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BY THE REV. JOSHUA MARSDEN.

eye green and the other yellow, or daub their legs or was the remains of some old tenements existing arms with lamp black. Neither is there any thing before the erection of the palace. essential in having a tiger's tail behind, or that their This beautiful fragment belongs to the Decorated dress should be reduced to the small compass con- English Style of Architecture; which is distinguished sidered fashionable by these worthy Indians. Nor, by large and wide windows, divided by mullions, and I think, need they consider it right to scarify their of which, among other varieties of Old English Archilimbs with a comb made of fishes' teeth, or to dance tecture, we gave a description and specimen in our all the preceding night round a blazing wood fire in first number. the open air ; still less to get drunk on whisky after the game is over-indispensable conditions amongst

WHAT IS TIME? the Creek Indians in the forests of Alabama. [Abridged from CAPTAIN HALL.]

I ask'd an aged man, a man of cares,

Wrinkled, and curved, and white with hoary hairs;
RUINS OF THE SAVOY PALACE.

“Time is the warp of life," he said, “Oh tell
The young, the fair, the gay, to weave it well!”
I asked the ancient, venerable dead,
Sages who wrote, and warriors who bled;
From the cold grave a hollow murmur flow'd,
“Time sow'd the seed, we reap in this abode!”
I ask'd a dying sinner, ere the tide
Of life had left his veins.—“ Time!" he replied;
“ I've lost it! Ah, the treasure !”—and he died.
I asked the golden sun and silver spheres,
Those bright chronometers of days and years ;
They answered, "Time is but a meteor glare,”
And bade us for Eternity prepare.
I ask'd the Seasons, in their annual round
Which beautify or desolate the ground;
And they replied, (no oracle more wise)
“'Tis Folly's blank, and Wisdom's highest prize""
I ask'd a spirit lost, but ol, the shriek
That pierc'd my soul! I shudder while I speak'

It cried, “a particle! a speck! a mite
The annexed sketch is that of a Gothic window of

Of endless years, duration infinite !"

Of things inanimate, my dial I the ancient palace of the Savoy, in the Strand, as it

Consulted, and it made me this replyappeared at the time it was pulled down, about the "Time is the season fair of living well, year 1816, to form an opening for the new street, The path of glory, or the path of hell.” now called Wellington Street, leading to Waterloo I ask'd my Bible, and methinks it said, Bridge. The sketch is from the pencil of Mr. T. W.

“ Time is the present hour, the past is fled ; Kelly, author of “Myrtle Leaves,” and other poems,

Live! live to-day! to-morrow never yet

On any human being rose or set.” and was taken a short time before the demolition of

I ask'd old Father Time himself at last; the structure. The drawing represents the north face, But in a moment he flew swiftly past:—the most remarkable part of the building—as it is His chariot was a cloud, the viewless wind that in which John, King of France, is said to have His noiseless steeds, which left no trace behind. been confined, when a prisoner in this country.

I ask'd the mighty angel, who shall stand : That monarch was defeated and taken prisoner by

One foot on sea, and one on solid land; Edward the Black Prince at the memorable battle of

“By Heaven," he cried, “I swear the mystery's o'er;

“Time was,” he cried, “but Time shall be no more!" Poictiers, in 1356. He fought with desperate valour ; but spent with fatigue, and seeing that all was lost, he determined to yield himself prisoner, and fre- Henry III of England used to say, that he would rather

converse one hour with God in prayer, than hear others speak quently cried out that he was willing to deliver him- of him for ten. — Echard. self to his cousin, the Prince of Wales. The honour of taking him, however, was reserved for an ignoble hand—that of Dennis de Morbec, a Frenchman, who

LONDON: had fled his country for murder. The prince con

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND. ducted his royal prisoner through London, attended

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.

Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms by by an immense concourse of people. His modesty

W. S. ORR, Paternoster-Row; G. BERGER, Holywell-st.; A. DOUGLAS on this occasion was remarkable. The French king 27, Portman st., Portman-sq. ; BURSLEM, Great Surrey-st., London ; was dressed in royal apparel, and mounted on a beau

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places:--
Aberdeen.....

Hereford..........Child tiful white charger, while Edward rode by his side, Bath

..George on an ordinary little horse, and plainly attired.

Birmingham .Langbridge.
.Westley and Co.

