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had received on entering, I took the place of one of just as letters are the alphabets of languages; and it is the pushers, and after a merry drive of about twenty just as impossible for any one to know the science minutes we again saw daylight, like a distant star, without first knowing its alphabet, as it is for any one increasing in size till we reached the entrance of the to be able to read a book without knowing the A, B, C, mine. We here took off our spectre-clothes, and re- Learning the A, B, C, is knowing the sound of the letturned home in our usual appearance, and a merry ters,—that is, the connexion or relation between words party we were."

that are heard and words that are only seen. There

is no natural relation between seeing and hearing; "ALL FOR THE BEST."

and therefore the A, B, C, is arbitrary, or just what No one can have lived long in the world without having ob- they who use it choose to make it,-consequently served how frequently it happens that events which, at the every body must be taught it, time they happened, were the source of bitter disappoint- It is nearly the same with what may be called the ment, have, eventually proved very blessings to us; and that “alphabets” of all the sciences; and in science, as well many of those things which have been most anxiously desired, but which it has pleased God to withhold from us, stand, when we once know our A, B, C, or letters. The

as in language, we very soon learn to read and underwould have proved, if granted, the origin of endless evils.

The recollection of such circumstances in our own indivi- learning of their letters being the first and humblest dual case, while it renders us deeply grateful to Divine Pro-lesson of children at school, persons who are farther vidence for the past, should make us trust with perfect con- advanced in life think it beneath them to learn alphafidence to the same Infinite Wisdom for the future.

bets; and, from that silly prejudice, they remain ignoIt would be difficult perhaps to find an anecdote bearing rant of the sciences to which those alphabets are the more strongly on what we have just observed, than one which

keys. is mentioned in the life of Bernard Gilpin, that great and good man, whose pious labours in the counties of Westmore

Yet those alphabets are the most wonderful of land, Cumberland, Northumberland and York, at the period human contrivances. The steam engine and gas light of the Reformation, procured for him the title by which he are mere trifles compared with the A, B, C. is still remembered in those parts, as “ The Apostle of the The figures 1,2,3, &c. which are the alphabet of North.”—It appears that it was a frequent saying of his, numbers, are very curious; and enable us to do that when exposed to losses or troubles." Ah, well! God's will in so many seconds, which, if we had no such conbe done : nothing happens which is not intended for our trivance, we could not do in as many centuries. The good: it is all for the best !

Towards the close of Queen Mary's reign, Bernard GILPIN distance of the sun from the earth is about 190 milwas accused of heresy before the merciless Bishop Bonner : lions of half miles, and half a mile is about a thousand he was speedily apprehended, and he left his quiet home, paces; five miles an hour is fast walking, and the “ nothing doubting," as he said, “but that it was all for the paces then are as fast as one can count distinctly. At best,” though he was well aware of the fate that might await that rate, though the first man had begun the journey, him ; for we find him giving directions to his steward" to provide him a long garment, that he might go the more

or the counting, at the moment of his creation, and comely to the stake," at which he would be burnt.

he and his posterity continued at it twelve hours While on his way to London, by some accident he every day, it would have been more than 200 years had a fall and broke his leg, which put a stop for some after the birth of Christ before they had finished the time to his journey. The persons in whose custody he task. By means of the alphabet of numbers, any was, took occasion thence maliciously to retort upon him his body can do it as fast as three 0's can be written. The habitual remark. “ What,” said they, “is this all for the half miles are 190,000,000 ; the paces in half a mile best ;--you say, Master, that nothing happens which is not for our good ; think you your broken leg is so intended ?" | 1000: we have only to add three O's to the first of -“Sirs, I make no question but it is,” was the meek reply: these, and we have the whole number of paces,and so in very truth it proved; for before he was able to 190,000,000,000. travel, Queen Mary died, the persecution ceased, and he The alphabet of numbers does not, however, exwas restored to his liberty and friends.

press the relations of numbers, and so we must have

other signs for these ; and, as the figures which stand ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS.

for the names of numbers are different from the words, ABBREVIATIONs and Signs, are generally used to

or names, which are the names of things, there are also express in small, that which is in itself large, or in different signs for the principal relations of numbers. short, that which is in itself long.

