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MR. JOHN WONTNER, Keeper of Newgate. mind, even of myself, for those devotional feelings which I consider, that the allowing public-houses and the gin

are essential when we approach the house of God. shops to be kept open before Divine Service in the morning and particularly during the time I was in office, that the

I would beg to state, from the observation I have made, causes a greater breach of the Sabbath than almost any

scenes of drunkenness appeared to me to commence from thing else. In my immediate neighbourhood, I see them at five, six, seven, eight, and nine o'clock in the morning, the period of the mechanic receiving his pay on the Sacoming out of the houses in a state of disgraceful inebria- turday night; he would frequent the public-houses on the tion.

Saturday night, and get a stimulus, and then he would So that, in point of fact, the law permitting the public- wait for the opening of the public-houses on Sunday mornhouses to remain open until the hours of divine service, ing, when he completed his intoxication by church-time, gives the opportunity to many to get into such a state of in- and then fall into the hands of women of the lowest toxication, that they are quite unfit for the religious duties class, by whom all these houses are filled; he is taken by of the day; is not that so ? Quite ; they are indisposed them to their haunts, where, if he has any property, the

work of destruction is completed, and on Monday morning to it also. In your experience, have you found these gin-shops to be discharged, and subsequently applies to the parish for relief,

he is unfit to attend to his usual avocations, frequently gets the source of almost all the crime in the metropolis ?I have found prisoners innumerable, I may say, as to whom Mr. Thomas BAKER, Superintendent of the C., or St. James's the love of drink, and the fault of being able to obtain it at Division of Police, describing the evils resulting from so cheap a rate, has been the ruin of them, and the cause

what are called pay-tables, at public-houses, where work. of bringing them distress.

people are, most improperly, paid by some persons, instead THE REV. J. E. TYLER, Rector of St. Giles's.

of at their masters' work-shops, says :There are many families of the lower class of English These poor wretches, who have been standing or waiting mechanics and labourers, which I know from my own

an hour or two in the public-house, have become three parts knowledge to be truly religious, and within their sphere intoxicated; the foreman then comes; he pays them their very exemplary ; but they, especially the younger branches wages, stops out of that for their week's drinking, which he of their families, are now more than ever exposed to the

answers the publican for, and they can drink as much as worst sorts of temptation in the streets, and round the doors they like, so that they do not go beyond their wages; and of gin-shops and public-houses. It is lamentable to see the

these men thus deprive their children and their wives of number, of young girls especially, to whom the present three parts of what they earn during the week. The wife gin-shops give such facilities for their wicked doings as

comes to the public-house; she gets nothing whatever of they never had before.

the wages. In the course of an hour or two, one of them Drunkenness has been lamentably on the increase ; and is carried by my police, in a state of insensibility, perhaps notwithstanding all the efforts of myself and those inhabit-followed by one or two of his companions, and he has ants who act with me, great outrages are constantly taking perhaps a few halfpence, or a few shillings in his pocket, place whilst we are going to church and returning. I ear

and it is stated by his companions, that he received so and nestly press on the gentry in my parish, not to use their so, and he had so much when he received his wages, and he carriages to come to church on Sundays, but the dreadful

has lost all but these few halfpence or shillings; he is scenes of intoxication and debauchery to which they are

locked up during the night; on the Sunday morning I ex posed, as they walk along the street, quite disarm me

release him. This is the main-spring of the disorder, and in this respect.

the debauchery, and I may say also, the immoral acts. In Will you have the goodness to state to the Committee the division, it is altogether dreadful; the scenes which the observations that you have made, applicable to the ob. spring from the disorder of those public-houses. Then his servance of the Lord's-day? --I have been most painfully companions come, and perhaps his wife comes in the mornreminded of the habits of drunkenness, dissipation, and ing, to see by the books what was found upon him, and perprofligacy, prevailing on Saturday night and Sunday, in a

haps there are a few halfpence only, and he has been ei ner degree far more lamentable than through the rest of the robbed, or spent away all the rest of his week's earnings, week. The cases of cholera are reported to me, as chairman and the wife begins to cry out, and says, there are so many of the Board of Health, in writing every evening, and by children, and there is not a loaf of bread in the house, and an officer every morning. The cases of cholera on Sunday perhaps she will scramble together a few halfpence on the and Monday, generally exceed those of any other day, Sunday to go to provide what she can for the children and sometimes two-fold, at others four-fold, ten-fold, and even

herself during the Sunday.

