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or recess.


The Hall extends about 69 feet in length by 27 in to try his fortune in London. His first work of any breadth ; the heighth, to the apex of the roof, is note was his celebrated poem of London.

It was about 40 feet; but when converted into a warehouse, published without his name, but soon attracted the it was intersected by a floor, which prevents any judg- notice of the most distinguished individuals of the ment being formed of the general effect. The Hall day. For a considerable time after this, his chief has the usual accompaniment of a large bay-window, employment was writing in the Gentleman's Magazine,

Both this, and the windows on the oppo. to which work he gave great interest by reporting the site side, are of great beauty, and bear some resem- debates in the Houses of Parliament under the blance to the windows in the hall at Eltham. A little fiction of “Debates in the Senate of Lilliput." In above the recess is a door, communicating with a those days the machinery of the daily press, by means smaller apartment (42 feet by 22). The roof of the of which the debates of a whole night are laid on Hall, which is of admirable design and workmanship, our breakfast tables in the morning, was not in and in some places has been gilt, will be better under- existence; and the public was delighted with disstood from our view of the interior, than by any verbal cussions full of vigour and eloquence, much of which description that we can give of it.

was given to them by the reporter. In 1747, he The ceiling of the smaller room is in form a four- published his plan of an English Dictionary, for which centered arch divided into rows of square pannels, he endeavoured to obtain the patronage of the Earl each pannel originally filled with very rich tracery. of Chesterfield, so well known for his writings on the

The Hall is so completely hidden, that hundreds subject of politeness. But the intercourse between of our readers must have passed it unknowingly, and the polished courtier and the rough scholar, was their first knowledge that such a building ever existed equally unsatisfactory to both ; and Johnson inmight have been the news of its destruction.

formed the world in his preface, that “the English In a statement lately circulated, we are told “there Dictionary was written with little assistance from is reason to believe, that in a very few years every the learned, and without any patronage of the vestige of this interesting fabric would have been great; not in the soft obscurities of retirement, or swept away, and the ground occupied by modern under the shelter of academic bowers, but amidst inhouses, had it not been for the zealous interference of convenience and distraction, in sickness and in sor. two or three neighbouring families. Desirous to row." Chesterfield, on the other hand, ridiculed avert such a loss to the arts, and such a discredit to Johnson's deportment and manners, of which he gave the age, a few gentlemen met together, and resolved a satirical description in one of his Letters to his Son. to make an appeal to such individuals of taste and In 1749, Johnson produced another admirable satire, influence as they thought likely to co-operate with The Vanity of Human Wishes, and his tragedy of Irene. them in the work of preservation. That primary He now began The Rambler, a work which was not at appeal has been answered in the most encouraging first received in a manner worthy of its great excel

A committee has been formed, and sub- lence. Written entirely by himself, and in a very serious scriptions have been opened with a spirit that pro- tone, it wanted the variety and gaiety necessary to atmises a satisfactory result."

tract the readers of periodical publications. But, after From this gratifying statement, we trust that this it was collected into volumes, its merit was fully perbuilding will be preserved to distant ages. We would ceived; and the author lived to see it reach a tenth urge our readers to visit it, (as it is open for inspec- edition. tion) and also the Church of St. Helen's, in the im- Soon after the close of the Rambler, he lost his wife, mediate neighbourhood, as that is also a building of who had been his faithful and affectionate partner in great beauty, and is preserved with a degree of neat- all his difficulties and distresses, and whose death he ress that confers the highest credit upon its guar- deeply deplored. His Dictionary, the labour of many dians. In that church rest the builder of Crosby years, was now brought out, and hailed by the public Hall, and also the famous Sir Thomas Gresham, and as a valuable addition to English literature. The Sir Andrew Judd, the founder of Tunbridge School. profit he derived from it did not, however, remove These “ Traffickers" were indeed amongst "the ho. his difficulties ; he had, in fact, been living upon nourable of the earth," and gave a lustre to the name it beforehand during nearly the whole time of its of the LONDON MERCHANT. They were honoured preparation. He then began the Idler, a series of in their generation, and were the glory of their times; delightful Essays, which were published in a weekly and they have left a name behind them that their newspaper. So severe did his struggles with poverty praises might be reported."

