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CATARACTS OF BRITAIN. This country is not less mountainous than that of Switzer We now come to the cataracts of our own country; among land ; indeed, its characteristic features consist of bleak which are to be found as much of magnificence, and, with and rugged mountains, rocks, precipices, and forests; the exception of such falls as those of Niagara, little less interspersed with streams, at one time dashing among of stupendous grandeur, than in those of distant parts of precipitous ridges of rocks, and forming magnificent cas- the world ; though too much neglected, from the prevalent cades; at another, expanding into beautiful sheets, wind-taste for foreign beauties. Commencing with North Briing slowly through the bottom of a pleasant valley, or losing tain, our attention is first arrested by a fall on themselves in the gloom of a forest.

THE GLAMMA RIVER. THE NUN OF ARPENA. The river Arve runs for many miles between high, craggy, tainous county of Ross, though situated amidst the constant

This cascade, in the heights of Glen Elchaig, in the mounand inaccessible rocks, which seem as if split on purpose obscurity of woody hills, is truly sublime. to give its rapid waters a free passage. The surprising echoes and continued sounds occasioned by its streams, &c. river, one of those natural wonders which distinguish the

In the same county, is the grand cataract of the KIRKAG are reverberated three, four, and, in some parts, six or western borders of Ross-shire. seven times, with a noise so deep and wild, as to strike a Near the old village of Keith, in Banffshire, the river stranger with terror. The cataracts are, in several places, Isla is precipitated over a high rock, and forms a conmore or less loud and terrible, as the waters are more or less siderable cataract, called the LINN OF KEITH. swollen by the melting snows, which cover the tops of the On the Isla, in Forfarshire, there is a cataract, called the surrounding mountains. One, in particular, called by the Rocky LINN, situate in the narrow vale of Glen Isla, with natives the Nun of ARPENA, falls from a prodigious rock, a fall of seventy or eighty feet. in a descent of above 1100 feet, with a noise and violence that astound the beholder.

FALLS OF THE FOYERS. FALLS OF CERESOLI AND EVANSON, The river Oreo, rising in Mount Rosa, and fed by numerous streams from the St. Gothard, Mount Cenis, and some branches of the Apennines, forms, at CERESOLI, a vertical cataract of 2400 feet.

The torrent Evanson, descending from another part of Mount Rosa, exhibits, about half a mile from Vernez, a fall of more than 1200 feet, and rolls down pebbles of quartz, veined with the gold that is occasionally traced in the mountains of Challand.


CADUTA DELLE MARMORA. This cataract is on the Evelino, and receives its nameMar. ble Cascade) from the mountain down which the river falls being almost wholly of marble. It is situated about three miles from Terni, and is approached by a road partly cut in the side of the mountain, on the edge of a frightful precipice : but on reaching the top, the adventurous explorer is amply rewarded by a view of this stupendous cataract, as it rushes in several streams from the mountain, and is precipitated down a perpendicular height of 300 feet, with a thundering noise. The waters breaking against lateral rocks, cause an ascent of spray and vapour much higher than the summit of the cataract, so that the neighbouring valley receives a perpetual fall of rain. After this descent, the waters rush into the cavities of the rocks, whence they again burst out through several openings, and at length reach the bed of the river.

FALL OF TEVERONE. The river Teverone, anciently the Anio, glides gently through the town of Tivoli, till, reaching the brink of a steep rock, it is precipitated nearly 100 feet down in one mass; This cataract, near Loch Ness, is situated in a darksome and, after boiling up in its narrow channel, it rushes through glen of stupendous depth. It consists of two falls, the a chasm of the rock, into a cavern below. At the foot of Upper and Lower, with an interval of about half a mile the cataract, the water, in a succession of ages, has hollowed between them. At the former, the river Foyers, being grottoes of various shapes and sizes, so beautifully pic- confined by steep rocks, precipitates itself, with great veloturesque as to baffle all description. Of these, the Grotto city, at three leaps, down as many precipices, whose united OF NEPTUNE is the most celebrated. Near to it, are three depth is about 200 feet. Just above the third leap, a stone minor cascades, which rush, with a murmuring noise, throughr bridge has been thrown over the ravine; prior to the erecthe ruins of the villa of Mecænas, down the woody steep tion of which, the only passage over this torrent was a rude which forms the opposite bank of the river, and present to alpine bridge, consisting of some sticks thrown from rock the eye a pleasingly romantic scene.