$ Manchester. The unhappy monarch was liberated on an agree- Cambridge ment for a ransom; but finding himself unable to pay

Chelmsford .Guy.

Liverpool.. .Hughes. it, in the then distracted state of his kingdom, he Chester

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Finlay & Charl.

ton; Empson. returned to prison, declaring that," though good Derby.

Nottingham.... .Wright.

Curry Jun. & Co. Or ford. faith should be banished from the rest of the earth,

Sheffield

Ridge.

Oliver and Boyd yet she ought still to retain her habitation in the Edinburgh

Salisbury.. .Brodie & Dowding

.Penny and Co. Shrewsbury. breast of kings.' He lived in the palace of the Savoy Gloucester

Deighton. till his death, which happened in 1384.

Glasgow | This remain stood almost immediately behind the

TIIE MONTHLY PART, INCLUDING THE present office of the Globe evening newspaper, and

SUPPLEMENT FOR AUGUST, until the row of houses of which that office is one was

is now ready, price Sixpence. built, no doubt faced the Strand. The brick-work which appears between the mullions of the window,

C. RICHARDS, Printer, 100, S:. Martin's Lane, Charing C:04,

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Brown and Co.

Wilson.
Bancks and Co.

Bristol.

Hull
Lancashire and

Cheshire
Leeds
Leicester

Stevenson.
Thurnam.

Robinson
Combe.

Carlisle

. Seacome. ..Swinborne & Co. Wilkins & Son.

. Slatter.

Dublin
Dundee

.Shaw.

Eddowes.

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Worcester

.Jew.
.Grillin and Co.

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

THE BRIDGES OF LONDON.

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Vien taken during the Erection of the New London Bridge. THERE is no feature in the architecture of this immense of it, “now this bridge is finished, there is not permetropolis calculated to excite so enlarged an idea of haps another in the world that can be compared to the wealth and enterprise of its population, as the five it:" and the praise was then just, although its magnificent Bridges, which within a space of little subject has since been so immeasurably surpassed. more than two miles are thrown across the Thames. Company came from far and near to admire the beauThis admiration is almost increased to wonder, when ties of its architecture—and assembled in boats with we consider that they have all been erected within nine- French horns and other wind instruments, under its ty years, and three of them within twenty years. semicircular arches, to enjoy the novel effect of the

Until the middle of the last century, the long nar- strong echo produced by them. row defile of old London Bridge formed the sole land Its glories however were not of long duration. The communication between the City of London and the citizens of London soon followed the example of their suburbs on the Surrey side of the river. A Londoner brethren of Westminster, and determined to build of the present day, who, according as business directs, another new bridge at Blackfriars. The first pile was or his fancy leads him, can select at pleasure West-driven on the 7th of June, 1760, the first stone laid minster, Waterloo, Blackfriars, the Southwark, or on the 31st Oct. following; a footpath was opened London Bridge, for his passage across the Thames, must across it in 1765, one for horses in 1768, and the feel some surprise that his forefathers contented them- bridge was finally opened for carriages, 19th Novemselves for so long a period with such seemingly in-ber, 1769. The light airy design of this new bridge sufficient accommodation; but inconveniences to formed a strong contrast with the unpretending plainwhich we are “in a manner born," are habitually en ness of its predecessor, and the superior width of its dured, though, when we summon resolution to remove arches, the smallest of which were only five feet narthem, we wonder the effort has been so long delayed. rower in span than the centre arch of Westminster

The Act of Parliament for the erection of Westmin- Bridge, gave it an appearance of grandeur far superior ster Bridge was applied for in 1735, and the first to anything which had been yet seen in England or stone laid 29th January, 1739. This bridge was elsewhere. Unfortunately the work was much better nearly twelve years in building, and was opened as than the materials, which have turned out to be of so a public thoroughfare at midnight of the 17th No- perishable a nature, that it was at one time expected vember, 1750, amidst the sounding of trumpets and that the architect, Mr. Milne, who lived to a very the discharges of cannon, A writer of that day says advanced age, would have survived his work.

VOL. I.