still continue to be, that, on the death of his mother, in 1759, he wrote the beautiful moral tale of Rasselas,

for the purpose of raising a sufficient sum of money MEMOIR OF DOCTOR JOHNSON.

to defray the expenses of her funeral and discharge DR. SAMUEL JOHNSON, one of the best, as well her little debts. as most illustrious, men of whom England can In 1762, he received a pension from king George boast, was born on the 7th of September, 1709, at the third ; by which, and the profits of his literary Litehfield, where his father was a bookseller, in very labours, he was placed in easy circumstances. The low circumstances. He contrived, however, to main- only great work which he produced after this period tain his son for some time at Oxford. On his death, was his Lives of the English Poets, which was comthe young student was compelled by necessity to en- pleted in 1781. He died on the 13th of December, gage himself as usher in a grammar-school. In this 1785, in the 75th year of his age ; his remains were situation he was treated in a manner which so wounded interred in Westminster Abbey, and, a monument is his feelings, that it was a subject of painful remem- erected to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral. brance to him for the rest of his life. On quitting it Dr. Johnson, as a writer, has never been surpassed he made some unsuccessful attempts to maintain him in the greatness of his conceptions, and the elevation self by his pen ; and soon afterwards married Mrs. of his religious and moral sentiments. Living much Porter, the widow of a mercer of Birmingham, with in the world, and undergoing many of the trials and whom he received a small sum of money, which ena- changes of life, his philosophy was built on expebled him to open a boarding-school. In this, too, he rience and observation of human nature ; and, if his was unsuccessful; he abandoned his plan and resolved | pencil, on the whole, is a dark one, yet there are beau

tiful lights, as well as deep shades, in his pictures. Forsaken by thy nearest friends, His views of religion have most unjustly been blamed

Surrounded by malicious foes;

No kindly voice encouraged thee, as gloomy. That he laboured, at times, under a

When the loud shout of scorn arose. greater fear of death than might have been expected

Yet there was calm within thy soul, from his Christian principles and general strength of

Nor Stoic pride that calmness kept, mind, is true ; but this, with some imperfections of Nor Godhead, unapproached by woe, character (of no great moment, indeed) is to be ascribed

Like man thou hadst both lov’d and wept. to the diseased state of his bodily frame during the Thou wert not then alone, for God whole of his long life. In his trials and calamities,

Sustained thee by his mighty power ; we find him always resorting to heaven for support

His arm most felt, his care most seen,

When needed most in saddest hour; and consolation ; and, in his writings, while the

None else could comfort, none else knew duties of religion are represented as utterly inconsist

How dreadful was the curse of sin ;-ent with the slightest degree of vicious indulgence, He who contrould the storm without, they are never placed as bars to innocent enjoyment.

Could gently whisper peace within. His style has been made the subject of much criticism, Who is alone, if God be nigh? and frequently exposed to petulant ridicule. But it

Who shall repine at loss of friends, seems peculiarly suited to his turn of thought; and,

While he has one of boundless power,

Whose constant kindness never ends; in his pages, a grand and solemn train of reflexions becomes still more impressive from the magnificent

Whose presence felt, enhances joy,

Whose love can stop the flowing tear, flow of the language in which it is clothed.

And cause upon the darkest cloud In private life, Dr. Johnson was not less beloved

The pledge of mercy to appear. than revered. He was rough in his exterior, but his heart was full of the milk of human kindness. He sır EDWARD Coke being now very infirm in body, a friend has been represented as rude and overbearing in so

of his sent him two or three doctors to regulate his health, ciety; but his rudeness will be found to have been

whom he told, that he had never taken physic since he was generally worthy of a better name, and to have exhi- born, and would not now begin ; and that he had now upon bited itself in stern reproof of presumptuous igno

him a disease which all the drugs of Asia, the gold of Africa, the rance or unbecoming levity; while his life was spent

silver of America, nor all the doctors of Europe could curein offices of kindness and charity, to the utmost ex

Old Age ; he therefore thanked them and his friend that sent

them, and dismissed them nobly with a reward.-Ellis's tent of his means. Even his ordinary conversation

Letters. was full of instruction; and Boswell, who wrote his life, has by merely preserving what fell from his

VEGETABLE TITAN. lips, produced one of the most valuable books in our language.

