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SAUS

CAE

byan!

CAPIA

VESPASIAN

During the time these sculptures were in execution, memory of those events which led to it, have been the objects themselves must have been under the guarded by every circumstance that can give autheneyes of the artist, as the accidents to which their ticity to history*. loss is attributed, happened long after the arch Two Roman emperors of eminent renown (Veswas completed. The same sacred vessels made pasian and Titus) were employed in the work of deunder the immediate direction of Moses, did not struction, and the notice taken of it by their contemexist in the Temple at the time it was destroyed : poraries proves it to have been regarded as the most those brought back from Babylon having been prominent achievement of their reign. The exploits carried off by Antiochus Epiphanes, but they were of Roman power were recorded and speedily published immediately replaced by persons well acquainted to the utmost limits of an empire that extended from with their form, and it is still easy to trace the the Thames to the Euphrates. Surviving the congeneral outlines of these objects in Exodus xxv. 3–36. vulsions by which that mighty empire was torn in

The Jewish Historian, Josephus, an eye-witness of pieces, the Jews remain a distinct people, preserving the triumph of Vespasian and Titus, distinctly with religious care the history of their crimes, and mentions these objects as making a conspicuous sentences of condemnation, and though in avowed figure in the procession. After mentioning some enmity to Christianity, supporting by their obstinacy other particulars, he says, " But for these (spoils) the evidence of its truth. that were taken in the Temple of Jerusalem, they

* Medals were also struck on the occasion, on one side of which made the greatest figure of them all; that is, the there is a female figure in the attitude of grief, under a palm-tree, golden table of the weight of many talents; the

with the words JUDÆA CAPTA, and on the other, the head of V'escandlestick also that was made of gold,"_" the pasian or Titus. branches were in number seven, and represented the honour in which the number seven was held among the Jews.” He then adds, " and after these triumphs were over, Vespasian resolved to build a temple to Peace: he also laid up therein these golden vessels and instruments that were taken out of the Jewish temple, as ensigns of his glory. But still he gave orders that they should lay up their law and the purple veil of the holy place in the imperial palace itself, and keep them there*."

Thus, although injured by time and accident, there is still standing at Rome a resemblance, taken froni the objects themselves, of the holy instruments and vessels, originally formed according to divine instruction, 3323 years ago ; bearing undeniable evidence to the truth of the Mosaic history.

It is probable that part of these injuries may be attributed to the antipathy which the Jews have to this monument of their final overthrow. The lapse of eighteen centuries has not effaced the memory of that calamity from the minds of the modern Jews.

At little more than a thousand paces from this monument, there is another memorial of their subjugation. In what is called the Ghetto Ebrei (or abode for Jews), from five to six thousand of them DUTIES are ours, events are God s. This removes an in reside, and are confined every night, from an hour finite burden from the shoulders of a miserable, tempted, after sun-set till an hour before sun-rising, in a few dying creature. On this consideration only can he securely narrow and dirty streets that have been allotted to lay down his head and close his eyes. — Cecil. them.

Each has his fault we readily allow; After eighteen centuries of persecution, they remain

To this decree our dearest friend must bow; a living monument and illustration of some of the One's too careless, another's too correct, most remarkable passages of Scripture prophecy. And all, save our sweet self, have some defect. Moses foretold in detail, the miseries of the siege

-BACON which Josephus has related, and predicted the signal DISCRETION in speech is more than eloquence. punishment that 'awaited their unbelief; and the honours conferred upon Titus for completing their

STRAW-PLATTING. ruin, took place at the distance of no less than half a The following notice of Straw-platting, abridged fro.n century from the time that our Saviour forewarned a fuller account, collected during the last Autumn in the them of its approach. These prophecies are in our districts where the occupation is followed, is published hands, and the captive nation itself has been dispersed under the impression that it will exeite an interest among us to attest their accomplishment.

for the improvement of this ingenious manufacture, If the present condition of the Jews be a fact, for and lead to the adoption of it in new districts, where which we have the evidence of our senses, so the the supply of a populous neighbourhood may render it