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11

An interval of more than forty years now passed the smallest arches of this bridge exceed the largest over, during which, although new bridges were repeat- of any other stone bridge in the world. London edly talked of, and many places for their erection Bridge took about seven years and a half in building, suggested, nothing was actually undertaken ; but in and was opened to the public on the 1st of August, 1811, two were commenced—the Waterloo Bridge, 1831, the King himself assisting at the ceremony. and that at Vauxhall. If Blackfriars Bridge sur We are indebted for the cut with which this passed in boldness of design its predecessor at West- article is adorned to Mr. E. W. COOKE, who has perminster, it was determined that Waterloo should mitted us to copy it from one of his plates. It is throw both of them far into the background. West- published in the first number of his beautiful Views of minster Bridge consisted of fourteen arches, the widest the Old and New London Bridges, a work equally vaseventy-five feet in span ; Blackfriars of nine arches, luable to the antiquarian and the lover of the fine the widest one hundred feet span. The width of the arts, and which must long perpetuate the remembrance river where the new bridge was to be erected, was of the old structure, which has now almost entirely much greater than at Blackfriars; yet it was resolved disappeared, to cross it by the same number of arches, all of an equal span, and that span exceeding the centre arch of

PARISH REGISTERS. Blackfriars by twenty feet. The Middlesex shore in this spot being raised considerably above that on the These very useful chronicles of private life are by no Surrey side, suggested the idea of making the bridge means of such high antiquity as the generality of per. itself perfectly straight, and carrying the road on the sons suppose. In a letter written by Mr. Brokesby Surrey side by a gradual slope down to the level of to Mr. Hearne, (both learned antiquarians, dated St. George's Fields. On this plan a bridge was erected, Dec. 12, 1708, the writer, speaking of long-lived perwhich, by the common consent of all, whether fo- sons, tells us there was a woman whom he had conreigners or natives, is allowed to be without a rival in versed with in Yorkshire, who gave out that she was the world. The rapidity with which it was built was six score, and afterwards seven score, and hence had no less wonderful. Westminster and Blackfriars many visitants, from whom she got money. He then Bridges had taken—the one nearly twelve, and the adds, “ She was born before Registers were kept in other nine, years in constructing ; that of Waterloo, country parishes. Hence I could have no light for a much more stupendous undertaking than either, the time of her baptism." was finished in less than six ; the first stone being Probably many of our readers would be surprised laid on the 11th October, 1811, and the bridge opened on reading this. The fact, however, seems to be that on the 18th June, 1817, the anniversary of the glo- the introduction of Parochial Registers in England rious victory from which it derived its name. The was in consequence of the injunctions of Thomas

, ceremony of opening it was conducted with the utmost Lord Cromwell, which were set forth in 1538, the splendour, the Prince Regent and the Duke of Wel- thirtieth year of Henry VIII; but they were not much lington being present.

attended to till the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who isWhile Waterloo Bridge was in progress, that at sued injunctions concerning them in the lst, 7th, and Southwark was undertaken, the first stone being laid 39th years of her reign. It appears that in Spain on the 23rd of May, 1819; and thus the remark, they had been in use several years before, and are able spectacle was afforded of two bridges, over a said to have been instituted by Cardinal Ximenes, in tide river more than one third of a mile broad, being the year 1497, in order to remedy the disorders arisin process of building at the same time, within sight ing from the frequency of divorces in that country. of each other. The substitution of iron for stone in Till late years, they were kept very negligently in the construction of the arches, admitted of their hav- many parts of England; and being in the custody of ing a much wider span, so that there were sufficient Churchwardens who changed from year to year, old to embrace the whole breadth. The work was com- registers were frequently lost or destroyed. In Northpleted in less than four years, and opened without amptonshire, a piece of an old parish register, on any procession or ceremony at midnight of the 24th parchment, was found on the pillow of a lace-maker

, March, 1819.

with the pattern of her work pricked upon it. In the mean time the veteran London Bridge, which It was formerly the practice in many places to rehad endured the wear and tear of more than six cen- cord in the registers any extraordinary event which turies, was sharing the fate of other old establish- took place in the neighbourhood. This might still be ments,-its former services were forgotten—its incon- done on the cover or the margin, and be the means veniences, which had been quietly submitted to for ages, of preserving much interesting matter, which would were industriously magnified, and its destruction otherwise be forgotten. Since the year 1813, the loudly called for. There were many, however, and registers are uniform throughout the kingdom, and important interests to reconcile, and numerous diffi- are kept, with perhaps few exceptions, with very great culties to overcome, before such a plan could be car