(Raflesia Arnoldi, or Krábal.) This gigantic flower was discovered in Sumatra, in

1818, when Sir STAMFORD RAFFLES, then governor WHO IS ALONE?

of that island, made his first journey from Bencoolen How heavily the path of life

into the interior. In that journey he was accomIs trod by him who walks alone; Who hears not, on bis dreary way,

panied by a naturalist of great zeal and acquirements, Affection's sweet and cheering tone.

the late Dr. JOSEPH ARNOLD, a member of the LinAlone, although his heart should bound

næan Society, from whose researches, aided by the With love to all things great and fair,

friendship and influence of the governor in an island They love not him,—there is not one

so favourably situated and so imperfectly known as His sorrow or his joy to share.

Sumatra, the greatest expectations had been formed. The ancient stars look coldly down

But these expectations were never to be realized, for On man, the creature of a day;

the same letter which gave the account of the gigantic They lived before him, and live on

flower, brought also the intelligence of Dr. Arnold's Till his remembrance pass away.

death. This letter was one from Sir Stamford Raffles The mountain lifts its hoary head, Nor to his homage deigns reply ;

to Sir Joseph Banks, and in it he inclosed the followThe stormy billows bear him forth,

ing extract written by the lamented Arnold to some Regardless which—to live or die.

unknown friend, (for the epistle was left unfinished,) The flow'ret blooms unseen by him,

in which he gives an account of the discovery of this, Unmindful of his warmest praise ;

which Sir Stamford Raffles well denominated—“most And if it fades, seeks not his hand

magnificent flower." Its drooping loveliness to raise.

After describing the previous route, Arnold says: The brute creation own his power,

At Pulo Lebban, on the Manna kiver, I rejoice to And grateful serve him, though in fear;


you, I met with what I consider the greatest proYet cannot sympathise with man, For if he weeps, they shed no tear.

digy of the vegetable world. I had ventured some

way before the party, when one of the Malay servants Alone, though in the busy town, Where hundreds hurry to and fro,

came running to me, with wonder in his eyes, and If there is none who for his sake

said, “Come with me, sir, come ! a flower very large, A selfish pleasure would forego;

beautiful, wonderful !' I went with the man about And oh! how lonely, among those

a hundred yards into the jungle, and he pointed to Who have not skill to read Lis heart,

a flower growing close to the ground, under the When first he learns how summer friends

bushes, which was truly astonishing. My first imAt sight of wintry storms depart.

pulse was to cut it up and carry it to the hut: I My Saviour! and didst thou too feel

therefore seized the Malay's parang, (a sort of instruHow sad it is to be alone,

ment like a woodman's chopping-hook,) and finding Deserted in the adverse hour By those who most thy love had known?

that it sprang from a small root, which ran horizonThe gloomy path, though distant still,

tally, (about as large as two fingers,) I soon detached Was ever present to thy view;

it, and removed it to our hut. To tell you the truth, Oh! how couldst thou, foreseeing it,

had I been alone, and had there been no witnesses, I For us that painful course pursue.

should, I think, have been fearful of mentioning the

dimensions of this flower, so much does it exceed | Patma (see Fig. 2). Another of these vegetable every flower I have ever seen or heard of ; but I had Sir paradoxes, figured also by Blume, is a native of the Stamford and Lady Raffles with me, and Mr. Palsgrave, who, though equally astonished with myself, yet are able to testify as to the truth.

“ The whole flower was of a very thick substance; the petals and nectary being in few places less than a quarter of an inch thick, and in some places three quarters of an inch : the substance of it was very succulent. When I first saw it, a swarm of flies were hovering over the mouth of the nectary, and apparently laying their eggs in the substance of it. It had precisely the smell of tainted beef.