The Copy of the Law and the Purple Veil of the Sanctuary a profitable employment to industrious females. At were accordingly preserved in the imperial palace; thus they all the present time, upwards of 200,000 females are enfell into the hands of Genseric, and were carried into Africa to gaged in the process. Carthage: from thence they were afterwards translated to Constan The precise period when the Dunstable bonnets tinople, then the capital of the Roman empire, by Belisarius, who made of straw-plat, that is of entire wheat-straws they were again transferred to Jerusalem. What has become of them platted in long narrow strips, and afterwards sewn since, it is difficult to conjecture; it is suspected by some, they were together, were invented, is unknown. The Dunstable carried to Persia in the year 641, by Chosroes, but there are doubts bonnet is probably a century and a half old.—Gay, in whether the ship in which they were embarked ever reached its destination.

his Shepherd's Week, said to have been written about

AVG

IMP

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1720, in giving an account of the valuables bequeathed After whitening, the straws are again examined, by a dying shepherdess, says

and the good ones separated from the bad. They My new straw hat, so trimly lined with green,

are then again cut, so as to be from eight to ten Let Peggy wear.

inches in length, and are again put into smaller bunThe weight and clumsy appearance of these bonnets, dles, about ten inches round, tied with straw; and which confined the work generally to the sinall straws, in that state are taken to the plat-market for sale. probably first suggested the idea of dividing the straw; The process of whitening, or steaming, consists in but the difficulty of making the division so that each subjecting the straw to the fumes of brimstone, in a of the parts might be equal, the labour expended in close tub or box. The bundles, or handfuls, are first the operation of splitting, and the unevenness of the dipped in water, then shaken a little, so as not to work where the splits were not of equal breadth, retain too much moisture, and put on their ends must have retarded the progress of this ingenious round the inside of the tub or boxt. About an branch of our manufactures very considerably. ounce of brimstone, broken into small pieces, is

The first attempts to divide the straw, were by placed in the centre of the box, on a plate, or piece means of knives; but this was a work that occupied of tin or iron, and lighted; and the box is shut or much time. About thirty years ago, a mode was in closed up, to keep out the air and prevent the fumes vented of dividing the entire straw into equal parts, escaping. by means of little instruments called “ MACHINES, The straws are examined by the platter before they and then platting the divided parts. The ingenuity

The ingenuity of are cut or used. The following are the principal the inventor (a great benefactor to his country,) was faults. Ist. Black-haud, spottiness, or spot, which frerewarded by realising a fortune of 30,0001.; and from quently arises from the rubigo, or rust in wheat ; this that time may be dated the use of the plat made from is a great fault, frequently occurring in unfavourable divided straws.

seasons : 2nd. Red-haud, or redness, which is also a The Straw-platting Districts include Bedfordshire, fault spoiling the appearance of the plat ; 3rd. Bruised Buckinghamshire, Ilertfordshire, and Essex. In many straw; 1th. Jointed straw ; 5th. Crooked straw. The other counties the platting is partially followed, and it three latter kinds will not divide, or work well. may be well adopted in other districts for the supply The good straws are divided into three or four of the neighbourhood.

sizes, according to the calibre of the straw, or degree The material generally used is ripe wheat-straw ; of fineness, for the different works. but rye and other straws have been used, and within The straws are then cut into splints by the Mathe last ten years large quantities of Italian straw, said chines, of which there are two kinds. One kind, to be both of corn and grass, have been imported, probably the earliest, consists of a pointed wire, upon and worked up into what are called Tuscan plat.

which the straw is forced ; it then comes in contact Experiments on the different straws of corn and with 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11, sharp divisions (the grass, and on the precise times when they should be Nos. 5, 6, 7 are the most usual), which divide the cut, whether before or at the time when the corn straw into so many equal parts. These instruments and grass are ripe, might lead to some discoveries, have handles, and are made of either brass or iron ; which would add to the profits of the manufacturers, some are made more crooked than others; the price as well as to the durability and beauty of the bonnets. is from twopence upwards. The other kind consists