But as the value of every thing that can be valued is we have London on a pocket handkerchief, England reckoned in numbers, the relations of numbers are of on a bit of paper, or the whole surface of the earth very general use; and as the signs of those relations and all the stars in the heavens, on the surface of two

are the shortest means of expressing them, every body little globes, a foot or eighteen inches in diameter. So should be acquainted with them. also we have the whole history of the world in a small

These signs are sometimes called " Algebraical" book, which we can carry in our pocket; or the prin- signs, and the name is far from being an improper cipal events in a table, which we can examine at a

Almeans “ the" and " jabrmeans “to conglance.

solidate," or bring together into little space, so that The words of language, to which we owe so much the whole may be seen at once; and thus “ Algebra" of our knowledge and enjoyment, are nothing but means “the expressing of the greatest meaning by signs and abbreviations. It would take years to know the fewest signs." Those signs are not explained, and months to tell, in detail, all that we mean by the except in the books of science, which ordinary readers short word “man;" and yet we understand it when

are not in the habit of consulting; but they are someever we hear it spoken or see it written.

times used in other books; and as, when so used they The abbreviations and signs of speech are common

are puzzles to many people, simple explanations of to us all, learned and unlearned. But there are par

them may be useful, and these we shall give on futicular abbreviations and signs, belonging to particular ture occasions. branches of knowledge, or science; and these, though they are of very great advantage to those who do know Great works are performed not by strength but by per

severance.-Johnson. them, are puzzling to those who do not, just in the same manner as a man who knows no language but Sure am I that the discovery of a truth formerly unknown French is puzzled with English.

doth rather convince man of ignorance than nature of ignoThose signs are the Alphabets of the sciences, rance. — RALEIGA.

In this way

one.

BOSCOBEL COTTAGE.

DEATH BY BOILING. BOSCOBEL Cottage is celebrated in English history It is not generally known that malefactors were foras having been the first place of refuge in which king merly boiled to death. Two instances of this terrible Charles II took shelter after his defeat at the bat punishment occur in the reign of Henry VIII, and tle of Worcester, 3rd. Sept. 1651. It is situated are thus recorded in Stowe's Chronicle :near the little town of Madeley, on the confines of 1532. The fifth of April one Richard Rose, a Cook, was Worcestershire and Shropshire, and was, at the time boiled in Smithfield for poisoning of divers persons to the referred to, the residence of William Penderell, a fo- number of sixteen, or more, at the Bishop of Rochester's rester or servant in husbandry to Mr. Giffard the Place; amongst the which Benet Curnine was one, and he owner of the surrounding domain. To the fidelity of intended to have poisoned the Bishop himself,—but he eat this man, his wife, his mother and his four brothers, people that eat of them many of them dyed.

no pottage that day, whereby he escaped : marry, the poor Richard, Humphry, John, and George Penderell, was 1543. The seventeenth of March, Margaret Davy, a Maid, the fugitive king indebted for some days of conceal. was boiled in Smithfield for poisoning three households that ment and safety, when even the noble and gentle who she had dwelled in. parted from him chose to remain in voluntary ignorance of the exact place of his retreat " as they knew Secret OF LIVING ALWAYS EASY.-An Italian bishop having not what they might be forced to confess.”

struggled through great difficulties without complaining, and met

with much opposition in the discharge of his episcopal functions, without ever betraying the least impatience, an intimate friend of his, who highly admired those virtues which he conceived it impossible to imitate, one day asked the prelate if he could tell him the secret of being always easy. • Yes," replied the old man, “I can teach you my secret, and will do so very readily. It consists in nothing more than in making great use of my eyes." His friend begged him to explain. “Most willingly,” said the bishop." In wbatever state I am, I first of all look up to heaven, and remember that my principal business here is to get there; I then look down upon the earth, and call to mind the space I shall shortly occupy in it; I then look abroad into the world, and observe what multitudes there are who in all respects have more cause to be unhappy than myself. Thus I learn where true happiness is placed, where all our cares must end, and

how Boscobel Cottage.