T. ried into effect; and it was not until the year 1824, that the present bridge was commenced. The first The following words were written by Sir William Jones on pile was driven on the 15th March, in that year; the the blank leaf of his Bible :-" I have carefully and regu. first stone laid on the 27th April, 1825; and the first larly perused the Holy Scriptures, and am of opinion, that arch keyed in, on the 4th August, 1827. We have the volume, independently of its divine origin, contains more seen Blackfriars Bridge surpassing that of Westminster strains of eloquence, than can be collected from all other

sublimity, purer morality, more important history, and finer in the span of its arches, and the arches of Black - books, in whatever language they may have been written.” friars again considerably exceeded by those of Waterloo Bridge: yet those of the new London Bridge go far Tue taxes are indeed heavy; and if those laid on by governbeyond either of them, the centre arch being 152 feet ment, were the only ones we had to pay, we might more span, the next on each side of the centre are 140, casily discharge them ;—but we have many others, and and the two shore arches 130: the narrowest arches much more grievous to some of us. We are taxed twice as thus exceeding those of Waterloo Bridge five feet, four times as much by our folly, and from these taxes the

much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and the centre arch of Blackfriars thirty, and the centre commissioners cannot ease or deliver us by allowing ang arch of Westminster Bridge fifty-five feet; indeed, abatement.-FRANKLIN.

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BOUNDLESSNESS OF THE CREATION. the chief paper-marks which have been used, as they About the time of the invention of the Telescope, another instru; occur in the order of time. ment was formed, which laid open a scene no less wonderful, and

The first paper-maker in England is supposed to rewarded the inquisitive spirit of man. This was the Microscope. The one led me to see a system in every star; the other have been John Tate, who is said to have had a mill leads me to see a world in every atom. The one taught me that at Hertford : his device was a star of five points, within this mighty globe, with the whole burden of its people and its a double circle. The first book printed on paper manucountries, is but a grain of sand on the high field of immen- factured in England was a Latin one entitled Bartholosity; the other teaches me, that every grain of sand may har- meus de Proprietatibus Rerum: it was printed in 1495 or bour within it the tribes and the families of a busy popula- 1496: the paper seems to have been made by John Tate tion. The one told me of the insignificance of the world I the younger, and had the mark of a wheel. The paper tread upon ; the other redeems it from all its insignificance; for it tells me, that in the leaves of every forest, and in the used by Caxton, and other early printers, had a great flowers of every garden, and in tne waters of every rivulet, variety of marks, of which the chief are the ox-head there are worlds teeming with life, and numberless as are and star, the letter P, the shears, the hand and star, the glories of the firmament. The one has suggested to me, a collared dog's head, with a trefoil over it, a crown, that beyond and above all that is visible to man, there may be fields of creation which sweep immensely along, and carry The ox-head, sometimes with a star or a flower over

a shield with something like a bend upon it, &c. &c. the impress of the Almighty's hand to the remotest scenes of the universe ; the other suggests to me, that within and be- | it, is the mark of the paper on which Faust printed neath all that minuteness which the aided eye of man has some of his early books : but the open hand, which been able to explore, there may be a region of invisibles; was likewise a very ancient mark, remained longer in and that could we draw aside the mysterious curtain which fashion, and probably gave the name to what is still shrouds it from our senses, we might see a theatre of as many called hand paper. We have given a representation of wonders as astronomy has unfolded, a universe within the two which were copied (as were the rest which we compass of a point so small as to elude all the powers of the shall give) from loose pages of old written or printed for the exercise of all his attributes, where he can raise an- books. other mechanisın of worlds, and fill and animate them all with the evidence of his glory:--CHALMERS. Those who place their affection at first on trifles for amusement, will find these trifles become at last their most serious concerns.-GOLDSMITH.

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ANCIENT MARKS IN PAPER. Every one knows how often we are obliged to refer to ancient times to explain common terms of art, and words which are in every one's mouth. We have a curious instance of this in the names which are given to the different sorts and sizes of paper. We all talk of foolscap paper, post paper, and note paper, and paper makers and stationers have other terms of the same kind, as hand-paper, pot-paper, &c. Now, the term note paper is clear enough, as it evidently means paper of the size fit for notes; while post paper, we may suppose, means the larger size which is used for letters sent by the post. But when we come to foolscap paper we are altogether at a loss for an explanation ; and here we find we must look to something else than the size of the paper as the origin of the name.

