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The Devil's Bridge, Cardiganshire, their depredations for many years with impunity. (sce Saturday Magazine, vol. i., p. 254,) is also called They were, at length, however, taken up for com- the Devil's Bridge ; and in our own country we have mitting murder, and executed. The descent to this the Devil's Punch-Bowl, in Hampshire, and the cavern is very difficult.

Devil's Dyke near Brighton. In Germany is the The view from the windows of the Hafod Arms, Devil's Wall

, erected by the Romans, the building near the Devil's Bridge, is perfectly enchanting. Im- of which commenced in the time of the Emperor mediately below, and only separated from the house Adrian, and occupied nearly two centuries.

It exby the road, is a profound chasm, stretching east and tends for 368 miles over mountains, through valleys, west about a mile, the almost perpendicular sides of and over rivers; in some places it now forms elevated which are covered with trees of different kinds. At roads and paths through woods; buildings are erected the bottom of this abyss runs the river Mynach, its upon it, and tall oaks flourish upon its remains. roaring tide hidden from the eye by the deep shade of surrounding woods, but bursting upon the ear in

LONDON:

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS, the awful sound of many waters--in the thunder of

PRICE SIXPENCE, BY numerous cataracts; whilst in front of the spectator JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. the Rheidol is seen rushing down a chasm in the

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom. mountains with tremendous fury.

Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms

by ORR, Paternoster-row ; BERGER, Holywell street; DOUGLAS, The woods in the vicinity of the Devil's Bridge

Portman-street, London ;

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :abound with nests of the Formica Herculanea, the

Aberdeen, Brown & Co.

Northampton, Birusall. largest species of ants that are natives of Britain : Bath, George.

Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Norwich, Muskett. these nests are composed of small ends of twigs, form- Bristol, Westley & Co. D. Glasgow, Grifin & Co.

Ereter, Penny & Co. Nottingham, Wright.

Orford, Slatter. ing a heap a yard or two across, and from one to two Vickery.

Gloucester, Jew.

Bury, Lankester.
feet high.
The insects themselves exceed in size Cambridge, Stevenson.

Hereford, Child. Plymouth, Nettleton.
Hull, Wilson.

Salisbury. Brodie & Co. three of the ordinary black kind, and are possessed Carlisle Thurnam. Ipswich, Deck. Sheffield, Ridge.

Lancashire and Cheshire, Shrewsbury, Eddowes. of uncommon strength.

Chekenham, Lovesy.

Bancks & Co., Man Staffordshire Potteries,

Chester, Seacome; Harding. In the superstitious times before alluded to, it was

Leeds, Robinson. Sunderland, Marwood. common for great works of art, or peculiar formations

Colchester, Swinborne &Co. Leicester, Combe. Whitby, Rodgers.

Derby, Wilkins & Son. Liverpool, Hughes. Worcester, Deighton. of nature, to be called by the name of the Devil. Thus Devonport, Byers. Macclesfield, Swinnerton. Yarmouth, Alexander. the famous bridge over the Reuss, in Switzerland Dublin. Curry Jun. & Co. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fin. York, Bellerby.

, Shaw.

Durham, Andrews.

Paris, Bennis.

chester.

Watte, Lane End.

Chichester, Glover.

THE

NO 36.

EDUCATIO

JANUARY

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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Interior of the House of Commons.

with gilt corinthian capitals. The whole of the house I. THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.

is lined with wainscot, and the benches of the mem. The Lower, or Commons House of Parliament, in bers have cushions, covered with leather. which the representatives of the people hold their At the time the inner walls were stripped of the assemblies, was originally a chapel, built by king wainscoting for the purpose of making the alterations, Stephen, and dedicated to St. Stephen. It was re a great part of the ancient decorations was found in built in 1347, by Edward the Third, and erected by tolerable preservation. The entire walls and roof that monarch into a collegiate church, under the were covered with gilding and paintings, and pregovernment of a dean and twelve secular priests. sented a superb and beautiful remnant of the fine Being surrendered to Henry the Sixth, he gave it to arts, as they were patronised in the munificent reign the Commons for their sittings, to which use it still of Edward the Third. The gilding was remarkably continues to be applied.

solid, and highly burnished, and the colours of the The old house was formed within the chapel, chiefly paintings vivid: both one and the other being as fresh by a floor raised above the pavement, and an inner as in the year they were executed. One of the paintroof, considerably below the ancient one. At the ings had some merit as a composition; the subject period of the Union with Ireland the house was en was, the Adoration of the Shepherds. A multitude of larged, by taking down the entire side walls, except arms were blazoned on the south wall, and near them the buttresses that supported the original roof; and were two or three painted figures, in fantastic dresses. erecting others beyond, so as to give one seat in Undearneath the house are some remains, in great each of the recesses thus formed, by throwing back perfection, of a chapel, of curious workmanship; and part of the walls. The present house is still too one side of a cloister, the roof of which is not sursmall, but is fitted up in a very good style. A gallery passed in beauty by Henry the Seventh's chapel. A runs along the west end, and the north and south small court of the palace also remains, and forms sides are supported by slender iron pillars, crowned part of the dwelling-house of the Speaker of the Voi. II.

