimming in the water, he takes hold of the rope, and fourteen beds (not all, however, productive), of which puts one foot into the loop or stirrup, on the top of the largest is ten miles long, and two broad. The the stone. He remains in this upright position for a depth of water is from three to fifteen fathoms. little while, supporting himself by the motion of one
The pearl-oysters in these banks are all of one arm. Then a basket, formed of a wooden hoop and species t, and of the same form : in shape not very net-work, suspended by a rope, is thrown into the unlike our common English oyster,—but consider water to him, and in it he places his other foot. Both ably larger, being from eight to ten inches in circum- the ropes of the stone and the basket he holds for a ference. The body of the animal is white, fleshy, and little while in one hand. When he feels himself proglutinous : the inside of the shell (the real “ mother perly prepared and ready to go down, he grasps his of pearl,") is even brighter and more beautiful than nostrils with one hand, to prevent the water from the pearl itself: the outside smooth and dark-coloured. rushing in ; with the other gives a sudden pull to the The pearls are most commonly contained in the running-knot suspending the stone, and instantly thickest, and most fleshy part of the oyster. A single descends: the remainder of the rope fixed to the oyster will frequently contain several pearls, and one basket is thrown into the water after him, at the is on record, as having produced one hundred and
same moment: the rope attached to the stone is in fifty. The pearl itself is probably the result of some such a position as to follow him of itself. As soon The insect from which our most beautiful scarlet dyes are pre- from the stone, which is immediately drawn up, and
as he touches the bottom, he disentangles his foot pared. + The Meleagrina Margaritifera of Lamarck.
suspended again to the projecting oar in the same
manner as before, to be in readiness for the next diver. Pearls have been considered as valuable ornaments The diver, arrived at the bottom of the sea, throws from the earliest times : they are mentioned in the himself as much as possible upon his face, and col- book of Job (xxviii
. 18), and are often alluded to by lects every thing he can get hold of into the basket. the classical writers. There have been various atWhen he is ready to ascend, he gives a jerk to the tempts made to imitate them successfully, one of the rope, and the persons in the boat, who hold the other must singular of which,-known to have been pracend of it, haul it up as speedily as possible. The tised early in the Christian æra, on the banks of the diver at the same time, free of every incumbrance, Red Sea,—is still carried on in China. A hole is bored warps up by the rope, and always gets above water a in the shell of the pearl-oyster, a piece of iron-wire considerable time before the basket. He presently inserted, and the oyster restored to its place : the comes up at a distance from the boat, and swims animal, wounded by the point of the wire, deposits about, or takes hold of an oar or a rope, until his turn a coat of pearly matter round it: this gradually comes to descend again ; but he seldom comes into hardens, successive layers are added, till a pearl of the boat, until the labour of the day is over. When the requisite size is formed, and the shell is once a young diver is training to the business, he descends more brought to land. in the arms of a man completely experienced in the False pearls are made of hollow glass globules, the art, who takes great care of him, and shows him the inside of which is covered with a liquid, called pearlmanner of proceeding, and the pupil at first brings up essence, and then filled with white wax. This liquid in his hand a single oyster, a stone, or a little sand, is composed of the silver-coloured particles, which merely to show that he has reached the bottom. The adhere to the scales of the Bleak (Ablette), and was length of time during which the divers remain under first applied to this purpose early in the last century water, is rarely much more than a minute and a half; by a Frenchman of the name of Jacquin. yet in this short period, in a ground richly clothed In the year 1761, Linnæus discovered the art by with oysters, an expert diver will often put as many which the muscles which are found in many of our as one hundred and fifty into his basket. There are rivers might be made to produce pearls ; but we two divers attached to each stone, so that they go believe it has never been made public. The muscles down alternately: the one rests and refreshes, while found in the river Conway, in Wales, and in some of the other plunges. The men, after diving, generally the rivers of Scotland, have not unfrequently produced find a small quantity of blood issue from their nose large and fine-coloured pearls.
F. E. P. and ears, which they consider as a favourable symp
[Abridged from Cordiner's History of Ceylon.] tom, and perform the operation with greater comfort after the bleeding has commenced. They seem to
THE EVENING CLOUD. enjoy the labour as a pleasant pastime, and never
A cloud lay cradled near the setting sun, murmur or complain, unless when the banks contain
A gleam of crimson tinged its braided snow, a scarcity of oysters, though their labours are conti Long had I watch'd the glory moving on nued for six hours.