Straw-platting is of importance to farmers, in these of the point and sharp part let into wood. Several times, in an agricultural point of view, from the in- instruments, as the Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7, are in one creased value of good straw ; twopence per pound piece of wood. This latter instrument sells, in white being given for it in the rough-that is, without the wood, or oak, for one shilling and upwards ; in maho. heads of corn,-in the straw-plat districts.

gany, somewhat dearer. The platter should be furnished with, 1st, a knife,

These ingenious instruments, and the plat-mills, to cut the straw; 2nd. a tub (or box) and cover, with after mentioned, are obtained with difficulty except at a few ounces of brimstone, and something of iron to

the market-stalls, on market-days, in the straw-plat burn it upon, for fumigation ; 3rd. machines for divid- districts; they may, however, be procured in London. ing the straws; 4th. a work-bag ; 5th, a plat-mill ; By the division of labour, it is usual in manufac6th. a cloth to wrap the work in : 7th. a piece of paste- tories for one person (a Splitter) to examine, sort, board, to roll the plat round as it is worked ; 8th, a and split the straw for fifty others, who are called bottle with water, to wet the straw; 9th. a piece of platters, or braiders. deal, half a yard broad, to wind the platting upon.

The straws, when split, are termed splints; of The process of platting is as follows: The straw

which each worker has a certain quantity. Before arawers, or farmers' labourers *, are employed in working up the splints or straws into plat, those drawing out the straws and cutting off the heads of which are more or less curved or hollow, are flatcorn (for threshing would bruise and split the straw). tened. This was attempted to be done by the comWhen this is done, it is sometimes sold to the platter mon rolling-pin, but latterly by an instrument of in the rough, at about twopence a pound. The next

work called the Plat Mill; made generally of deal, process is to strip the straw of the leaves that sheathe but sometimes of box-wood. The straw is put bethe stalk, and cut it into proper lengths. Each straw

tween the cylinders of this mill, and worked two or is taken, root upwards, and stripped, and then cut with three times through it, by which the splints become a knife (not too sharp), ready for whitening or steam- flat, and are easy to work. The plat-mill in use at ing, so as to allow it to be cut again into shorter un- present is soon put out of order; and an acceptable jointed lengths. The straws so cut, supposing the service would be rendered to several English counties, root up, are the upper or top, the middle, and the by the improvement of this simple but important lower or bottom. Very good straw will produce machine. three; but generally there are two, the upper and It is almost impossible to describe the mode of lower. Good straws must be straight. The lengths are cut twice, for the ends are liable to be injured in

+ A washing-tub, or a common tea-box, such as are sold by the steaming, and the straw requires to have a good end used by Mr. Collier, of lvingho, Bucks, a very intelligent manu

grocers, will answer the purpose ; but a superior kind of box is to work with.

facturer. It is a large oblong box, in which are placed the bundles

of straw, reserving a place for the brimstone, which is let in by a * It is seldom the platter takes the business in the first stage, trap-door at one end: the bo, may be opened in six or eight hours,

working straw into the different plats; it can only be

THE USES OF ADVERSITY. learnt under an able and kind instructress, who

may Though dark the clouds, the wintry winds severe, be obtained from the straw-plat districts, on reason That sadden, Albion, half thy varied year, able terms; when females are taught quite young,

Yet thence rude vigour nerves the sturdy swain, however, it is not difficult of acquirement. There

Thence vernal youth renews the smiling plain; are many schools in the districts, but they are suscep

Those blasts, whose harsh edge rasps the gentle check,

Whose touch is rudeness to the downy sleek, tible of considerable improvement.

Impart to nature all-prolific power, Platters work first with the top of the straw (the Health to the bud, and fragrance to the flower, root being upwards); the other end is generally either Which, kiss'd anon by zephyrs moist and bland, spotty or discoloured by the sun and air ; the top is With pleasant odour fills the joyous land. bright, having been covered by the leaf, which sheaths So, churlish Fortune rears her favourite child, about two-thirds of the length up to the next joint. Inured to breath as sharp, and skies as wild ; The platter leaves the lower ends unplatted, which

In such a clime fair Wisdom strikes her roc., appear in regular work at one side.