H.M. as fourteen to one. THE HON. AND Rev. GERARD T. NOEL, Curate of The study of literature nourishes youth, entertains old Richmond.

age, adorns prosperity, solaces adversity, is delightful at Drunkenness is a vice which accelerates pauperism home, unobtrusive abroad, deserts us not by day nor by beyond every other ; make a man drink, and you bring night, in journeying nor in retirement -CICERO. him soon upon the parish:

OBSERVATION and instruction, reading and conversation, Mr. George Wilson, formerly Overseer of St. Margaret's, may furnish us with ideas, but it is the labour and meWestminster.

ditation of our own thoughts which must render them Will you have the goodness to describe what scenes

either useful or valuable. have been exhibited on the Sabbath morning in your parish ?-I should say that drunkenness, and riot, and Hasty conclusions are the mark of a fool : a wise man debauchery, on the Sabbath morning, exceeded the whole doubteth, a fool rageth, and is confident: the novice saith, aggregate of the week besides, in Tothill-street, Broadway, I am sure that it is so; the better learned answers, PeradStrutton-ground, and those low parts of Westminster. venture it may be so, but I prithee inquire. Some men

Then people who assemble on Sunday morning do not are drunk with fancy, and mad with opinion. It is a little assemble merely for the purpose of marketing ? —No, not learning, and but a little, which makes men conclude hasmerely for that purpose, the streets are very much impeded tily. Experience and humility teach modesty and fear. by a number of persons making their purchases, but the JEREMY TAYLOR. number is certainly greatly increased by drunken persons, male and female, who are turned out of the public-houses. FORTUNE is like the market, where many times if you can It would be impossible for myself and my family to attend stay a little, the price will fall: at other times she turneth the church in the Broadway ; 'I have attempted sometimes the handle of the bottle first to be received, and after, the to take my family there; I have six children, and it is not belly, which it is hard to clasp. There is no greater wisdom safe for their persons to approach the church, for at eleven than well to time the beginnings and onsets of things. in the morning the public-houses are discharged of their Bacon. contents, and the great proportion of the people who come out of them, are in a state of beastly intoxication; mecha- No man can be provident of his time, who is not prudent nics, labourers, prostitutes, and thieves, who are quarrelling, in the choice of his company.-JEREMY TAYLOR. and sometimes fighting, and talking in the most obscene manner; I cannot permit my children or female servants IDLENESS travels very leisurelv, and Poverty soon over to come in contact with the horrid scene; and it ill fits the takes her.-HUNTER.

of

ORIGIN OF PROPERTY.

THE WAY TO BE HAPPY.

BY JOHN BYRON, M.A. The first objects of Property were the fruits which a man gathered, and the wild animals he caught;

A HERMIT there was, and he lived in a grot, next to these, the tents and houses which he built,

And the way to be happy, they said he had got,

As I wanted to learn it, I went to his cell, the tools he made use of to catch or prepare his food ; And when I came there, the old hermit said, “ Well, and afterwards, weapons of war and offence. Many Young man, by your looks, you want something, I see, of the savage tribes in North America, have advanced Now tell me the business that brings you

me?" no farther than this, yet; for they are said to reap “The way to be happy, they say you have got, their harvest, and return the produce of their market And as I want to learn it, I've come to your grot. with foreigners, into the common hoard or treasury Now I beg and entreat, if you have such a plan, of the tribe.