36

House of Commons, from which, during the sittings any number of amendments may be made in the bill of the House, he proceeds in state, preceded by the by way of“ rider;" but these amendments must not mace, and attended by a train-bearer, &c.

alter the principle of the bill. The passing of the bill The Speaker's Chair, which is slightly elevated above is simply its being sent to the Lords, il it have not the floor, and stands at some distance from the wall, been there already; or its being sent there again, in is highly gilt and ornamented ; and on the top of it order to the Royal assent being given to it. are placed the royal arms. Before the chair is a PRIVATE Bills are introduced on petition instead table, at which sit the clerks, who take notes of the of notice; and, if any opposition be signified, the first proceedings, read the titles of bills, &c. The seat step is to refer the petition to a Select Committee. If on the floor, on the right-hand of the Speaker, is the Committee report favourably, the bill is read a generally occupied by members of the administra- first time, and goes through the other steps, in the tion, and is, therefore, called the Treasury Bench; and, same manner and order as a Public Bill. on the opposite side, is that usually occupied by the There are three ways in which a Motion may be leading Opposition members.

rejected,-1st, by a direct negative ; 2nd, by a motion The House generally assembles about four o'clock; of adjournment; 3rd, by the previous question. When and a few minutes before that time, the Speaker takes the question is put, “that this bill be now read a his place at the upper part of the table, on the right, second time,” those who are against the bill may, or Treasury side. The Chaplain of the House, being according to the first method, simply negative the placed also at the upper part of the table on the left question ; but the more usual way is to move that side, reads the customary prayers. This done, the the question be altered by leaving out the words after Speaker, standing before the chair, proceeds to count “that," and inserting the words " a second time this the Ilouse. When he has counted forty members, day six (or three) months." The question put to the which is the number requisite to form a quorum, he House in this case, is whether the words proposed to sits down, and the House is constituted. If there be be left out shall stand part of the question or not. not forty members present, the House is adjourned the previous question is chiefly used in respect of until the next day.

resolutions or motions for returns. Instead of simply The House very rarely sits on Saturday; and on rejecting the resolution, it is got rid of by moving Wednesday, business of importance is seldom taken. that the question for its adoption be not put to the

House at that time. bill, he gives notice of his intention ; which notice is "In bills that have passed the Lords before coming printed in the Votes, for the information of the mem- to the Commons, no motion for leave to bring in is bus. On the day fixed for making the motion, he required, and the first reading is always conceded aş briefly states the principle and purpose of his bill, | matter of courtesy. The Lords observe the same rule and moves for leave to introduce it. If the House in respect of bills that have passed the Commons. consent, an order for its introduction is made. The At every step in the progress of a Bill, it may be bill, in manuscript, being brought in, the introducers opposed; and, if the House see fit, rejected. In Commove that it be read a first time. The question for mittee, every clause, every line, every word may be discussion, on the second and third steps, is precisely made the subject of a question. At every step of its the same,--namely, whether the House will entertain progress in the House, it is competent for a member the bill at all; for, as yet, the House knows nothing to move the adjournment of the debate or of the of it, save what has been stated to them by the intro- House, and he may renew this motion as often as he ducer. If the first reading be agreed to, that motion pleases. In Committee, instead of the motion for adis followed by an order for the printing of the bill, journment, a member may move that progress be and a day is fixed for the second reading.

reported; which amounts to the same thing. On the second reading, the question submitted to In the House,—that is, when the Speaker is in the the House is, whether, taken as a whole, the end and Chair,

-a member can only speak once, unless by purpose of the bill is such as may be properly enter- way of explanation; or, in the case of the mover of tained. As this is a question of principle, and not the question, by way of reply. In Committee, a memof detail, the entire bill must at this stage be accepted ber may speak any number of times. A member or rejected. If the bill pass the second reading, an may, however, speak not only on the main question, order is made, and a day appointed, for its being but on all such questions as arise incidentally in the committed to a Committee of the whole House, course of the debate.