And hardy Virtue's vigorous scions shoot;

"Tis there the germs of moral beauty furin, Platters should be taught to use their second fingers

There, full of promise, prosper in the storm, and thumbs, instead of their fore-fingers, (often Till wood at length by some auspicious gale, required in turning the splints,) which very much Their blossoms open, and their sweets exhale ; facilitates the platting, and they should be cau Those precious sweets, by sterner seasons given, tioned against wetting the splints too much; taking Whose grateful incense gladdens earth and heaven!-H. care, in double platting, to use enough to make the straws stick together.

His present Majesty, when residing in Bushy Park, had After a piece has been platted, it should be wound a part of the foremast of the Victory, against which Lord round a board, half a yard broad, and fastened at Nelson was standing when he received his fatal wound, dethe top with yarn, and kept there several days, to posited in a small temple in the grounds of Bushy House, form it into a proper shape.

from which it was afterwards removed to the upper end of Of the different plats, which are numerous, the shot had completely passed through this part of the mast,

the dining-room, with a bust of Nelson upon it. A large principal are the following. First : the Dunstable, or

and while it was in the temple, a pair of robins had built whole straw ; a considerable improvement has taken their nest in the shot-hole, and reared a brood of young place in the imitations; as 2nd. the Rustic, of four ones. It was impossible to witness this little occurrence coarse straws : this is a large plat, and used in making without reflecting on the scene of blood and strife .f war, very common bennets and hats ; 3rd. the Pearl, of four which had occurred to produce so snug and peaceable a re

treat for a nest of harmless robins. -Jesse's Gleanings. small straws, not much used, being very expensive ; 4th, the Devonshire of seven straws ; 5th. the fine-seven ; Men balance a moment in possession against an eternity 6th. the Backbone, also worked in seven ; 7th. the Dou- in anticipation : but the moment passeth away, and the ble-seven : the straws are in the doubles wetted and eternity is yet to come. laid together, and worked double ; 8th. the Eleven Straw; 9th, the Double Eleven; 10th, the Lustre, or

In wonder all philosophy began; in wonder it ends and shining, of seventeen straws; llth. the Wave, of the offspring of Ignorance: the last is the parent of Adora

admiration fills up the interspace. But the first wonder is twenty-two straws, the straws appear as if worked tion. --COLERIDGE. one way; 12th. the Diamond, of twenty-three straws. The platter works and sells by scores, or pieces of

ANNIVERSARIES IN JANUARY. twenty yards long; and three score, or three and a

MONDAY, 28th. half of the commoner straws, will make a bonnet.

814 Charlemagne, King of France, and Emperor of Germany, died The bonnet-makers cut the score into half scores or

1547 Henry VIII. King of England, died at Whitehall. ten yards, and a quarter score, or five yards.

1596 Sir Francis Drake, the celebrated English Admiral, died. A good platter can make half a score in a day, or

1612 Sir Thomas Bodley, from whom the Bodleian Library at Ox

ford (the largest in Europe,) takes its name, died. three score a week; good work will always command | 1613 Louis XIII. of France issued an edict against Duelling, with a a sale, both in winter and summer.

declaration that he would never grant the royal pardon in

such a case. It is not intended here to describe the further pro 1725 Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, died at Petersburgh. Cacess in making bonnets and hats ;—the plat is, by therine I. proclaimed Empress. the best manufacturers, bleached (which is a delicate

TUESDAY, 29th. process). At Luton, and in some other places, there 1579 Union of the Seven Provinces of Holland, signed at Utrecht.