That you'll write it me down, as plain as you can." Flocks and herds of tame animals soon become

Upon which the old hermit went to his pen,

And brought me this note when he came back again. property; Abel, the second son of Adam, was a keeper of sheep; sheep and oxen, camels and asses, com

“ 'Tis being, and doing, and having, that make

All the pleasures and pains of which beings partake, posed the wealth of the Jewish Patriarchs, as they do

To be what God pleases,-to do a man's best, still of the Modern Arabs. As the world was first And to have a good heart—is the way to be blest." peopled in the East, where there existed a great scarcity of water, wells probably were next made That prudence which the world teaches, and a quick susProperty; as we learn, from the frequent and serious ceptibility of private interest, will direct us to shun needmention of them in the Old Testament, and conten- less enmities; since there is no man whose kindness we tions and treaties about them, and, from its being may not some time want, or by whose malice we may not

some time suffer.

-JOHNSON. recorded, among the most memorable achievements of very eminent men, that they dug or discovered

THE SURINAM TOAD. a well, Land, which is now so important a part property,

Of all the species of Toad, there is perhaps none more which alone our laws call real property, and regard

disgusting in appearance, or more curious in its hisupon all occasions with such peculiar attention, was

tory than that shown in the annexed figure. It is probably not made property in any country till long found in great numbers in Surinam, and other places after the institution of many other species of pro

in the warmer latitudes, as well as in both North perty ; that is, till the country became populous, and and South America. The peculiarity for which it is tillage began to be thought of. The first partition of most remarkable, consists in the extraordinary manan estate which we read of, was that which took ner in which its young are hatched. After the female place between Abram and Lot : and was one of the has deposited her spawn, her partner places portions simplest imaginable : “If thou wilt take the left of it, with the assistance of his fore-paws, upon her hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou depart back; she then takes to the water, and those parts to the right hand, then I will go to the left.”

on which the spawn is laid begin soon to swell, and There are no traces of property in land in Cæsar's the egg becomes attached to her skin, while a thin account of Britain : but little of it in the History of film is spread over it; the spots, containing her the Jewish Patriarchs ; none of it found among the future young, appearing like round projections. By Nations of North America ; the Scythians are expressly

degrees a small hole is formed in the back of the said to have appropriated their cattle and houses, mother for each of the eggs, and in these chambers, but to have left their land in common.

protected by their filmy covering, the young undergo Property in immoveables continued, at first, no

all their changes of form, the parent, in the mean longer than the occupation, that is, so long as a time, never quitting the water. To explain these man's family continued in possession of a cave, or his

changes, it will be only necessary to describe those flocks depastured upon a neighbouring hill—no one

that take place in the common toad of England. attempted, or thought he had a right to disturb, or The eggs of the toad are found, in large masses, drive them out; but when the man quitted the cave, in stagnant waters, covered with a kind of jelly, and or changed his pasture, the first who found them may be easily distinguished from those of the frog, unoccupied, entered upon them by the same title as which appear in long strings, like so many rows of his predecessors : and made way, in his turn, for any

pearls, with a black spot in the centre of each. This one that happened to succeed him. All more per

black speck in the egg of both animals, by degrees, manent property in land, was probably posterior to

enlarges, and becomes at length of the size of a pea, civil government and to laws : and, therefore, settled

with a black thread, like a tail, attached to it. The by these, or according to the will of the reigning jelly-like covering, on which the young one feeds, chief. -PALEY.

becomes gradually thinner, and at length bursts, and

the young toad begins its life in the water, in the UPON A MAN SLEEPING—I do not more wonder at any

form of a tadpole. When it has first left the egg, man's art, than at his who professes to think of nothing;

that part which forms the head has small black and I do not a little marvel at that man who says he can fringes attached to either side, and with these it is sleep without a dream; for the mind of man is a restless supposed to breathe ; these fringes soon disappear, thing; and though it give the body leave to repose itself, and it then breathes by means of gills, in the same as knowing it is a mortal and earthly piece, yet itself being manner as a fish; it remains in this form for several a spirit, and therefore active, and indefatigable, is ever in weeks, feeding, as most fishes do, upon any animal motion. Give me a sea that moves not, a sun that shines substances that come within its reach : it is soon, not, an open eye that sees not, and I shall yield there may be a reasonable soul that works not. It is possible that however, destined to undergo another and most exthrough a natural or accidental stupidity, a man may not traordinary change. At the hinder part of the black perceive his own thoughts (as sometimes the eye or ear mass that looks like its head, two legs appear, and, if may be distracted, not to discern his own objects); but, in carefully examined, two others may be seen in front, the mean time, he thinks that, whereof he cannot give an