to rock, and covered with turf. The river Teverone, receives the stream issuing from About half a mile lower down the river, is the Lower the LAGO DI BAGNI, formerly the Lacus Albulus. This Fall. The water, after flowing through a narrow, rocky is a small lake, but remarkable for its floating islets, formed channel, suddenly makes a descent of 212 feet. The apof matted sedge and herbage, with a soil of dust and sand pearance of this fall is truly grand, and allowed, by many blown from the adjacent country, and cemented by the travellers, to surpass that of any other European cataract, bitumen and sulphur, with which the water of the lake is that of Terni, in Italy, only excepted. A dense mist conimpregnated. Some of these islets are forty-five feet long, stantly arises from the broken water, and the noise of the and will bear five or six people, who, by means of a pole, fall may be usually heard at a considerable distance. After may move about to different parts of the lake. The water heavy rains, the scene is beyond measure impressive and of this lake is of a whitish colour, emitting a sulphureous terrific: in times of comparative drought, the water finds vapour, and has a petrifying quality.

a sufficiently capacious channel through an orifice, nearly

arched over by the worn rocks, and quietly spreads, like a DALMATIA.

long white web, over the precipice. NEAR the north-eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, ir Austrian Dazzatia, is the village of VELIKA GUBAVIZA,

MARINE CATARACT OF LOCH ETIF. where the river Cettina has a magnificent cataract. The This loch forms a navigable inlet of the sea, in Argylestream is precipitated from a height of above 150 feet, shire, and is surrounded with scenery peculiarly romantic. forming a deep majestic sound, which is heightened by the About seven miles from its communication with the ocean, echo reverberated between the naked marble banks. the lake is contracted into a narrow channel, called, in


Celtic, Connel, signifying rage or fury; a name well one of the most surprising natural curiosities in Great adlapted to the place ; for a ridge of uneven rocks here Britain, is situated in a low field, and is about 100 feet stretches across two-thirds of the channel, and occasions, deep, 180 long, and 90 broad. It is divided into two parts, at particular times of the tide, a current flowing with great by a rude grotesque arch of limestone rock. At the south rapidity; and, when swollen by a spring-tide, it discharges end is an entrance to this abyss, where the astonished itself, as soon as the ebb begins, with a violence and noise visitant beholds a cataract issuing from an immense aperunequalled by the loudest cataract, and which may be heard ture in the rock, falling seventy-five feet in an unbroken at the distance of many miles.

sheet of water, with a deafening noise. The stream disappears CASCADES IN ENGLAND.

among the rocks at the bottom ; but, after running about a We now enter England, and pause awhile in CUMBER- | The cave is filled with the spray of the dashing water, which

mile through a subterraneous passage, it again emerges. LAND, where are several waterfalls, which, if not remarkable for their stupendous character, are still pleasing for sometimes produces a small rainbow, of extraordinary briltheir sublime and picturesque beauties. SCALE Force, in liancy. One of the most surprising features of this scene

is a stone, of enormous magnitude, suspended by its oppothe vicinity of Buttermere, and LOWDORE WATERFALL,

site angles, touching the sides of a crevice, over the orifice cannot be viewed without admiration : and Sour Milk

whence the cascade issues. The river Wease pervades this FORCE, near the bottom of Buttermere Lake, has a cha

cavern, and another at Gatekirk, and runs about two miles racter of grandeur in its fall of 900 feet.

underground. In WESTMORELAND, near Great Langdale, are' the beautiful cascades of Skelwith and Colwith Forces, resembles the Wethercot, but is on a smaller scale, the fall

About a mile to the southward, is DANK CAVE, which amid a romantic cluster of very fine mountains, yielding of its stream being not more than twenty-five or thirty feet

. blue.slate. These cascades are rivalled by a remarkable

Thornton Scar, about two or three miles from Ingleton, FALL OF THE TEES,

is an immense rocky cliff, rising to the height of 300 feet, and partly clothed with wood. Near this cliff is THORNTON FORCE, a beautiful cataract, rushing from the rocks, with a fall of ninety feet, in one sheet of water, sixteen feet wide.