On going into Committee, the Speaker leaves the Chair, and the Chairman of Committees presides, not in the Chair, but at the head of the table, on the seat “ THE DAYS OF THY MOURNING SHALL BE

ENDED." usually occupied by the First Clerk. The House then proceeds to consider the bill clause by clause, either

Oh! weep not for the joys that fade in the order in which the clauses stand, or in any other

Like evening lights away;

For hopes that like the stars decayed, which may be deemed most convenient. If there be

Have left thy mortal day; not time for the consideration of all the clauses at one sitting, the Speaker having again taken the Chair, the

For clouds of sorrow will depart, Chairman of Committees reports the progress that

And brilliant skies be given;

And, though on earth the tear may stari has been made, and asks leave to sit again. When

Yet bliss awaits the holy heart all the clauses are gone through, he brings up the Re

Amid the bowers of Heaven ! port, that is, the bill with all the amendments made in it by the Committee, and a day is fixed for taking

Oh! weep not for the friends that pass

Into the lonesome grave, the Report into consideration. When the Report has

As breezes sweep the withered grass been considered, and approved of, the bill is ordered

Along the restless wave; to be fairly written out or engrossed, and a day is fixed for the third reading. If the third reading be

For though thy pleasures may deparis

And darksome days be given; agreed to, the House proceeds to consider whether it

And lonely though on earth thou art, shall pass the bill to which it has agreed.

Yet bliss awaits the holy heart, Previous to the question of the bill's being passed,

When friends rejoin in Heaven.

SCOTCH SNOW-STORMS.

hand of Him who rules the elements, contributes The most dismal of all the snow-storms on record, is not a little to that firm spirit of devotion for which " the thirteen drifty days.” This extraordinary storm, the Scottish shepherd is so distinguished. I know as near as I have been able to trace, must have oc- of no scene so impressive as that of a family sequescurred in the year 1620. The traditionary stories tered in a lone glen, during the time of a winter and pictures of desolation that remain of it, are the storm ; and where is the glen in the kingdom that most dire imaginable ; and the mention of the thir- wants such a habitation? There they are left to the teen days to an old shepherd, in a stormy winter protection of Heaven, and they know and feel it. night, never fails to impress his mind with a sort of Throughout all the wild vicissitudes of nature, they religious awe, and often sets him on his knees be- have no hope of assistance from man, but are confore that Being who alone can avert such another versant with the Almighty alone. calamity.

Before retiring to rest, the shepherd uniformly It is said that, during thirteen days and nights, goes out to examine the state of the weather, and the snow-drift never once abated; the ground was

makes his report to the little dependent group covered with frozen snow when it commenced, and, within—nothing is to be seen but the conflict during all that time, the sheep never broke their fast. of the elements, nor heard but the raving of the The cold was intense, to a degree never before re

storm. Then they all kneel around him, while he membered ; and, about the fifth and sixth days of recommends them to the protection of Heaven ; and the storm, the young sheep began to fall into a sleepy though their little hymn of praise can scarcely be and torpid state, and all that were so affected in the heard even by themselves, as it mixes with the roar evening, died during the night. The intensity of the of the tempest, they never fail to rise from their frost-wind often cut them off, when in that state, in- devotions with their spirits cheered, and their constantaneously. About the ninth and tenth days, the fidence renewed, and go to sleep with an exultation of shepherds began to build up large semicircular walls mind, of which kings and conquerors have no share. of their dead, in order to afford some shelter for the But of all the storms that ever Scotland witnessed, remainder of the living ; but they availed but little, or, I hope, will ever again behold, there is none of for about the same time they were frequently seen them that can once be compared to the memorable tearing at one another's wool with their teeth. 24th of January 1795, which fell with such peculiar

When the storm abated, on the fourteenth day violence on that division of the south of Scotland, from its commencement, there was, on many a high- that is between Crawford-muir and the border. lying farm, not a living sheep to be seen. Large Within these bounds seventeen shepherds perished, misshapen walls of dead, surrounding a small pro- and upwards of thirty were carried home insensible, strate fock, likewise all dead, and frozen stiff in their who afterwards recovered: but the number of sheep lairs, were all that remained to cheer the forlorn that were lost, far outwent any possibility of calculashepherd and his master ; and though, on low-lying tion. One farmer alone, Mr. Thomas Beattie, lost farms, where the snow was not so hard before, num- 14-10 ; and many others, in the same quarter, from bers of sheep weathered the storm, yet their consti- | 600 to 800 each. Whole flocks were overwhelmed tutions received such a shock, that the greater part with snow, and no one ever knew where they were, of them perished afterwards ; and the final conse- till the snow dissolved, when they were all found quence was, that about nine-tenths of all the sheep dead. Many hundreds were driven into waters, in the south of Scotland were destroyed. In the burns, and lakes, by the violence of the storm, where extensive pastoral district of Eskdale Moor, which they were buried or frozen up; and these the flood maintains upwards of twenty thousand sheep, it is carried away, so that they were never seen nor found said none were left alive, but forty young wedders by the owners at all. on one farm, and five old ewés on another. The The following anecdote somewhat illustrates the farm of Thaup remained without a stock, and with confusion and devastation that it bred in the country : out a tenant, for twenty years after the storm ; at the greater part of the rivers, on which the storm length one very honest and liberal-minded man was most deadly, run into the Solway-Frith, on ventured to take a lease of it, at the annual rent