but underneath the skin; the tail also becomes account; like as we many times dream, when we cannot report our fancy. Since my mind will needs be ever work

shorter, and at last disappears ; the forelegs are set ing, it shall be my care that it may always be well em

at liberty; a horny beak, which, till now, had ployed. Bishop HALL.

covered the extremity of the nose, falls off, the open

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ANNIVERSARIES. ing of the gills is closed, and the perfect animal ap

MONDAY, 14th JANUARY. pears; it is no longer able to breathe while under

Oxford Hilary Term begins. water, it refuses all dead animal substances, and 1742 Edmund Halley, the astronomer, died. seeks the land, to hunt insects for its living.

1753 Berkeley, the amiable Bishop of Cloyne, died. The toad is distinguished from the frog, by its

TUESDAY, 15th.

Duke of Gloucester, born. clumsier appearance, and sluggish crawling move

1559 Queen Elizabeth crowned at Westminster. ments ; its body is covered with small pimples, from 1761 Pondicherry captured by the English ; being the last settlewhich, when alarmed, a fetid humour flows, capable,

ment possessed by the French in the East Indies. in the instance of the Surinam toad, of blistering the 1795 Thellirince of Orange took refuge in England, on account of skin when applied to it; but which has been impro

WEDNESDAY, 16th. perly considered poisonous. The most probable use 1556 The Emperor Charles the Fifth resigned the Crown of Ger

many to his son, Philip, and retired to a monastery. of this liquid is to moisten the body of the animal 1589 M. Bussy-le-Clerc, who had the command of Paris, during its when exposed to the heat of the sun, the warmth of siege by Henry the Fourth, sent the Parliament to the Baswhose rays would otherwise render its skin so dry as

tille, where they were fed on bread and water only.

1794 Edward Gibbon, the historian, died. to prevent its movement, and in the end cause its 1809 Sir John Moore, K.B., killed at Corunna. death. Disgusting, however, as this creature appears,

THURSDAY, 17th. the negroes in Surinam will eat the hinder legs of 1756 Mozart

, the great composer, born. the species figured in our engraving. In winter, these 1792 George Horpe, Bishop of Norwich, author of the Commentary

, . animals remain torpid in the mud at the bottom of

FRIDAY, 18th. ditches and ponds, and only recover their activity 1595 Mahomet the Third, succeeding Amurath the Third, Sultan

Prisca. Old Twelfth Day. when the warmth of the spring has hatched or re- of the Turks, put to death, by strangulation, twenty-one of stored to animation the numerous tribes of insects on his brothers, and ten women. which they feed. Toads are known to reach a very 1719 Sir Samuel Garth, M.D., author of The Dispensary, died.

SATURDAY, 19th. great age.

1472 Copernicus, the astronomer, born. Pennant, in his British Zoology, gives a curious 1728 William Congreve, the poet, died. account of a toad's having lived in a kind of domestic 1736 James Watt, the engineer, born, at Greenock, in Scotland.

SUNDAY, 20th. state for more than forty years, and of its having SECOND SUNDAY AFTER EPIPHANY. been in a great degree tamed or reclaimed from its 1327 Edward the Second, King of England, deposed. natural shyness or desire of concealment; since it 1771 Dissolution of all the Parliaments throughout France; and

the Grand Council of the King converted into a Parliament. would always readily come out of its hole at the ap- 1788 Australia, or New South Wales, began to be colonized. proach of its master and other inmates of the family, 1790 William Howard, the philanthropist, died; at Cherson, in New in order to be fed. It grew to a very large size, and 1813 Wieland, the German poet, died. was considered as 'so singular a curiosity, that even ladies requested to see the favourite toad, and ad

LONDON mired its beautiful eyes; it was therefore often placed

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IX MONTHLY PARTS,

PRICE SIXPENCE, BY on the table, and fed with various insects, which it JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND, seized with great quickness, and without seeming to Sold by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :..