very little reason I have to repine or complain.” Few palaces awake more pleasing recollections of Bishop Kenn's well-known doxology, Praise God from human nature in our minds than does this lowly cot- whom all blessings flow,” &c. is a masterpiece at once of amtage. Its inhabitants were of the poorest among the plification and compression,-amplitication on the burden, poor, the humblest among the humble ; death, on the

« Praise God,” repeated in each line; compression, by exone hand, was the certain punishment which attended hibiting. God as the object of praise in every view in which their fidelity if discovered; while, on the other hand, ings, yea, for all blessings, none coming from any other

we can imagine praise due to him :-praise for all his blessriches, beyond any thing they could have contem- source; praise by every creature, specifically invoked “here plated, courted their acceptance, and might have been below," and in heaven above;" praise to Him in each of secured by one single treacherous word : yet did this the characters wherein he has revealed himself in his wordvirtuous band of brothers retain their fidelity un- “Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.”. Yet this comprehensive tempted and their loyalty unshaken. In the imme

verse is sufficiently simple, that by it “ Out of the mouths of diate vicinity of this house stood the “ROYAL OAK," babes and sucklings praise might be perfected." and it ap

pears so easy, that one is tempted to think hundreds of the among the branches of which the king remained con

sort might be made without trouble. The reader has only cealed while his pursuers actually passed round and to try, and he will be quickly undeceived, though the longer under it: the original tree was, after the Restoration, he tries, the more difficult he will find the task to be. speedily destroyed by the zeal of the royalists to pos- MONTGOMERY. sess relics of their sovereign's hiding place, but another, raised from one of its acorns, is still flourishing. have declined into a softness above the effeminacy of Asian

The DECLINE OF MANNERS.—These latter ages of the world In the Nicobar Islands the natives build their vessels, make and healthful days of our ancestors knew not, whose piety

princes, and have contracted customs which those innocent the sails and cordage, supply them with provisions and ne

was natural, whose charity was operative, whose policy was cessaries, and provide a cargo of arrack, vinegar, oil, coarse just and valiant, and whose economy was sincere and proarticles, for foreign markets, entirely from the cocoa-nnt portionable to the dispositions and requisites of nature.

JEREMY TAYLOR. tree.-Forbes's Oriental Memoirs.

LONDON: A Million of Bank Notes placed one above another would

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND. form a pile 416 feet in height, which is much higher than

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom. St. Paul's, and more than double the height of the Monu- Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms by

W.S.ORR, Paternoster-Row; G. BERGER, Holywell-st.; A. DOUGLAS, ment. Supposing them to be spread out, they would extend

27, Portman-st. Portman-sq. London, over 250,000 square feet, a space equal to the area of Gros

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :venor Square, London.

Aberdeen.........

Hereford .... The various combinations into which the twenty-four letters

George.

. Langbridge.

Birmingham of the alphabet may be arranged, amount to 620,448,401, Bristol .Westley and Co 733,239,439,360,000.

Cambridge If a person were employed telling money, reckoning a

Chelmsford. Guy

Liverpool ..Hughes. hundred pieces a minute, and continuing at work ten hours

Macclesfield ......Swinnerton. each day, he would take nearly seventeen days to tell a mil- Derby;

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Finlay & Charl. Devonport ...... .Byers.

ton; Empson, lion. A thousand men would take forty-five years to reckon

.Curry Jun. & Co. Notlingham .Wright a quadrillion.

Oxford

.Oliver and Boyd. Sheffield . ..Ridge. The number of miles run by Stage Coaches in England is Edinburgh

Penny and Co.

Salisbury. ..Brodic&Dowding annually about 40,530,000. The expense of drawing coaches Glasgow

Shrewsbury

......Eddowes. by horses is about two shillings per mile, so that the annual

.Deighton. expenditure for horse-keep is about 4,000,0001.

C. RICHARDS, Printer, 100, St. Martin's Lane, Charing Cross.

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REMARKABLE FACTS.

Brown and Co.

Bath..