1820 His Majesty, George 111. died at Windsor, aged 82, and in are regular bonnet-bleachers. The plat is then

the 60th year of his reign.--Accession of hing George IV. sewed, by the bonnet-sewers, (a difficult branch of

WEDNESDAY, 30th. business,) who make and form the bonnets and hats, MARTYRDOM OF KING CHARLES I. OF ENGLAND. A. D. 1649. which are then blocked; (an operation very laborious, 1790 A Life-boat first put to sea, at South Shields, on the Tyne. and giving rise to disease of the chest, very often

1826 The Menai Suspension Bridge, which connects the isle of

Anglesey with the county of Caernarvon, opened. ending fatally Can this be remedied?) The bonnets

THURSDAY, 31st. and hats are then pressed, and after being wired, lined,

Hilary Term Ends. and ticketed, are ready for sale.

1616 Cape Horn first doubled. There are markets for the sale of the large bundles

1788 Sir Ashton Lever, the celebrated Naturalist, and founder of

the Leverian Museum, died suddenly at Manchester. of long straw, both rough and properly stripped ; 1788 Charles Edward Stuart

, grandson of James 11. King of Engthe short straws; the straw-plats; and the bonnets, land, died at Florence. &c., throughout the straw-plat districts. The best bonnet-market is at St. Alban's, but there are others

THE MONTH OF FEBRUARY. at Luton, Dunstable, and Braintree ; these markets It has been already stated (p; 7), that when Numa Pompilius are held only in the morning, from about eight to

altered the Roman Calendar, he added January and February to

the year; making the latter the second month. Following the ex. ten o'clock, and the plat buyers always attend. The ample of the Greek calendar, he assigned to it twenty-nine days; price of Double-seven (common plat) in October, which number Julius Cæsar continued : but Augustus Cæsar re

duced them to twenty-eight, adding the twenty-tinth, or e punged 1832, was under eighteen-pence a score ; three score

day, to his own monih of August; still Numa's number was, in a and a half make a bonnet, which may be purchased manner, kept up; for, every fourth year, an additional, or twentyat the market by the public, and be made up at the ninth day was intercalated between the twenty-third, and twenty

fourth of February. These alterations made by the Emperor bonnet-maker's.

Augustus, are retained in our calendar, with this slight difference, Tempie, January 1, 1833

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that the intercalated day, instead of remaining unnoticed, is every in the Reformed Church it is still kept as a solemn festival, in fourth; or leap year, styled the 29th and last day of February. memory of the humiliation of the blessed Virgin Mary, who, whilst

This month, which has Pisces, or The Fishes, for its sign in the submitting to the law which enjoined personal purification after Zodiac, was placed, by Numa Pompilius, under the immediate pro- child-birth, presented the infant Jesus in the Temple; for, to render tection of NEPTUNE, the Pagan god of the waters; who was held in the first-born son holy unto the Lord, it was enjoined by the Mo. high estimation by the Romans, not only as holding dominion over saical ordinances, (see Leviticus, ch. xii.) that attendance should one of the four elements, but also on account of the advice which be given in the Temple, and that an offering should at the same time he was supposed to have given for carrying off the daughters of their be made of money, or sacrifice. The Virgin Mary accordingly atneighbours, the Sabines, by the primitive inhabitants of Rome. Be tended with her first-born on the Fortieth day, and presented a pair ot that as it may, its present name took its origin from FEBRUA, one of doves, -that being the offering suitable to her circumstances. From the names of the goddess Juno, who presided over the purification this pious obedience to the law, on the part of the Mother of Our of women ; because the feast of the Lupercalia was then held. Some Lord, arose the rite of Churching women after child-birth, in this authors contend that it is derived from Febrais expiatoriis, or sacri-country; but, as the ancient Mosaical institution has been abrogated fices for the purgation of souls; because, at a feast which was always by the new and more perfect law, no other sacrifice than that of the held on the second day of this month, the heathens themselves not heart is now enjoined; nor is any precise day fixed for the public peronly underwent a lustration, or purification, by sprinkling with formance of this act of piety. bu.iches of hyssop, dipped in water, but they also offered sacrifices to

1300 Institution of Jubilees in the Romish Church, by Pope BoniP.uto, the infernal deity, on behalf of their ancestors and relatives.