Aberdeen, Brown & Co. Durham, Andrews. Northampton, Birlsal. be embarrassed by the presence of company. This Bath, George,

Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Norwich, Muskeit. extraordinary animal generally resided in a hole be- Bristol, Westley & Co.; D. Glasgow, Griffin & Co.

Birmingham, Langbridge. Ereter, Penny & Co. Nottingham, Wright.

0.rfurd, Slatter neath the steps of the house-door fronting the garden; Bury, Lankester.

Paris, Bennis.

Hereford, Child. Plymouth, Nettleton. and might probably have survived many years longer, Cambridge, Stevenson. Hull, Wilson.

Salisbury, Brodie & Co. had it not been severely wounded by a raven, which Chelmsford, Guy.

Ipswich, Deck. Sheffield, Ridge.

Lancashire and Cheshire, Shrewsbury, Eddowes. seized it before it could take refuge in its hole ; and Cheltenham, Lovesy:

Baucks & Co., Man- Staffordshire Potteries,

Chester,Seacome; Harding. notwithstanding it was liberated from its captor, it

Leeds, Robinson, never again enjoyed its usual health, though it con

Gloucester, Jew.

chester.

Watts, Lane End. Sunderland, Marwood.

Colchester, Swinborne &Co. Leicester, Combe. Whitby, Rodgers.

Derby, Wilkins & Son. Liverpool, Hughes. Worcester, Deighton. tinued to live for above a year after the accident Devonport, Byers. Macclesfield, Swinnerton. Yarmouth, Alexander, happened.

Dublin, Curry Jun. & Co. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fin. York, Bellerby,

lay & Co.; Empson.

Chichester, Glover,

Dundee, Shaw,

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PRICE ONE PENNY.

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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YORK MINSTER.

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35

VOL II.

75

YORK MINSTER.

The nobility and gentry of the north of England NOTHING perhaps can exceed the grandeur of York

were at all times great contributors to this magnifiMinster, as a specimen of ancient English architecture.

cent structure; and the experience of our own times It is justly esteemed the glory of the city in which it is sufficient to prove that, when such assistance is stands; and it has become more interesting, from the actually required, it is not denied in these days. changes and injuries, which it has from time to time

The following are the dimensions of York minster. undergone. To enter minutely into the particulars

Whole length from east to west

5244 feet. Breadth of the east end..

105 relating to its history and architecture, is, with our Breadth of the west end

109 limited space, impossible: but we can furnish a ge Length of transept from north to south 222

235 neral account of the cathedral, and certain dates of

Height of the grand lantern tower ..
Height of the nave..

99 the different portions of the building as they at pre

Height of the east window sent exist. These, we trust, will prove acceptable to

Breadth

32 our readers.

The interior of the minster is in every respect The first church dedicated to St. Peter, in the city answerable to the grandeur of its exterior, and exof York, is supposed to have owed its origin to Ed-hibits a striking specimen of the progressive styles wyn, King of the Northumbrians, who was converted of architecture which marked the reigns of the to Christianity, A.D. 627; but it was scarcely finished English monarchs, from Henry the Third to Henry when that prince fell in battle. His head is said to the Sixth or Seventh inclusive, with the last of whom have been interred in this cathedral, and his body in Gothic architecture may be said to have ceased. the monastery of Whitby.