Hull
Lancashire and

Cheshire
Leeds ........
Leicester.

Child.
Wilson.
Bancks and Co.

Manchester .. Robinson.

Combe.

Stevenson
Thurnam.

Carlisle

Colchester .......

Swinborne & Co.
Wilkins and Son.

Dublin
Dundee

Shaw.

... Slatter.

Griffin and Co.
Gloucester ........Jew.

Worcester

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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a philosopher, that he could have been the inventor of philosophy if it had not before existed. His knowledge of all the mysteries of religion was so profound, that it was rather intuitive certainty than belief. He wrote so many books, that one man is hardly able to read them ;

and no one man is able to understand them. He would have written more had he composed with less accuracy. Such was our immortal Scotus, the most ingenious, acute, and subtile, of the sons of men.”

The writings of this once eminent disputant are now forgotten ; but his memory has been preserved by his extraordinary portrait, and the absurd story connected with his name.

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KAPIOLANI, A FEMALE CHRISTIAN CHIEF OF OWHYHEE. The name of Owhyhee (or Hawaii as it is now written) is probably familiar to most of our readers, as the scene of Capt. Cook's tragical end. It is the largest of a group of seven islands (known by the name of

the Sandwich Islands) situated in the great Pacific 30

Ocean, and which have probably, at some remote period of time, been raised from the bottom of the sea, by the force of fires confined under the surface of the earth ; and struggling to make a vent for them

selves. These fires are still so vigorously at work, The above is a portrait of that extraordinary person, that the island has been compared to a hollow cone, Duns Scotus, who is said to have engaged to trans- raised over a vast furnace : and some five and twenty late the whole of the Scriptures without tasting food, or thirty years ago, there burst forth from the sumand to have expired in finishing the last chapter of the mit of the mountain Mouna Huararai a torrent of Revelation.

melted matter, (lava) which overwhelmed in its The tradition of Scotus's wonderful fasting is amus course several villages, destroyed numerous plantaing from its absurdity ; but a short sketch of his real tions and fish-ponds, and filled up the bay of Kiranea history may not be uninteresting.

to the extent of twenty miles in length, forming an John Duns was born towards the end of the thir. entirely new line of coast. teenth century, at Dunstance, in the parish of Emble

The inhabitants of the island, at that time idolaters, ton near Alnwick, Northumberland. Both Scotland attributed this calamity to the anger of their deities, and Ireland, however, claimed the honour of having and especially of the goddess Peli, whom they begiven birth to this learned doctor : from the former lieved to preside over the burning mountain, and he received the name of Scotus, or Scot. When'a whom, when she burst forth from her abode in streams boy, he is said to have been educated in a convent of of red-hot lava, they strived to appease by throwing Franciscans, at Newcastle ; and it is certain that he hogs, and even living infants, into the liquid flame. afterwards became a friar of that order.

Kiranea, which is the name of this burning mounIn the year 1301, after becoming a fellow of Merton tain, and the supposed residence of Peli, is the largest College, Oxford, he was elected professor of theology and most extraordinary volcanic crater* on the face in the University; his great fame causing incredible of the globe. It is situated in the midst of a plain, numbers to attend his lectures.

fifteen or sixteen miles round, the whole surface of He afterwards resided at Paris, and died at Cologne which, sunk from two to four hundred feet below its of apoplexy, on the 8th November, 1308. One writer original level, appears rent into deep cracks, out of of his life asserts, that he was buried alive, because, which vast quantities of flame, smoke, and vapour, on the removal of his bones, he appeared to have are continually ascending : here and there a few beds turned himself in his coffin.

of sulphur, and black pools of fresh water serve to In his day he was considered a prodigy of learning, increase the horrors of this dismal scene. and obtained the title of the Subtle Doctor. But his

“After walking some distance," we quote the words

“ After learning was only in what is called the Divinity of the of a person who visited it not long since, Schoolmen, far removed from that sound and useful walking some distance over the sunken plain, which learning which enables the scholar to discover the in several places sounded hollow under our feet, we truth, and to impart the knowledge of it to others. came at length to the edge of the great crater. AsAmong other extravagant praises heaped upon him

* A “crater," or cup, is the opening through which the fin by his admirers, it was said, “He was so consummate issues from a “volcano" or burning mountain. Vol. I.