O'er the still radiance of the lake below; When the day is sufficiently advanced, the head Tranquil its spirit seem'd, and floated slow, pilot makes a signal, and the fleet set sail for the shore.
E'en in its very motion there was rest, All descriptions of people hasten to the water's edge
While every breath of eve that chanced to blow
Wafted the traveller to the beauteous west ;to welcome their return, and the crowd, stir, and noise
Emblem, methought, of the departed soul, are then immense. Every boat comes to its own To whose white robe the gleam of bliss is given, station, and the oysters are carried into certain paved And, by the breath of mercy, made to roll, enclosures on the sea-shore, where they are allowed Right onward to the golden gates of heaven; to remain in heaps (of course, well guarded) for ten
Where, to the eye of faith, it peaceful lies, days, that time being necessary to render them
And tells to man his glorious destinies. putrid. When the oysters are sufficiently decayed, they are thrown into a large vessel filled with salt
ON SURNAMES. water, and left there for twelve hours to soften their The names which were at first given to men seem to putrid substance. The oysters are then taken up, have had a relation either to some remarkable quality one by one, the shells broken from one another, and by which an individual might be distinguished, or to washed in the water. Those shells which have pearls some particular circumstance in his history. Although adhering to them are thrown on one side, and after there be many names, of the meaning of which all wards handed to clippers, whose business it is to dis trace has been lost, yet it is by no means probable engage the pearls from the shells, with pincers. that any senseless sound was ever applied as a desig.
When all the shells are thrown out, the slimy sub- nation to man. Of this we have so many examples stance of the oysters remains, mixed with sand and in sacred and profane history, that we may draw this broken fragments of shells, at the bottom of the conclusion from analogy, as well as probability. Thus vessel. The dirty water is lifted out in buckets, and the word Adam, in the Hebrew language, signifies poured into a sack made like a jelly-bag, so that no earth, and was given to the parent of mankind in pearls can be lost. Fresh water being then added remembrance of his being formed out of the dust of from time to time, and the whole substance in the the ground. When Eve exclaimed, in her joy at the vessel continually agitated, the sand and pearls birth of her first-born son, “I have gotten a man together are by degrees allowed to sink to the bottom. from the Lord," she gave to him the name of Cain,
As soon as the sand is dry, it is sifted; the large which signifies possession. To the Jewish lawgiver pearls, being conspicuous, are easily gathered; but the was given the name of Moses, which, in the Hebrew separating the small and diminutive (“seed pearls,” tongue, is drawn forth, in remembrance of his being as they are called), is a work of considerable labour. drawn out of the water by the daughter of Pharaoh. When once separated from the sand, washed with Numberless similar instances might be adduced from salt water, dried, and rendered perfectly clean, they Holy Writ, as well as from the Greek and Roman are sorted into classes, according to their sizes, by languages. being passed through sieves. After this, a hole is Turn we now to the ancient form of our own landrilled through each pearl ; they are arranged on guage, the Anglo Saxon, in which we shall find abunstrings, and are then fit for the market.
dant proof of that which has been asserted. Thus,
Gilbert signifies an illustrious pledge; Wilfred, peace, many proceed from the causes above mentioned, as to many; Edmund, happy peace; Conrad, powerful in well as from others which it would be endless here counsel ; Albert, all illustrious ; with numberless others, to enumerate. It would be well, however, to mention which it would be impertinent here to produce. a few of the changes which many of those first alluded
The use of surnames, as applied to individuals, is to have undergone; thus, for de Bello Monte, we as ancient as the time of Jacob ; to whom the name read Beaumort; for de Cadurcis, Chaworth ; for de of Israel, or a prince with God, was given, in remem- Malo Lacu, Mawley ; for de Nová Villu, Neville ; for brance of his having wrestled with the angel, and de Insuld, Lisle ; for de Altd Ripa, Dealtry; &c. prevailed. We find, also, among the Greeks, such sur- We can no more, at sight of a name, determine names as Poliorcetes, the destroyer of cities ; Halicarnas- the rank of him who bears it. They whose fathers şensis, the Halicarnassian ; with others of like import. wielded the lance or the battle-axe, now handle the
Among the Romans, surnames began early to be ploughshare, or strike the anvil; and the sons of those used as hereditary distinctions ; being derived, as bold yeomen, who drew the bow or tilled the ground, names were anciently, from some qualification of the now make laws for their fathers' land. bearer, or event in his history. Thus the surname of Corvus was applied to a family whose ancestor
THE MONTH OF JANUARY supposed himself to have received assistance from a
JANUARY was distinguished as the first month of the year by crow on the field of battle. One who was consul of Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, when he added Rome, after the kings were expelled, was surnamed it and the month of February to the calendar or year of Publicola, from his friendship for the people. The Romulus, the founder and first king of that city. This ancestor of the great orator Marcus Tullius, when he month, which consists of thirty-one days (originally only had successfully cultivated the Cicer or vetch, was
thirty), derived its appellation from the Latin Januarius, surnamed Ciceró. All these names, and numberless veneration. The first month of the year was named after
in honour of Janus, a Pagan deity, held in the highest others of like import, descended to the posterity of him, not only on account of his great reputation for judgthose who first bore them.