The newest portion of the building, but not the The church built by Edwyn, was burnt down in least beautiful, is the organ-screen, at the entrance of 741, and, being afterwards rebuilt, had the same fate in the choir. It is of a florid kind, ornamented with 1069. Thomas, a canon of Bayeux, and the first Nor- fifteen statues of the kings of England, and is proman archbishop, in addition to appointing the several bably of the time of Henry the Seventh. When the dignities in the cathedral, repaired the fabric, which great repairs were recently made in the Minster, to was again destroyed by a fire that accidentally oc which we shall more particularly allude, it was at one curred in 1137, reducing to ruins the greater part of time contemplated to remove this screen eastward, in the city. In 1171, Archbishop Roger began to rebuild consequence of its concealing the bases of two great the choir, in which the Norman style prevailed: cir- pillars, which help to support the lantern tower, but cular arches, single and massive pillars with plain the plan was afterwards abandoned, as likely to injure capitals, and an entire freedom from all the "aid of the proportions of the choir, besides that it would ornament," were here conspicuous.

have sacrificed some of the statues on the screen. It York minster was, however, afterwards entirely re would be difficult indeed to imagine a view more calnewed ; and by the care and munificence of some culated to fill the mind with awe and delight than succeeding archbishops and other benefactors, the that which is presented on entering the west end of stately fabric now standing was erected.

the minster. The columns, the arches, “ the long Of the present building, the south part of the drawn aisle," the screen, not intercepting the noble cross-aisle or transept is om as ancient a date as 1227, eastern wirdow, which sheds its rich and varied light and is supposed to be the oldest portion of the min- through the forms of kings and prelates, giving that ster: at that time, in the reign of Henry the Third, air of mingled gravity and beauty so appropriate to the large heavy pillar had given place to a cluster of the sacred place, and assisting to lift the soul to Him slender and elegant columns; a quantity of rich who made us, whom the heaven of heavens cannot foliage adorned the capitals; the windows were made contain, and yet who dwells in the hearts of those high, narrow, and pointed; and the light tracery ran who worship Him in spirit and in truth. round the vaultings of the roof. The north transept This spacious building is well-adapted for musie, was built in the same character in 1260. The first and considering its size, favourable to the conveyance stone of the nave was laid with great state in 1291, of sound; a point to which great attention seems to and it was finished with the two western towers about have been paid in the construction of our Cathedrals. the year 1330. The materials for building the nave Its importance in all churches, for the general purwere supplied by Robert de Vavasour and Robert de poses of hearing properly, and for the due effect of Boulton, earl of Boulton, the former of whom gave psalmody, scarcely requires to be pointed out. But the stone, the latter the timber. The memory of the advantages possessed by York Minster in this these noble benefactors is preserved by statues at the respect were never so fully displayed, as at the Musieast and west ends of the cathedral.

cal Festivals which have been held there. The choir just alluded to, as built by Archbishop The first of these took place in September, ?823, Roger, not corresponding with the rest, was taken when the number present on one of the days was down, and a new one begun in 1365, and the 4860, and of vocal and instrumental performers 459. great central tower in 1370. The eastern win This performance of sacred music, which was dow, which forms the grand termination of the chiefly from the works of Haydn and Handel, is said

the reign of Henry the Fourth. to have been most grand and striking, surpassed by The glazing of this magnificent window was done at nothing of the kind except the commemoration of the expense of the dean and chapter, by John Thorn- Handel in Westminster Abbey, in 1784. ton, of Coventry, who, by the contract then made, The benevolent object in view was the benefit of was to receive four shillings per week for his work, the York County Hospital, and of the General Infirand to finish it within the space of three years. He maries of Leeds, Sheffield, and Hull, to which bewas, also, to have one hundred shillings per annum tween seven and eight thousand pounds were divided, besides, and ten pounds more at the conclusion, if he as the balance of the receipts. Two similar festivals, continued and finished his work to the satisfaction of for the same purpose, were subsequently held in the his employers. The sum may at first appear small, par- minster, in 1825 and 1828. ticularly when the extreme beauty of the colouring, In recording in our pages a short sketch of this and the manner of execution in this window is con- splendid cathedral, we now come to a memorable event sidered; but it is no longer surprising, when the in its history which excited most painful emotions at difference in the value of money is taken into account. the time of its occurrence, and must be yet fresh in

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