face VIII. By our Saxon ancestors, February was called SPROUT-KALE*, or

1625 Charles I. crowned at Westminster. the month in which young cabbages, or colewort, began to sprout. 1799 Elizabeth Woodcock buried under the snow for eight days, near They afterwards changed it into Sol-Monath, or Sun Month, from

Cambridge. See Saturday Magazine, vol. i. p. 239. the then returning sun, or the approach of spring; when seeds and

1824 The ship Fame, in which Sir Stamford Raffles and his family plants begin to vegetate by the gradually-increasing warmth of the

had sailed from Bencoolen for England, and which contained season.

a cargo of saltpetre, took fire and blew up, about thirty miles The common emblematic representation of February is, a man in

south-west from the port whence she had set out. The pro a dark or sky-coloured habit, bearing in his hand the astronomical

perty lost by Sir Stamford amounted to £30,000; but his sign of Pisces, or the Fishes. In the ancient Saxon pictures, a vine

papers, drawings, and collection of specimens in natural hisdresser was shown in the act of pruning his trees ;-in others, a man

tory, which he had made in Batavia, may be considered an in a jacket, buttoned up close, striking his arms across his body, in irreparable loss to science and to literature. The passengers token of the early part of the month being generally the most incle

and crew were providentially saved in two small boats ; for ment portion of the year. February has also been represented by a

only half an hour elapsed between the discovery of the acci man clad in a white robe, with a wreath of snowdrops round his

dent and the final destruction of the vessel ! temples, and holding a burning candle in his hand.

SUNDAY 3rd.
ANNIVERSARIES IN FEBRUARY.

SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY.—The three Sundays and weeks that precede
FRIDAY Ist.

LENT, have long been distinguished by the names of Septuagesima,

Seragesima, and Quinquagesima; which terms signify the Seventieth, 1394 Charles VI. King of France, was nearly burnt to death at a Sixtieth, and Fiftieth. Many fanciful and absurd reasons have been

masquerade given in honour of the marriage of one of the assigned for these titles; but the most satisfactory one is as follows. Queen's ladies. The king, who entered the ball-room dancing, when the words were first applied to denote the Sundays in question, and covered over with fax, so as to resemble a savage or the season of Lent had generally been extended to a fast of six weeks, wild man, led in five lords chained together, and similarly or thirty-six days, exclusive of Sundays, which were always celehabited. The Duke of Orleans, who was not aware of the brated as festivals. At this time, likewise, the Sunday which we quality of the maskers, approached them, and in a frolic ap- call the First Sunday in Lent, was styled, simply, QUADRAGESIMA, plied his lighted flambeau to one of their heads; which,

or the fortieth day before Easter; and Lent itself was denoted the instantly bursting into a blaze, communicated to the others, Quadragesimal, or Forty-Days' Fast. Now, when the three weeks and also set the furniture of the room on fire. The king before Quadragesima ceased to be considered as weeks after the Epre escaped; but four of his chained companions were burnt to Luany, and were appointed to be observed as a time of preparation death ; and the fifth was saved only by jumping into á vat full for LENT, it was perfectly conformable to the ordinary mode of comof water.

putation, to reckon backwards, and, for the sake of even and round 1649 Charles I. King of England, was brought a second time numbers, to count by decades, or tens ; therefore, the compilers of

before his judges. The king, firm in his resolution not to the new ritual and of the proper offices, naturally styled the first
recognise this new tribunal, insisted on the insufficiency of Sunday before Quadragesima, Quinquagesima ; the second, Sesa-
their power to try him. Bradshaw, the president, replied, gesima ; and the third, Septuagesima.--See SHEPHERD's Elucidation
" that the Court held its power from the Commons of the king of the Book of Common Prayer.
dom, to whom the kings, his predecessors, had always held

BLAISE, ---or Blaize, was an ancient Bishop of Sebastia, in Armenia. themselves responsible;" but the king challenged him to He suffered martyrdom, under Dioclesian, in the year 289. lle is cite an example of such jurisdiction. Cromwell, however, said to have found out the art of combing wool; on which account, abruptly terminated the discussion, by saying, " that such the journeymen wool-combers in England have sometimes a grand explanations were useless, and that the Court had no time to procession on this day. One of the trade personates the bishop, carlose in solving quibbles.”