Among the natural curiosities of the Welsh Mountains, the falls of the Cayne and Mawddach, in Merionethshire, cannot fail to attract notice,

The former, called by the natives PistiL-Y-CAYNE, when viewed from below, the only point from which it can be seen with advantage, is very magnificent. A sheet of water pours down a rugged declivity, 200 feet in perpendicular height. The sides of the fall are thickly mantle] with woods; and the agitated waters are received, at the bottom of their descent, into vast hollows of the rocks, which their perpetual action has excavated, and from which they boil and force their way to join those of the Mawddach, a little below. When the sun shines upon this fall, it is said to be brilliant beyond conception.

The Pistil-y-Mawddach consists of three distinct falls, all of which are exposed to view at once. The first is about twenty feet wide, and nearly the same in height, falling into a deep pool, thirty feet in diameter. From this

it glides over a second ledge, and descends, by a fall of On the western side of the county of DURHAM, and border thirty feet, into a second basin, of larger dimensions. It of Westmoreland. The river, obstructed and divided by a agam descends, by a third fall, of about twenty feet in perperpendicular rock, descends in a double cataract from the pendicular height, into the largest and deepest pool, over top; but, reuniting its waters before they reach the bottom, the brim of which it escapes, and descends, foaming amidst the whole dashes into the basin below, with a degree of the rocky crags, to join the Cayne. sublime grandeur, scarcely inferior in effect to the cataracts In DEVONSHIRE, a few miles from Tavistock, the river of Switzerland, or even of America. The foam is thrown | Tamar receives the stream of the Lyd, which is peculiarly up to a considerable height, and adds to the wild beauties remarkable for being pent up by rocks, at the bridge, a of the surrounding scenery.

little above the confluence, and running so deep beneath, Below this fall, the stream, called LANGDON Beck, pours that the water is scarcely to be seen, nor its murrr ars heard, its waters into the Tees, over a rock thirty feet high. by persons above; the bridge being on a level with the

In YORKSHIRE (North Riding), are the following cata- road, and the water nearly seventy feet below it. Within racts, called Forces, on or near the river Yore, or Ure. a mile of this place is a cataract, where the water falls

HARdRow Force, formed by a rivulet, which joins the above a hundred feet. The river passes a mill at some Yore near Askrigg, and rushes, in a large sheet of water, distance above the cataract, and, after a course on a over a ledge of rocks ninety-nine feet in height. The descent of little less than 100 feet from the level of the mill, chasm below the fall is about 900 feet in length, and reaches the brink of the precipice, whence it is precipitated bounded on each side by huge masses of rock. During in a most beautiful and picturesque manner, and, striking severe frosts, the water has formed an immense circle of on a part of the cliff, rushes from it, in a wider cataract, to ninety feet in circumference.

the bottom; where again falling with considerable violence, WHITFIELD Gill and Mill Gill Forces are in the it makes a deep and foaming basin in the ground. This same vicinity; a little below which is A YSGARTH Force, the fine sheet of water causes the surrounding air at the bottom finest waterfall in the county. Here the river Yore pours to be so impregnated with aqueous particles, that visitors its whole waters over an irregular ridge of rocks. Above find themselves in a mist, and gratify their curiosity at the the fall, is a bridge, of one arch, with a span of seventy- expense of being wetted to the skin. one feet, from which a most romantic view presents itself, İRELAND may not improperly be termed an island of comprising a succession of waterfalls, amidst intermingled natural wonders : its lougiis, its bogs, its caverns, its rocks and foliage, with the steeple of the church emerging basaltic pillars and volcanic remains, have been repeatedly from a copse, to give a human interest to all the rest. described; but of its waterfalls, very little notice seems to

At Richmond, under the ruined walls of the castle, the have been taken. The Salmon Leap in the Shannon, is river SWALE, forms a pleasing cascade.

spoken of as an interesting cascade ; and the cataract at The vicinity of INGLETON, in the West Riding of York- POWERSCOURT, in Wicklow county, is reported to have a fall shire, is replete with natural curiosities, among which the of 300 feet perpendicular : but particulars are wanting. following are selected, as suitable to our present purpose :

YORDAS Cave, in King's Dale, bordering on Westmore Succeeding Papers of this series will embrace the subjects land, is about 150 feet in length, and contains a subterra- | of Volcanoes, Caverns, &c. neous cascade, surrounded with awfully sublime scenery. At a little distance from Ingleton, is the more celebrated,

LONDON because larger, CAVE OF WETHERCOT, in which is a cascade,




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Copied, by permission of the Proprietors, from the Print after Mr. Dante's Ficture.