Raflesia Patma province of Buitenzorg, in the western parts of Java, and grows at the height of from 1200 to 1500 feet above the level of the sea. It has been called Brugmansia Zippelii (Vide Fig. 3)

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Raflesia Arnoldi. “Now for the dimensions, which are the most astonishing part of the flower. It measured a full yard across ; the petals being twelve inches high, and a foot apart from each other. The nectarium, in the opinion of us all, would hold twelve pints; and the weight of this prodigy we calculated to be fifteen pounds !" A guide from the interior of the country said that

Brugmansia Zippelii. such flowers were rare, but that he had seen several, All these curious plants agree in several circum. and that the natives call them Krúbul. Later infor-stances. In the first place, they have no proper roots mation, however, has shown that the Krúbül, or Great of their own, and derive their nourishment from the Flower, is much more generally known than its first vegetables on which they grow. In the second place, European discoverers suspected. In some districts it they have no stems, the Aowers being seated on the is called Krúbal, and in others simply Ambun Ambun. vines that support them. Thirdly, they are destitute It is said to take three months, from the first ap- of leaves, the flowers being enclosed only by scales, pearance of the bud, to the full expansion of the which are purplish, or brownish, and resemble the flower, and it appears but once a-year, at the conclu- outer coverings of buds, or rather the chaffy scales sion of the rainy season. It has no stem of its own, of other clinging plants ; for, deriving their nourishbut grows on the roots and stems of a woody species ment through the leaves of another vegetable, they of cissus, (Cissus angustifolia.) Upon this plant the do not require leaves of their own. So that here we Krūbul seems to take its origin in some crack or hollow have plants consisting of flower only, neither root, of the stem, and soon shews itself in the form of a

stem, nor leaves being present. And what is still round knob, which, when cut through, exhibits the more curious is, that, although the largest and most infant flower enveloped in numerous sheaths; these magnificent flowers in the world, they have very little open and wither away as the flower enlarges, until in common with other flowering plants. They have at the time of its fulness, but very few remain. The no proper seeds, but are multiplied by spores, similar blossoms rot away not long after their expansion, and to the spawn of mushrooms, to which, indeed, their the seeds (sporæ) are raised with the pulpy mass. general form bears very great resemblance. The flower.

This giant flower may well be esteemed the won- leaves are of a mushroom-like substance, and smell like der of the vegetable world ; and although several tainted beef ; they contain no hollow vessels, like others, similar to it in form and habits, have been most other flowering plants, but consist of cells alone, found, none have as yet been discovered that equal like the mushroom-tribe, and they arise from beneath it in size. A small species has been mentioned by the bark of the cissus, which becomes enlarged by Dr. Horsfield ; but his flower, instead of measuring their growth, and very much resembles that false three feet across, only measured three inches. A covering which some of that tribe have which grow second very magnificent species, measuring two feet upon living plants; raising the outer surface into tuacross, has been discovered in a small island near

mors, and bursting it as they become more fully grown, Java, called Nusa Kambangan, which has been de- such as the blights and blasts of corn, and so forth. scribed and figured by Blume, in his Flora Jave, Hence these stupendous flowers, which are six to and from this work our second and third figures nine feet in circumference, shew their likeness to the have been taken. By the natives it is called Patma, most lowly of the mushroom tribes, some of which are and hence the botanical name proposed is Rafflesia so minute as scarcely to be visible to the naked eye.


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THE PENRHYN SLATE QUARRY Is considered one of the greatest curiosities in Wales. It is situated at Dolawen, in Caernarvonshire, about six miles from Bangor, at the entrance of the romantic valley named Nant Frangon, and belongs to G. H. D. Pen. nant, Esq. of Penrhyn Castle. The summit of the slate mountain is termed Y Bron, a name which signifies breast or pap, and is frequently given to the tops of hills which do not rise abruptly. The perpendicular height is not more than 600 or 700 yards.

BAL The solid masses of slate which are taken from this quarry are from 80 to 100 feet in height; and when the sun shines they exhibit with great brilliancy all the

View of a Slate Quarry. colours of the rainbow. The business of separating The Puma lies concealed in the underwood, and the layers from the main body appears a dangerous does not have recourse to caverns for shelter. It employment, particularly when it is necessary to split ascends and descends the highest trees with swiftness the rock from the summit. This is effected by fasten- and ease, though it may be considered rather as an ing a small beam to the top, with ropes at each end, inhabitant of the plains than of the forests. Its deas represented in the sketch.

predations are generally confined to quadrupeds of a Upon this beam, four, five, or six men, frequently middling size, as calves, sheep, &c.; but against these stand, and with their iron crows and sledge hammers, its ferocity is more insatiable than its appetite, desflake off the slate from the sides in masses, six or seven troying many at an attack, but carrying away perhaps feet in length, from two to eight in breadth.