which there is a place called the Beds of Esk, of a grey coat and a pair of hose. It is now rented where the tide throws out and leaves whatsoever is at 5001. An extensive glen in Tweedsmuir, belong-thrown into it by the rivers. When the flood after ing to Sir James Montgomery, became a the storm subsided, there were found in that place, mon at that time, to which any man drove his and the shores adjacent, 1840 sheep, nine black flocks that pleased, and it continued so for nearly a cattle, three horses, two men, one woman, forty-five century.

dogs, one hundred and eighty hares, besides a number The years 1709, 40, and 72, were all likewise of meaner animals. notable

years for severity, and for the losses sustained among the locks of sheep. In the latter, the Life appears long to the miserable ; to him that is happy, snow lay from the middle of December until the the condition of some be !

If this hold true of eternity, how dreadful will middle of April, and all the time hard frozen. Partial thaws always kept the farmer's hopes alive, and If you would know the value of a guinea, try to borrow thus prevented him from removing his sheep to a

one of a stranger.

-HUNTER. low situation, till at length they grew so weak that they could not be removed. There has not been

THE ARCH OF TITUS. such a general loss in the days of any man living, as The Emperor Titus having conquered Judea, and

It is by these years that all subsequent taken Jerusalem, the Roman senate decreed, that a hard winters have been measured, and of late, by triumphal arch should be erected to his honour.

nat of 1795 ; and when the balance turns out in This arch still remains, and is one of the most cufavour of the calculator, there is always a degree of rious and interesting monuments of ancient Rome. thankfulness expressed, as well as a composed sub- | It is attractive to the sculptor, the antiquary, and the mission to the awards of Divine Providence. The historian, in many points of view—but above all it is daily feeling naturally impressed on the shepherd's interesting to the Christian; and to the Jew so deeply mind, that all his comforts are so entirely in the affecting, on account of the numiliating calamity which

com

a moment.

in that year.

SENATVS

.

may

THE SENATE

it records, that, it is said, no man of that nation will Upon the attic appears the following inscription : ever willingly pass under it. It is not simply the event that it commemorates, so intimately connected

POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS. both with the Law and the Gospel, from which it

DIVO . TITO . DIVI . VESPASIANI . derives its interest, though that is remarkable enough,

VESPASIANO . AVGVSTO. but the strong light which it throws by its sculpture upon several of those sacred deposits of the temple, Which be thus translated : which were most intimately connected with the service of the Jewish ritual, and carry us back even to

AND PEOPLE OF ROME, the time of the great legislator himself.

TO THE DIVINE TITUS, THE SON OF VESPASIAN The Arch of Titus is situated on the eastern declivity of the Palatine mount. On approaching it from the south (being the side least injured by time) its Upon entering the arch (which is about fourteen original form is lost in ruins at each extremity; but or fifteen feet wide) on each side are oblong spaces, the arch itself

, a column on each side of it, with the seven feet in height, by nearly fourteen in length, frieze and attic, are still pretty entire. The build containing a representation of the triumph of Titus, ing, in its original form, must have been nearly an when he returned to Rome, after having taken Jeru. exact square. It is constructed of white marble. salem. In the space formed by the curve of the arch, there On the east side appears the emperor in a triumphal are winged figures, personifying Fame. Upon the car, drawn by four horses; Victory is crowning him frieze is a representation of a sacrifice, with an alle with laurel; Rome personified as a female figure, gorical figure at the extremity of the procession, conducts the horses; and citizens and soldiers crowned carried upon a litter.

with laurel, compose the crowd that attends him.

THE AUGUST.

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On the opposite side, is another and more interest- silver trumpets, carried and accompanied by many ing part of the procession, exhibiting the spoils taken figures crowned with laurel, and bearing the Roman from the temple of Jerusalem ;-the golden candle- standards. stick with seven branches, the golden table, and the

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