PASSAGE OF THE ISRAELITES THROUGH God gave this remarkable command to Moses, for THE RED SEA.

that Pharaoh would say of the children of Israel, This week we present our readers with a cut taken | They are entangled in the land; the wilderness hath from Mr. Danby's well-known picture of the Passage shut them in. And I, the Lord, will harden Phaof the Red Sea by the Israelites under the conduct of raoh's heart, that he shall follow after them ; and I Moses. The subject almost immediately follows, and will be honoured upon Pharaoh and upon all his host ; connects itself with, that of Mr. Roberts's picture, that the Egyptians may know that I am the Lord.” which was particularly noticed in this Magazine some Thus, therefore, the tyranny and falsehood of Pharaoh, time ago. Both pictures fall within the same general and the idolatrous wickedness of the Egyptians, were class of design ; a class in which the striking effects to undergo the last and finishing act of divine reof light and shade, combined with a certain vastness tribution,—that retribution to be brought about and and indefiniteness of outline, are principally studied, signalized by such a marvellous demonstration of to the partial neglect of the higher and more truly the omnipotence of God over the ordinary laws and imaginative objects of the art. We repeat, that we processes of the material world, as should, for the should be sorry to see this style of painting more time being, strike dumb with astonishment the worgenerally pursued than it is at present, because we shippers of birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and lifemuch fear its ultimate tendency will be to lower the less forms of nature, and also should remain in character of the art as expressive of beauty and moral everlasting record, an awful proof of the unsleeping power; nevertheless, we willingly acknowledge the government of the Lord. May we not also surmise pleasure we have received in musing upon this im- that, by this apparently strange direction given to posing representation of the place and circumstances the march, the faith of the leader was intended to be of one of the most memorable scenes in the departure tried; for certainly, under all the circumstances of the of the Hebrews from the land of Egypt.

flight of the Israelites, and the notorious reluctance When the children of Israel had completely and double-dealing of Pharaoh, such a command detached themselves from the dominion of the king of must have seemed, at first, to Moses, whose practical Egypt, the object which, in pursuance of prophecy and acquaintance with the country cannot but be prethe divine command, they had to accomplish, was to sumed, almost entirely destructive of his nearly acmarch to the borders of that pleasant land- the land complished hopes of the deliverance of his fellowof Canaan—which had been promised of old to them, countrymen. through their great ancestor Abraham. The direct What God had foretold, and what Moses and the road to Palestine from Rameses, the chief seat of the Israelites had good reason, upon human consideraHebrews in Egypt, and probably the same as Goshen, tions, to apprehend, took place. Pharaoh collected was to the north, by the line of the Mediterranean his forces, and followed the track of the escaping Sea ; and the march in this direction, if unopposed, host, and came within sight of them, when they were might, probably, have been performed in the course encamped before Pi-hahiroth. Thus, the Israelites of four or five weeks. But all this district, or, at were completely hemmed in. Their situation seemed least, the part of it adjoining the immediate boundary desperate to the multitude; they feared the vengeance of the Holy Land, was inhabited by a strong and of their irritated task-masters, and in the bitterness warlike people called Philistines, and we are expressly of their spirits, they thus threw their reproaches upon told by Moses that it was by special direction of God Moses. “ Because there were no graves in Egypt,” himself, that the Israelites declined the nearest road, said they to him, “ hast thou taken us away to die in and took, instead of it, a turn to the south or south- the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, west, and came to Succoth, which Josephus supposes to carry us forth out of Egypt? Is not this the to be the more modern Laiopolis ; from Succoth word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, ' Let us they advanced to Etham, at the extreme northern end alone, that we may serve the Egyptians ?' For it had of the western branch of the Red Sea. This western been better for us to have served the Egyptians, than branch was called Sinus Horoopolites, by the ancient that we should die in the wilderness. And Moses Greeks and Romans; and by modern nations, the said unto the people, “ Fear ye not; stand still, and Gulf of Suez. Here they were, as Moses says, on see the salvation of the Lord, which he will sh to the edge of the Wilderness, or that vast desert which you to-day; for the Egyptians whom ye have seen is situated between the rich river-soil of the Delta of to-day, ye shall see them again no more for ever.