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tonishment and awe for some moments rendered us side of the crater, accompanied by some few, whom silent, and we stood fixed to the spot like statues. love or duty induced to follow her. Arrived at the Immediately before us, yawned an immense gulf in bottom, she pushed a stick into the lìquid lava, and the form of a crescent, about two miles in length, stirred the ashes of the burning lake! nearly a mile in width, and apparently eight hundred The charm of superstition was at once broken. feet deep. The bottom was covered with lava, and Those who had expected to see the goddess, armed the south-west and northern parts of it were one vast with flame and sulphurous smoke, burst forth and flood of burning matter, rolling to and fro its waves destroy the daring being who had thus braved her in of fire, and boiling up with terrific violence.

her only sanctuary, were awe-struck when they saw “Above fifty hillocks, from twenty to seventy feet the fire remain harmless, and the flames roll harmless, high, and in shape resembling the chimneys of a glass as though none were present. They acknowledged house, rose either round the edge, or from the surface the greatness of the God of Kapiolani; and from that of the burning lake. From the summits of many of time few indeed have been the offerings, and little the these hillocks, were constantly shooting forth clouds reverence which has been paid to the fires of Peli! of grey smoke, or fountains of brilliant flame, and several of them, were at the same time vomiting from their mouths, streams of lava, which rolled in blazing

THE COTTAGE. torrents down their black and rugged sides, into the Where is there a lovelier sight to be seen, boiling mass below. The flood of melted metal was Than a cottage embosom'd in covert of green ? therefore kept in a constant state of agitation, while

Where the rose and the woodbine embower the gate, the lively flame which danced over its troubled surface,

And health and contentment and loveliness wait! now tinged with sulphurous blue, now glowing with

And if in this home of the poor there be found mineral red, cast a broad glare of dazzling light on

That goudness and love which sheds blessing around,

The beauty without, though so lovely, has been the hillocks, whose soaring mouths shot up, at fre

Less fair than the beauty of spirit within, quent intervals, with the report of cannon, large masses

If sickness or poverty enter, the peace of melting lava, or red hot stones."

Which Jesus bequeath’d, will in sorrow increase; No one can wonder that these enormous volcanoes, And new strength to the faith, and new grace to the heart, from which they have so frequently suffered, should The sweet from the bitter, will sorrow impart. have inspired the natives of Owhyhee with terror and More than halls of high splendour, a cottage like this superstition; or that the worship of Peli, should have Is endow'd with a portion of heavenly bliss ; been continued even after Christianity had been adopted

Though the low humble dwelling in secrecy lies,
by many of the natives.
That idolatrous worship is

There spirits of Christians grow ripe for the skies !
Homerton.

JAMES EDMESTON. now no more : it was the last and most powerful that remained ; and its abolition was at length effected by one of the greatest acts of moral courage, which has

COTTAGERS' ALLOTMENTS. perhaps ever been performed. The king, with the The burthen of the poor-rates has forced the condi. assistance of all his chiefs, and all the endeavours of tion of the poor upon the attention even of the selfish the missionaries strove, and strove in vain, to put down and indolent; and, among a multitude of schemes, the worship of Peli ; nothing it seemed, was ever to be suggested or revived, for improving their lot, there able to expel the belief that the goddess, when offended, is none which at present meets with more favour than visited the children of men with thunder and lightning, that of garden allotments to the industrious poor. and earthquakes, and streams of liquid fire, the in- This will not surprise any one who has seen its cheerstruments of her mighty power and vengeance. ful and cheering operation. I am not now about to

What the united efforts, however, of kings and enter into a disquisition on its merits, and will only chiefs and missionaries failed to accomplish, has been add, that its admirers must not expect too much from brought about by the heroic act of one woman! its adoption ; neither must they look to it as alone