only one. If it have more than sufficient for a meal, The various pieces of slate are shaped upon the spot, it will cover and conceal the residue for a second reaccording to the purposes for which they are intended, past. such as gravestones, chimney-pieces, covering of D'Azara possessed a tame puma, which was as houses, cisterns, rails, &c. The rude slates are first gentle as a dog, but very inactive. It would play with reduced to shape and size by a small edged tool, the any one; and if an orange were presented to it, would slate being first laid upon the edge of an iron plate, strike it with the paw, push it away, and seize it again, fixed in an upright position; they are then taken to in the manner of a cat playing with a mouse. It had the scraper, who, with a small piece of thin steel takes all the manners of a cat, when engaged in surprising off the rough parts and reduces the surface to a level; a bird, not excepting the agitation of the tail; and and are afterwards piled up in grosses for exportation. when caressed purred like that animal. Formerly they were conveyed to the port at a very heavy expense, by means of carts, drawn along the ordinary road, but afterwards an iron rail-road was formed, which reaches from the quarry to Port Penrhyn, a distance of six miles. Upon this line are several inclined or sloping planes. The waggons are now made of iron, and each holds about half a ton ; several of them can be drawn by one horse, so that six or eight horses now perform the work which formerly required sixty or eighty. At Port Penrhyn the slates are shipped, not only for all parts of Great Britain, but even for the United States of America.

The expense of the inclined planes, and rail roads, connected with this quarry, and incurred by the late Lord Penrhyn, in diminishing the labour of conveying

The Puma. the slates, is said to have been upwards of £170,000. An incident occurred a few years back, not far from

New York, which disproves the assertion that the

puma will not attack a man. Two hunters went out THE PUMA (Felis Concolar.)

in quest of game on the Katskill mountains, in New

York, each armed with a gun, and accompanied by Tais animal, which is found in America, from Pata- his dog. They agreed to go in contrary directions gonia to California, is frequently called the American round the base of a hill, and that, if either discharged Lion. It is large, and uniformly of a yellow colour, his piece, the other should cross the hill as expediand so far bears some similarity to the lion of the Old tiously as possible, to join his companion. Shortly World, but it is without mane or tuft to the tail. Its after separating, one heard the other fire, and hastened length, from the nose to the root of the tail, is about to his comrade. After searching for him for some five feet; and its height, from the bottom of the foot time without effect, he found his dog dead and dreadto the shoulder, twenty-six inches and a half. fully torn. Knowing from this circumstance that the


animal shot at was large and ferocious, he became this frock was too small, this too long ; this lady had more anxious, and assiduously continued his search no brimmer, this gentleman could find no stick. I for his friend; when his attention was suddenly di- laid hold of the first frock and hat I met with, but rected, by a deep growl, to a large branch of a tree, up came a lady and begged I would exchange with where he saw a puma couching on the body of the man, her, as her frock was so long she could not walk in and directing his eyes toward him, apparently hesi- it, and mine so short that it did not reach to my tating whether to descend and make an attack on knees. Dressing at length finished, the ladies were the survivor, or to relinquish its prey and take to placed in their carriages, that is two in each wheelflight. Conscious that much depended on celerity, barrow, face to face, with a miner before to pull, who the hunter discharged his piece, and the puma, mor- carried a lamp in his hand, and another to push betally wounded, and the body of the man, fell together hind, and between every two barrows went another from the tree. The surviving dog then flew at the miner bearing a paper lanthorn. The gentlemen were fallen beast, but a single blow from its paw laid the of course on foot, with the exception of one or two dog dead by its side.

gouty invalids. Finding that his comrade was dead, and that there "In this guise, with half-a-dozen miners going before was still danger in approaching the wounded animal, carrying lamps, the whole train entered the passage, the man prudently retired, and brought several per and in a few seconds lost sight of daylight. After a sons to the spot, where the unfortunate hunter, the long, wet, and (in spite of our many lamps) dark puma, and both the dogs, were all lying dead to journey through this narrow and low passage, where gether.