The Egypt, and the southern parts of Palestine. Here Lord shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your they had, in fact, very nearly headed the gulf, and, if peace." Upon this, that mysterious pillar-of cloud by escape from Pharaoh was their immediate care, the day, and of fire by night—which had hitherto appeared Israelites had only to proceed a day's journey right in advance of the Israelites, shifted its position forward, and it would be obvious that the nature of to their rear, and stood up between them and the the ground, and the deficiency of water, would effec- pursuing Egyptians. Then Moses, by divine comtually check the pursuit of a considerable army, the mand, stretched out his hand over the arm of the chief strength of which, we know to have consisted sea which ran before the camp, and immediately in chariots and cavalry.

a strong east wind began to blow, the waters were At this critical juncture, however, God commanded driven back, and a dry passage appeared throughout, Moses to lead the great host of the Hebrews back to the other side of the gulf. Along this awful pass, again from the onward road, and encamp them far- the Hebrews marched during the night, and by the ther to the south, on the west or Egyptian side of the morning light, were all safely arrived at the opposite Red Sea. The place of such encampment was coast. The Egyptians had witnessed this wonderful pointed out before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and escape of their imagined victims, and in their blind

It is said that Pi-hahiroth means an opening ness and fury, followed them into the miraculous into the mountains, and the result of much laborious path. But now their appointed hour was come. investigation has been that, in fact, the Israelites were In the words of the sacred text, " It came to pass, thus led into a glen or combe, in which their retreat that in the morning watch, the Lord looked unto the was rendered difficult by surrounding rocks, and their host of the Egyptians, through the pillar of fire and advance, to all human speculation, absolutely imprac of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians, ticable by the sea in front. Now we are told that and took off their chariot-wheels, that they drave

the sea.


lous agency.

them heavily; so that the Egyptians said, “Let us from their forefathers, that once an extraordinary flee from the face of Israel, for the Lord fighteth for reflux took place, the channel of the gulf became them against the Egyptians.' Then the Lord said dry, the green bottom appearing, and the whole body unto Moses, ‘Stretch out thine hand over the sea, of water rolling away in an opposite direction. After that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, the dry land, in the deepest part, had been seen, an upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.' And extraordinary flood-tide came in, and restored the Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the whole channel to its former state. sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and

SPIRIT OF LIFE AND LOVE. the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the

Thou hear'st the rustling amongst the trees, And the waters returned, and covered the cha- And feel'st the cool, refreshing breeze, riots and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh And see'st the clouds move along the sky, that came into the sea after them; there remained And the corn-fields waving gracefully. not so much as one of them. Thus the Lord saved 'Tis the Wind that rustles amongst the trees,, Israel that day out of the hands of the Egyptians; That comes in the cool, refreshing breeze, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea

That drives the clouds along the sky, shore."

And causes the corn to wave gracefully. Niebuhr, the Danish traveller, thinks the place of The Wind is something thou canst not see, the passage was near Suez. At this point, the water

'Tis thin Air-and a source of life to thee, is about two miles across, and Niebuhr himself forded

And it teaches that something may really be, it. But he says, that the sea must have been deeper

May exist, and work, which thou canst not see. in old time, and extended further towards the north. And those who are under the Spirit's control, Burckhardt agrees with Niebuhr; others place it

Perceive in their minds, and feel in their soul, about thirty miles lower down. Still, wherever the

That the Spirit of Light which comes from above,

Is a Spirit of Life, and a Spirit of Love. passage was effected, the Mosaic account cannot, by