ment respecting things that were past, and his presumed I suppose the Romans were the only nation in old foresight, or foreknowledge of events to come ; but also, time who bore hereditary surnames. Amongst the because he was supposed to have the gates of heaven combarbarous people who possessed, in their room, the
mitted to his particular charge ; from which circumstance, different countries of Europe, it is not unlikely that Hence, too, every Roman door or gate had the name of
he was always represented with a key in his right hand. such might be applied to individuals distinguished Janua ; therefore, the first month being styled JANUARIUS, among their brethren by some notable quality. It
It many authors have considered that name to have denoted was in the eleventh century that they began to be this period as a door, or opening to a new era, or renewal adopted universally throughout Europe, as hereditary of time ; for Janus presided over time, as well as over marks of distinction, and they were introduced into
war and peace. The statue of Janus had two faces,
turned from each other; one old, and expressive of ex pethis land by the Norman invaders.
rience in, or allusive to, things past; the other young, At first, it would seem, they were confined to the
d typical of his looking forward to the future, or into gentry, or nobility; who, to their Christian names,
On some occasions, he was represented with commonly added the names of those towns or villages our faces, emblematic of the four seasons, over which he of which they were severally lords, whether in Nor- was supposed to have control. He was still further dismandy or England : as Roger de Montgomery, William tinguished as the deity presiding over the year, by being de Courtney, Joceline de Percy, William de Copeland, Numa's division of the year into twelve months. On this Thomas de Stanley, &c.*. “ The most surnames in number,” says Camden, extent, or number of days, to which the year was aug
occasion figures were engraven on his hands, to mark the “ the most ancient, and of best account, have been mented by that sovereign. local, deduced from places in Normandie and the Numa, who was a wise and peaceful prince, by taking countries confining, being either the patrimoniall pos- away the honour of leading the year from March, which was sessions, or native places of such as served the con
dedicated to Mars, the pagan god of war, and by giving that
preference to January, perhaps sought to induce his people to queror, or came in after, out of Normandy ; as Mor
value the benefits of Peace, rather than those to be expected timer, Warren, Albigny, Gournay, Devereux, Tanker
from a state of warfare ;-but he was also actuated by the ville,
Neither," says he, “is there any desire to begin the year at that period when the Sun should village in Normandy that gave not denomination to reach its greatest declension, or fall; and so keep pace with some family in England.” Moreover, several surnames the progress of that luminary, until it had fulfilled its course, were formed by adding Fitz (or son), to the name of
or until the same period next year. The temple dedicated the bearer's father ; as Fitz Osborne, Fitz Stephen,
to Janus, was ordered, however, to be kept shut in time of Fitz Patrick, Fitz Gerald, &c.; this addition not being, amiable example and precepts of Numa operate upon his
peace, and open during war: and so powerfully did the at that time, the mark of illegitimacy. Others there subjects, that he had the satisfaction, during his reign, were which denoted the quality or occupation of the of seeing this temple closed ;-- although the Romans bearer : as Basset, the fat; Giffard, the liberal; were usually so addicted to war, that in the space of 800 Howard, the high warden ; Boteler, the grand butler ; years, it was closed only six times. The first and longest with others of the like sort.