my head was continually coming in contact with the Major Smith witnessed an extraordinary instance roof, we came to the Rutsch, or slide, which leads of the great ferocity of this animal, when engaged down into the salt-chamber. The Rutsch is formed of with its food. A puma, which had been taken and the trunks of two large fir-trees laid close together, was confined, was ordered to be shot, which was rounded and polished, and placed in an oblique direcdone immediately after the animal had received its tion, in an angle of about forty degrees. A miner, food : the first ball went through his body, and the with a lamp in one hand, places himself astride these only notice he took of it was by a shrill growl, doub-trees, and holds with his other hand a cord which is ling his efforts to devour his food, which he actually fixed to the rock on the sides. The person who wishes continued to swallow with quantities of his own blood, to descend seats himself behind the miner, and holds till he fell.

him by the shoulders. The miner then lets the cord Notwithstanding such instances of the violence of slip through his hands, and down they go like lightdisposition of this animal, it is very easy to be tamed. ning into what seems an abyss of darkness : safe at The same gentleman saw another individual that was the bottom, he gives a shout that the next couple may led about with a chain, carried in a waggon, lying follow. When the slide is very long, as in the under the seat upon which his keeper sat, and fed by mines at Hallein, near Salzberg, the miner always Ainging a piece of meat into a tree, when his chain sits upon a thick leather apron, and when alone makes was coiled round his neck, and he was desired to fetch no use of the cord, but rushes down with fearful it down ; an act which he performed in two or three speed into the salt-cave below. When we arrived bounds, with surprising ease and docility.

at the slide, and the ladies had all got out of their A tame puma, which died recently, was some time barrows, after much discussion and many fears and in the possession of Mr. Kean the actor. It was quite doubts, they consented thus to descend, as the miners docile and gentle. After the death of this animal, it assured them it was more dangerous to do so by the was discovered that a musket-ball, in all probability, steps cut in the rock, at the side, which were exhad injured its skull, which was not known in its life-ceedingly steep and very wet. Having reached time.-Cuvier's Animal Kingdom.

the bottom of the slide, which ends in a slight curve, to break the impetus of the descent, we found

ourselves in an immense cavern or room, excavated A VISIT TO A SALT MINE.

in the rock, about twelve feet high, and from ten The following account of a visit to the Salt Mine at to twelve thousand in circumference, supported in Ischl is extracted from a lively and agreeable little the middle by a massive pillar of rock, and lighted up volume* just published by Dr. Tobin, who accom

by some hundred lamps, which, however, only served panied the late Sir Humphry Davy on his visit to the to give the scene a more awful and gloomy appearContinent, from which that great philosopher did not

The visitors, whose number was considerable, live to return.

in their long white mantles and hats, looked like I went with a very large party, consisting of almost spectres wandering in the shades of the nether world. all the strangers in Ischl, to visit the Salzberg, the salt The roof and walls of this cavern were covered with mountain or rather mine, which was to be illuminated minute crystals of salt, not, however, sufficiently large for the visitors. We set out at about one o'clock, a

to give to it the glittering appearance which I had long string of carriages, and after an hour's drive expected. The mountain contains a great many through a very pleasant valley, we arrived at the foot of these salt-chambers, which at different periods of the mountain which contains the mine. Here

are filled with fresh water, conducted into them a number of miners were waiting with sedan chairs by wooden pipes. When this has dissolved a suffifor the ladies, many of whom however preferred cient quantity of salt, which operation occupies some walking up the mountain, and in about three quar- months, it is drained off through a deep perpendicular ters of an hour we arrived at the chief entrance shaft, near the middle of the cave, and is then conof the mine. We were now to be attired, as is ducted through wooden pipes, often for a very great usual on entering the mines, in a long white mantle distance, to the boiling-houses, where it undergoes or frock, and a large wide broad brim, the latter to the process of evaporation. hinder us from knocking our brains out, and the former

"Having wandered through these gloomy abodes of to keep our clothes clean. Here was confusion dire; silence and night for some time, we ascended the

Journal of a tour in the years 1828-29, through Styria, Car? stairs, the ladies resumed their seats in the barrows, niola, and Italy, whilst accompanying the late Sir HUMPHRY

and the procession returned as it had entered. To Davy, by J. J. Tobin, M.D. London, Orr, Paternoster Row. save my head from additional thumps to the many it


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