The first of these two figures was taken from a Now, if we go back to the early history of paper- loose page at the beginning of a Bible printed in 1539. making, we find that terms which now puzzle us so

Another very favourite paper-mark, at a somewhat much, may easily be explained by the various paper been the origin

of the term pot paper. It is sometimes

later period, was the jug, or pot, which seems to have marks which have been in use at different times. In ancient times, we know, when very few people could found plain, but oftener bears the initials or first letread, pictures of every kind were very much in use, variety of figures, every paper-maker having a some

ters of the maker's name : hence there is a very great had a sign, as well as every public-house ; and these what different mark. We have given figures of both signs were not then, as they very often are now, only kinds : the jugs or flagons are often of a very elegant printed upon a board : they were always either painted shape, and are curious as showing the workmanship pictures, as many inn-signs still are, or else models of the times in which they were made. of the thing which the sign expressed, as we still sometimes see a bee-hive, a tea-canister, or a doll. For the same reason, printers always had some device which they put upon the title-pages and at the end of their books; and paper-makers used marks to distinguish the paper of their manufacture from that of others. Some of these marks becoming common, naturally gave their name to different sorts of paper; and as names, we all know, remain very often long after the origin of them is forgotten and the circumstances changed, we shall not be surprised to find the old names still in use; though, perhaps, in some cases, they are not applied to the same things they originally denoted. It will be the best way, perhaps, to mention briefly

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The papers from which these were copied are dated 1670 and 1679.

The mark is still sometimes used; but the same change which has so much diminished the number of painted signs in the streets of our towns and cities, has nearly made paper-marks a matter of antiquarian curiosity; the maker's name being now generally used, and the mark, in the few instances where it still remains, serving the purpose of mere ornament rather than of distinction.

THE LLAMA.

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Two of the specimens which we have given of the former kind are taken from books printed in 1539; the other two are of nearly the same date: the latter specimens are very nearly a century later.

The fool's cap was a later device, and does not seem to have been nearly of such long continuance as the former. It has given place to the figure of Britannia, or that of a lion rampant, supporting the cap of liberty on a pole : the name, however, has continued, and we still denominate paper of a particular size by the title of foolscap paper. The subjoined figures have the cap and bells which we so often read of in old plays and histories as the particular dress of the fool, who formerly formed part of every great man's establishment.

TAE Llama is a native of the lofty and mountainous regions of Peru, Chili, and other districts of South America. It is about four feet and a half in height, and in length, from the neck to the tail, nearly six feet. It bears a strong resemblance to the camel, and performs many of the services allotted to that animal, in the countries where it is found. The Llama is of greater importance than even the camel, on account of the length and fineness of its wool.

In the Spanish settlements of South America before the introduction of mules, the Llama was employed in the ploughing of land, and in many parts of those countries it is still used for the conveyance of goods. Like the camel, it lies down to be loaded, but it is self-willed; when tired with labour, no severity will make it proceed, but kindness and caresses will induce it to rise. There is, however, one peculiarity in the Llama, namely, that it will not travel by night.

Llamas are generally employed in carrying the rich ores from the mines of Potosi. In these journies,

they will sometimes travel four or five days together Post paper seems to have derived its name from the without repose, and they then rest of their own accord post-horn which at one time was its distinguishing twenty or thirty hours. In travelling during the daymark. This is of later date, and does not seem to time, they browse wherever they find herbage, and gehave been used before the establishment of the Gene- nerally spend the night in chewing the cud. The ral Post-office, when it became the custom to blow a weight, however, which a Lama can carry is not greater born.

than what is carried by an European ass. Its gait is neither a trot nor a gallop, but so exceedingly gentle, that the women prefer the Llama to every other animal for riding. They are pastured in the open fields, and never make any attempt to escape. The wool of the Llama is as soft as silk, and as fine as the wool of our sheep. The animal is generally shorn about the end of June.

The Llama chews the cud, like oxen, sheep, deer, &c. but it differs from other animals of the same kind in the number of its teeth. The nostrils of the Llama consist of a mere slit in the skin, which is opened and shut at pleasure; the lips are thick, the upper one

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