period was during the life time of Numa himself; the In course of time the use of surnames was adopted the reign of Augustus ;-and the sixth-time during the
second at the end of the First Punic War;-thrice during by the other classes who added to their Christian reign of the emperor Nero.—It may be remarked in this names the titles of their crafts : as Smith, Baker, place, that when Julius Cæsar made his alteration in the Fowler, Turner, &c.; or the names of their fathers : Roman Calendar, he made Juno supersede Janus, as the as Thomson, the son of Thomas ; Dickson, the son of guardian deity of the Month of January. Dick ; Lawson, the son of Lawrence ; Hodgson, the son
VERSTEGAN observes, that our Saxon ancestors originally
“ Wolf-Monat;" because persons of Roger ; Gibson, the son of Gilbert ; &c. :
or the styled this month,
were in greater danger of being devoured by Wolves in qualities of body or mind for which they were dis
that season of the year than in any other ;-for, the ground tinguished: as Long, Grey, Brown, Love, Humble, being covered with snow, and wild animals, generally, keepYoung, Slender, &c.
ing within their dens and holes, as much as possible, Of those surnames which are in use in our days, these creatures, having no flesh to feed upon, became so
ravenous as to attack human beings. When Christianity There is yet, in the south-west part of Cumberland, a family whose forefathers have been lords, these eight centuries, of the vil began to prevail in Britain, “ AEFTER-YULA," that is Afier. lage whose name they bear.
Christmas, became the name of the month of January.,
In od naintings, the month of JANUARY is represented manifestations, or appearances, which were all thought to have taken by the figure of a man clad in white; which is typical of place on this day, although not in the same year; the first was the
star which conducted the Magi, or wise men, from the east towards the snow that usually lies on the ground at this season :
Bethlehem; the second, the descent of the Holy Ghost, in the form of he is blowing on his fingers to indicate the cold; and under
a dove, at the baptisın of Christ in the river Jordan; and the third, his left arm he holds a billet of wood ;—or a brazier lies at the turning of the water into wine, at the marriage in Cana, whichi his feet, filled with flaming wood and glowing charcoal,
was the first miracle that Jesus performed. Near him stands the figure which usually represents the
The EPIPHANY or Twelfth-Day, appears to have been observed as Sign of Aquarius, (or that twelfth part of the Zodiac, or distinguished the Feasts of the 'Nativity and Epiphany, so early as
a separate Feast in the year 813, but Pope Julius I. is said to have sun s apparent annual course,) into wlich the Sun enters the middle of the fourth century. on the 19th of this month. The Anglo-Saxons, who were In order to commemorate the offerings of the ancient Magi, the greatly addicted to drinking, depicted JANUARY as a man
King of Great Britain, either personally or through his Grama seated at a table and drinking ale from a goblet : in the Chamberlain, annually offers a quantity of gold, frankincense, and
myrrh, on this day, at the altar of the Chapel Royal, St. James's. back ground were seen persons ploughing with oxen, sow
In Spain, where Epiphany is called the Feast of the Three Kings, the ing seed, and otherwise employed in agricultural labours sovereign is accustomed to make similar offerings. peculiar to the winter season of the year.
From the circumstance of this festival being held twelve days after
Christmas, it has derived the common name of TWELFTH DAY; by TUESDAY, 1st JANUARY.
which appellation it is most generally known. Throughout ChrisThe Day of CIRCUMCISION, or New Year's Day.This day was tendom, it is the custom to provide a fruit cake for each family: kept as a festival by the Greeks, in which they celebrated the com thence denominated Twelfth Cake. (See page 4). pletion of the sun's annual course, and rejoiced that it had again England is not singular in the festive observance of Twelfth begun its enlivening, progress; and, in honour of Janus, by the Day; for nearly the whole of Europe practises the like customis Romans, who were in the habit of sending presents dried figs, which differ only in a few particular points, arising from national, dates covered with leaf-gold, also honey and other sweetmeats, to political, or religious prejudices. In Roman Catholic countries. their friends; expressing a wish that they might enjoy the sweets of the Carnival commences on TWELFTH DAY, and usually lasts till the year into which they had just entered; they also visited and con Lent. Lighting fires in the wheat-fields on this day, is still common gratulated each other, and offered up vows for mutual preserva in some parts of Hereford and Gloucestershire; and the evening contion. The Day of Circumcision was instituted in the Christian cludes with feasting and dancing:--a similar custom in Scotland and Church, by Pope Felix III., A.D. 487, under the denomination of Ireland, is denominated Belteign; that is, " The fire of the God Baal. the Octave of Christmas; and introduced into the English Liturgy in 1402 Joan of Arc, the Maid of Orleans, born 1550, in commemoration of the Circumcision of Jesus Christ, ac 1698 Metastasio, the famous Italian poet, born cording to the Jewish ritual, on the 8th day after his nativity. The First of January having been observed by Pagan nations as
MONDAY, 7th. a day of rejoicing, and for offering up sacrifices to the idol Janus,
Plough-MONDAY.–Anciently on the first Monday after Epiphany the primitive Christians celebrated it as a Fast, in order to avoid even
all husbandmen resumed the Plough. In many parts of this country, the semblance of joining in their customs and worship. Accord
especially in the North, the Plough is still drawn in procession from ing to the Catholic Legends, it was held in such high esteem by the
house to house, by men gaily decorated with ribbons; and in many Romans, that they would not sully it even by martyring the Chris
cases, by others dressed as clowns, witches, &c. tians, at such a joyful period! It is still kept as a holiday through. 1558 Calais, which had been in possession of the English during out the several nations of Europe and America; the bells of most two hundred years, surrendered to the French. of the churches being rung at midnight to welcome the New Year. 1715 Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray, died. ANNIVERSARIES.