Sacred Musical Offering. any fair interpretation, be explained without miracu

THE HYDROMETER AND THE CHINESE Bruce, the traveller, has well observed, that the

MERCHANT. doubts of its having been done by miracle do not The Hydrometer is an instrument by which the strength merit any particular attention to solve them. “ This of spirit is determined, or rather by which the quantity of passage,” says Bruce, " is told us by Scripture to be water mixed with the spirit is ascertained ; and the dependa miraculous one, and if so, we have nothing to do

ence which may be placed on its accuracy, once gave rise with natural causes. If we do not believe Moses, we

to a curious scene in China. A merchant sold to the

purser need not believe the transaction at all, seeing that it shown; but not standing in awe of conscience, he after

of a ship a quantity of distilled spirit, according to a sample is from his authority we derive it. If we believe in wards, in the privacy of his store-house, added a quantity God, that He 'made' the sea, we must believe He of water to each cask. The article having been delivered could • divide' it, when He sees proper reason : and on board, and tried by the hydrometer, was discovered to be of that He must be the only judge. It is no greater wanting in strength. When the vendor was charged with miracle to divide the Red sea than to divide the river the fraud, he stoutly denied it; but on the exact quantity or Jordan. If the Etesian wind, blowing from the north- he was confounded; for he knew of no human means

water which had been mixed with the spirit being named, west in summer, could keep up the sea as a wall on by which the discovery could have been made, and, tremthe right, or to the south, of fifty feet high ; still bling, he confessed his roguery.—If the ingenuity of man the difficulty would remain of building the wall on is thus able to detect the iniquity of a fellow-creature, and the left hand, or to the north. Besides, water stand- to expose his secret practices, how shall we escape the alling in that position for a day must have lost the seeing eye of the Almighty, that omniscient Being, “ who

both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and nature of fluid. Whence came that cohesion of par

will make manifest the counsels of the heart?" ticles, which hindered that wall to escape at the sides ? This is as great a miracle as that of Moses. If the Pause BEFORE YOU FOLLOW EXAMPLE.—A mule, laden Etesian winds had done this once, they must have with salt, and an ass, laden with wool, went over a brook repeated it many a time before and since, from the together. By chance the mule's pack became wetted; the Were all these difficulties surmounted, had passed, the mule told his good fortune to the ass, who,

salt melted, and his burden became lighter. After they what could we do with the pillar of fire?' The thinking to speed as well, wetted his pack at the next answer is, we should not believe it. Why then water; but his load became the heavier, and he broke down believe the passage at all ? We have no authority under it. for the one, but what is for the other : it is altogether contrary to the ordinary nature of things: and if THE WEEPING WILLOW.-This admired tree is a native not a miracle, it must be a fable."

of Spain. A few bits of branches were enclosed in a preMoses, an eye-witness, expressly declares, that the sent to Lady Suffolk, who came over with George the Se

cond. agency was direct, immediate, and foretold of God; taken off, and, observing the pieces of sticks appeared as if

Mr. Pope was in company when the covering was and how can there be any room for explaining this there was some vegetation in them, he added, “ Perhaps away, without at once denying the veracity of the they may produce something we have not in England. sacred historian himself ?

Under this idea, he planted it in his garden, and it produced There are on the spot traditions of this memorable the willow-tree which has given birth to so many others. event still existing

The wells or fountains in the It was felled in November, 1801. neighbourhood, are still called by the names of Moses There is not a nobler sight in the world than an aged and Pharaoh. “Wherever," says Niebuhr,“ you ask an Christian ; who, having been sifted in the sieve of temptaArab where the Egyptians were drowned, he points to tion, stands forth as a confirmer of the assaulted, testifying, the part of the shore where you are standing. In one from his own trials, the reality of religion; and meeting, bay they pretend to hear, in the roaring of the waters, by warnings, and directions, and consolations, the cases of the wailings of the ghosts of Pharaoh's army;" and all who may be tempted to doubt it. -—Cecil. Diodorus Siculus, who lived about the commence- Wit is brushwood : Judgment is timber. The first makes ment of the Christian era, relates a tradition derived the brightest flame; but the other gives the most lasting by the Ichthyophagi (the people who live on fish,) heat.-HUNTER.

same causes.

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