rying a pair of combs in his hands. In Leeds, Norwich, and other 1733 Frederick-Augustus 1., king of Poland, died at Warsaw, places, where the wool-combers are numerous, this procession excites

aged sixty-three. This sovereign's life is a striking instance much interest. of the vicissitudes of human life. Three years after having 1552 Peter Duchatel, Bishop of Orleans, and Grand Almoner of been elected King of Poland, he was driven from the throne by Charles XII. of Sweden, who gave the crown to Stanis

France, died of apoplexy, whilst preaching before Francis I. laus Leczinski: but, on the defeat of Charles at Pultowa, he

1738 Death of Sir Thomas Lombe, proprietor of the famous mill for was restored, and continued to reign until his death.

silk-throwing; being the first and largest silk-mill ever con

He was regarded by the Saxons as a father, and was held in great

structed in England. This mill had a great influence on the

commerce of Great Britain ; and a complete model of it is respect by the Poles. 1793 William Aiton, author of Hortus Kewensis,-a catalogue of

deposited in the Tower of London ; the original, brought the plants in the Royal Gardens at Kew,--died at Kew, in

from Italy, in pieces, was erected in the town of Derby. Su Surrey.

Thomas received a grant of 14,0001, from Parliament, for

having, by this complex machine, contributed so largely to SATURDAY 2d.

the national prosperity. CANDLEMAS-DAY.- PURIFICATION OF THE Virgin Mary. The 1794 Sixteen persons crushed to death, in attempting to obtain feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin was formerly celebra

admission into the Theatre in the Haymarket, London. ted in this country, (and is still in Roman Catholic ones) by torchlight processions and by the performance of Mass with a multitude of Candles in the several churches. These customs are said to have been

LONDON derived from the Romans, who went about their city with lighted

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALY L'ANTS, torches on this day, in honour of Februa the mother of Mars, and

SIXPENCE, BY to have been introduced into the church of Rome, by Pope Sergius.

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. Such practices were continued in England, until the second year of

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingrlom. the reign of Edward the Sixth, when Archbishop Cranmer suppressed Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale termes them, by order of the King's Privy Council.

by ORR, Paternoster-row; BERGER, Holywell-street; DOUGLIS, Anciently, this day was called that of Christ's Presentation ; and

Portman-street, London ;

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :• Verstegan tells us that, by Kele, the Saxons meant Cole-rrort, or Kele. Aberdeen, Brown & Co. Durham, Andrews. wurt;" which," says he,“ was the greatest pot-wurt, in time long past, that our

Northampton, Binis:all

Bath, George. incestors nised; and the broth made thereof was also called Kele or Kale."

Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Noriich Muskett.Smih Defore we borrowed from the French the words pottage and herb, the first, in

Birmingham, Langbridge. Exeter, Penny & Co. Nottinghain, Wright.

Bristol, Westley & Co.; D. Glasgow, Grišin & Co. our own language was termed Kele, and the second, wurt; an't as this Kele

Orford, Slatter.
Vickery.
Gloucester, Jew.

Paris, Bennis.
unrt, or pottage-herb, was the chief winter-wurt, or garden vegetable, of the Bury, Lankester.
husbandman; so, also, it was the first herb which in this month began to

Hereford, Child. Plymouth, Nettleton. pielil wholesome young sprouts." This venerable author goes on to say, that

Cambridge, Stevenson. Hull, Wilson.

Silisbury. Brolia

Carlisle, Thurnnm. * thuis herb was held, not only by our ancestors, to be very good both for suis

Ipswich, Deck.

Sheffield, Kidlice tenance and health ; but that the ancient Romans also had such an opinion

Chelmsford, Guy

Lancashire and Cheshire, Shrewsbury, Edduses.

Cheltenham, Lovesy. thereof, that, during six hundred years, whilst Rome was without physicians,

Baucks & Co., Man. Staffordshire Potierius.