Kapiolani, a female chief of the highest rank, had sufficient for the renovation of our peasantry ; still recently embraced Christianity: and, desirous of pro- less can the rate payer wisely hope that even in purely pagating it, and of undeceiving the natives as to their agricultural parishes it can effect any thing approachfalse gods, she resolved to climb the mountain, des- ing to an extinction of the poor-rate. The sooner cend into the crater, and, by thus braving the gods of such extravagant notions can be dissipated, the better ; fire in their very home, convince the inhabitants of they can only lead to disappointment; but in judithe island that Jehovah is the one true God, and that ciòus hands it may be safely looked to as one among Peli existed only in the fancy of her weak adorers. other means of raising the spirit, increasing the comThus determined, and accompanied by a missionary, forts, employing the leisure, and rewarding the inshe, with part of her family and a crowd of followers, dustry of the well-conducted and diligent poor, and ascended the mountain. At the edge of the first pre- so indirectly but certainly diminishing the amount of cipice which bounds the sunken plain, many of her the poor-rate. companions lost courage and turned back : at the My object however now is to draw attention and second, the rest earnestly entreated her to desist from I hope not too late—to a statute recently passed on her dangerous enterprize, and to forbear to tempt the this subject, with the provisions of which it is desirgods of the fires. But she proceeded : and on the able for parish authorities and the poor to be made very brink of the crater caused a hut to be built for acquainted—I mean the 42d of 2d of Will. 4, intituled, herself and her followers. Here she was assailed anew “An Act to authorize (in parishes inclosed under any by their entreaties to return home, and their assurance Act of Parliament) the letting of the Poor Allotments that if she persisted in violating the houses of the in small portions to industrious Cottagers." This goddess, she would draw on herself, and those with statute professes to contemplate the case where, an her, certain destruction, Her answer was noble : enclosure having taken place, an allotment has been "I will descend into the crater," said she," and if I set apart for the poor, chiefly with a view to their do not return safe, then continue to worship Peli; but winter supply of fuel ; and some of its provisions are if I come back unhurt, you must learn to adore the applicable only to such a case; but by the last section God who created and who can control these fires !" its general enactments are extended to every case in

She accordingly went down the steep and difficult which land shall in any parish " be found appropri.

ated for the general benefit of the poor thereof." I

CLIMATE. will therefore give a short and plain account of its The discontented frequently complain of our uncerclauses.

tain climate, (and it is doubtless trying to some conIn the first week in September, a vestry, with ten stitutions) but let them read the accounts of other days' notice, may be holden, at which the trustees of countries, and say which is to be preferred. such allotments may attend and vote, if they think “ The rains in the West Indies are by no means the proper : at this Vestry any industrious cottager of good things they are with us. Our heaviest rains are but character, being a day-labourer or journeyman, legally dews comparatively. They are floods of water poured settled in the parish, and dwelling within or near its from the clouds, with a prodigious impetuosity; the bounds, may apply to take not less than a quarter, rivers rise in a moment; new rivers and lakes are nor more than the whole of an acre of such land, as formed ; and in a short time all the low country is a tenant from year to year, from the Michaelmas fol- under water.” The rains make the only distinction lowing. The vestry must take into consideration his of seasons in the West Indies ; the trees are green character and circumstances, and either reject the ap- the whole year round; they have no cold, no frosts, plication, or make an order in his favour, which will no snows—and but rarely some hail; the storms of be to all intents and purposes a sufficient authority hail, however, when they do happen, are very violent for him to enter and occupy at the time fixed. The --and the hailstones very great and heavy.” It is in rent must be such as lands of the same quality are the rainy seasons (principally in August, more rarely usually let for in the parish, and payable in one gross in July and September) that they are assaulted by sum at the end of the year, to the churchwardens and hurricanes ; the most terrible calamity to which they overseers of the poor in behalf of the vestry; and are subjected from the climate. This destroys at a the occupier is held bound to cultivate the land in stroke the labours of many years, and prostrates the such a manner

as shall

preserve it in a due state of most exalted hopes of the planter, and often just at fertility.”