1763 Allan Ramsay, the Scottish pastoral poet, died.
1785 Mr. Blanchard, accompanied by Dr. Jefieries, went from 1067 William the Conqueror crowned at Westminster.
Dover to Calais, in an air-balloon. 1308 William Tell, the Swise patriot, aroused his countrymen against the Austrians : the opposition was carried on during three
Dedicated to St. Lucian. centuries, and terminated in the independence of Switzerland, by the treaty of Westphalia, A.D. 1648.
1258 lhe city of Bagdad taken by the Tartars.
1642 Galileo, the celebrated Tuscan astronomer, died. 1651 Charles II. crowned King of the Scots, at Scone, near Perth. 1689 Abdication of James II. King of England.
1784 A Treaty signed at Constantinople, by which the Crimea was 1730 Edmund Burke born.
given up for ever by the Turks, to Russia. 1801 The Union of Great Britain with Ireland, as established by
WEDNESDAY, 9th. Act of Parliament, is dated from this day.
1757 Fontenelle, Author of Dialogues of the Dead, &c., died. 1801 Piazzi, an astronomer of Palermo, in Sicily, discovered a new 1806 Public Funeral of Admiral Lord Nelson. planet, which he named CERES.
1645 William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, beheaded on Tower Tous day is a Jewish Fast, on account of the first approaches made hill, in the 71st year of his age, on a false accusation of treason. by Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, towards the siege of Jerusa- 1778 Linnæus, the celebrated Swedish botanist, died. lem, as recorded in the 29th chapter of Jeremiah.
FRIDAY, Ilth. 18 Liry, the Roman historian, died at Padua, his native city.
Hilary Term begins. 18 On the same day and year, Ovid, the Latin poet, died.
1698 Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, came 10 England, and 1727 General Wolfe born.
worked as a mechanic in the dock-yard at Deptford, as 3801 Lavater, the Physiognomist, died at Zurich.
well as in the workshops of various mechanics; in order to 1827 Dr. John Mason Good died near London.
carry the English arts into his own country. THURSDAY, 3rd
1753 Sir Hans Sloane, physician to George II., a celebrated botanist Harous Tullius Cicero, the great Roman orator, born in the 107th and collector of curiosities, died at Chelsea. year before the birth of Christ.
1801 Cimarosa, the celebrated Italian musician, died. 1322 Philip the Long: King of France, died, Once, when urged to
SATURDAY, 12th punish a rebellious nobleman, he said to his courtiers, pleasant to have vengeance in our power, and not to take it.”
1807 Leyden, in Holland, severely injured by the explosion of a 1670 General Monk, Duke of Albemarle, died.
large quantity of gunpowder; 150 persons killed, and upwards
of 2000 wounded. 1795 Josiah Wedgewood, the celebrated chemist and polter, died.
SUNDAY, 13th. 3805 Charles Townley, the collector of the Townleian Marbles in
First SUNDAY AFTER EPIPHANY. Cambridge Hilary Term begins. the British Museum, died.
1790 Monastic Establishments suppressed in France. FRIDAY, 4th. 1568 Roger Ascham, tutor to Queen Elizabeth, died.
LONDON 1580 Archbishop Usher born.
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Elinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Norwich, Musketi. EPIPHANY, TWELFTH DAY: or OLD CHRISTMAS DAY.-The Grock
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* It is