Chester,Seacome; Harding. chester, the people were acenstomed to plant great stores of these wurts, which they

Watts, Latile Erei.

Chichester, Glover. accounted both ment and medicine ; for, as they did eat the wurt for suste.

Leeds, Robinson, Sunderland, Martrood,

Colchester, Swinborne &Co. Leicester, Combe. nance, so did they drink the water wherein it was boiled, as a thing sovereign

Itaririck. Merridew. in all kinds of sickness.'

Derby, Wilkius & Son.
It may be adıled here, that, througlout Scotland,

Liverpool, Hughes. IPhilby, Koilgers. this mode of using Colewort, or Kail, is continned to the present day, and

Deron port, Byers. Macclesfieid, Swinperton. Worcester, Deighton that there is no cottager so poor who does not cultivate his Kail-yard.

Dublin, Curry Jun. & Co. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fin- Yarmouth, Alexauler.
Dundee, Shaw.

lay & Co.; Empson. York, Bellerky.

PRICI

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL VOLCANOES.

[graphic]

View of Mount Vesuvius. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS UPON VOLCANOES.

occasion, a village, thirty leagues distant, was thus over ALTHOUGH VOLCANOES occupy but a small portion of the whelmed ! earth's surface, and their eruptions are far from frequent, The space which volcanoes, with their theatres of action, they have, in consequence of their terrific grandeur, most occupy on the surface of the globe, is comparatively small; forcibly arrested the attention of mankind in all ages. | it having been estimated that all the beds of lava hitherto Their number is estimated at about 200; and they are thus emitted from the bowels of the earth, that have been re distributed. The continent of America, with its islands, corded in history, do not cover more than 24,000 square contains about 116; Asia and its isles, 66; Europe and leagues, which is only one 800th part of the whole earth's its isles, 13: no volcanoes have as yet been found on the surface ; but the beds of combustible matter in the bowels African continent, and those of its islands are included in of the earth, which produce them, are more extensive than the above estimate. Of these vents of subterranean fire, this superficial admeasurement. about 90 are insular, or situated in islands; the remainder Although no very satisfactory theory of the natural causes are continental.

and mode of action of the volcanic fire has yet been esta It is well known that few of the whole number of vol-blished, several circumstances may be mentioned, which, canoes throughout the world, are ever in activity at the in some degree, tend to elucidate them. In the first place same time: some of them lie dormant for ages; others for water seems to be a necessary agent in the production shorter periods ; whilst a few may be said to have become of volcanic fire; for columns of aqueous vapour ascend, altogether extinct or spent. Nor is the volcanic activity at and torrents of salt water flow, from these reservoirs of ele all proportional to the size, either of the mountain, or its mental strife : various minerals and metals also, with sulcrater; the greatest energy being often manifested by those phur and other combustibles, contribute to the production of the least magnitude. Those which eject lava, or red-hot of subterranean fire. These substances, lying together, or melted rock, are very few; the matter thrown out by many being imbedded in separate strata, are supposed to remain being merely ashes, with, sometimes, blocks of stone, tor- quiescent, until water flows in upon them. when they imrents of hot water, and rivers of mud. Those volcanic mediately exert upon each other a chemical action, and mountains from which such vast volumes of water descend, decomposition and consequent ignition take place, for then generally have their craters situated in regions of per- each substance being resolved into its primary elements, a petual snow; and the quantity of fluid is, consequently, greater volume, or bulk, is created by the expansion of supposed to be greatly increased by the melting of the snow solids into fluids, and of fluids into gases or aëriform suband ice during an eruption. A striking example of this is stances. Thus the interior of the earth is disturbed, and afforded by COTOPAXI in South America : that mountain the surface shaken, producing the phenomenon known by rises above the line of perpetual frost; consequently, when the name of earthquake, whilst the decomposed combus ever a fiery eruption takes place, the snows in and around tible matter, becoming every moment more and more bulky, the crater are melted; and so descend in torrents, sweep- and incapable of continuing longer within its confines, finds ing away the towns and villages at its base. On one the nearest vent to the surface by heaving up the super VOL. II.

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