the moment when he thinks himself out of the reach There are very proper provisions, to be embodied of fortune. It is a hidden and violent storm of wind, as I understand, in the order of vestry, for no lease rain, thunder and lightning, attended with a furious or agreement of any kind seems necessary : but by swelling of the seas, and sometimes an earthquake ; sections 5 and 6, means are provided for turning the in short, every circumstance which the elements can tenant out of possession at a week's notice, if at the assemble, that is terrible and destructive. Firstend of any one year the rent shall he four weeks in

they see, as a prelude to the ensuing havock, whole arrear, or the land in the opinion of the vestry, shall fields of sugar-canes whirled into the air, and scattered not have been duly cultivated ; and, by sect. 7, the over the face of the country. The strongest trees of arrears of rent in such case may be recovered by a

the forest are torn up by the roots, and driven about summary application to two justices of the peace, who like stubble. Their windmills are swept away in a may levy the same by distress upon the party's goods. moment; their works, fixtures, coppers, &c. wrenched

Where the land so let has been a fuel allotment, up and battered to pieces; their houses are no prothe rent is to be applied by the vestry in the purchase tection, the roofs are torn off at one blast; whilst the of fuel, to be distributed in the winter to the settled river, which in an hour rises five feet, rushes in upon poor of the parish, resident in or near it; and by them with irresistible force."--European Settlements. analogy I conceive that in other cases the rent must be applied for the general benefit of those for whom

He that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am the land itself was originally destined.

not worthy to bear.- Matt. 1ti. 12. The custom of loosing No habitations are to be erected on any portion of the sandals from off the feet of an Eastern worshipper, was

ancient and indispensable. It is also commonly observed in the land so demised ; and if the land lies at an in

visits to great men. The sandals or slippers are pulled off convenient distance from the residences of the cottagers at the door, and either left there, or given to a servant to of the parish, the vestry may let it, and hire other bear. The person to hear them, means an inferior domestic, land more favourably situated for the purposes of the

or attendant upon a man of high rank, to take care of, and act in lieu thereof.

to return them to him again. This was the work of servants These are the provisions of the statute, conceived,

among the Jews; and it was reckoned so servile, that it was I think, in a wise and benevolent spirit, though they

thought too mean for a scholar or disciple to do. The Jews say,

All services which a servant does for a master, a disciwill admit of amendments in another session of par ple does for his master, except unloosing his shoes." John liament, to which at a fitting time I may perhaps thought it was too great an honour for him to do that for direct the attention of the readers of the Magazine.

Christ, which was thought too mean for a disciple to do for a No room is left for them now, and I regret that I wise man.-Burder. myself was not sooner aware of the existence of the statute ; my remarks, however, may, even now, be

THE BLACK OR GREAT OSTRICH. important to those who have prepared themselves to This species of Ostrich stands so very high as to act

upon it immediately; and where that is not the measure from seven to nine feet from the top of the case, may suggest useful hints to individuals or pa head to the ground : from the back, however, it is rishes in which the allotment system is already in seldom more than three or four feet, the rest of its operation without the aid of the legislature.

height being made up by its extremely long neck. Weymouth.

J. T. C.

The head is small, and, as well as the greater part of the neck, is covered only with a few scattered hairs.

The feathers of the body are black and loose ; those We all talk of the ass as the stupidest of the browsers of the field ; yet if any one shuts up a donkey in the same inclosure

of the wings and tail are of a snowy white, waved and with half a dozen horses of the finest blood, and the party

long, having here and there a tip of black. The wings escape, it is infallibly the poor donkey that has led the way. are furnished with spurs : the thighs are naked ; and It is he alone that penetrates the secret of the bolt and latch. the feet strong, and of a gray-brown colour. Often have we stood at the other side of a hedge, contemplat The sandy and burning deserts of Africa and Asia ing a whole troop of blood-mares and their offspring, patiently waiting, while the donkey was snuffing over a piece of work

are the only native residences of the Black Ostriches. to which all but he felt themselves incompetent.”-Quart.

Here they are seen in flocks so large as sometimes to Review.

have been mistaken for distant cavalry.
There are many circumstances in the form and habits

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