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many, as in England, they were first observed on the IIebrew language with so much vigour and assiduity, jasmine, but now exclusively on the potato, though that entire nights were often employed in close applithey will enter the beehives, to feed on the honey cation. His preceptor, Dr. Sumner, acknowledged, found in them. This insect has been thought to be that his pupil knew more Greek than himself. His peculiarly gifted in having a voice, and squeaking like sight was so impaired by study, that he was prohibited a mouse, when handled or disturbed; but, in truth, from applying, for some period, to severe intellectual no insect, that we know of, has the requisite organs efforts. His name was long remembered at Harrow, to produce a genuine voice. They emit sounds by where he received his early education, with that proother means, probably all external. The grasshopper | found veneration, which his superior intellect and and the cricket race effect their well-known and often unrivalled learning commanded. wearisome chirpings, by grating their spiny thighs Sir William Jones was distinguished not only for against their rigid wings ; and this acherontia atropos bis classical attainments, and for the beauty of his appears to produce the noise it at times makes, which poetic compositions, but for the eloquence and power reminds us of the spring call of the rail or corn-crake, of his declamations, and the masterly manner in by scratching its mandible, or the instrument that it which he delivered his orations. At Oxford, his colperforates with, against its horny chest.-Journal of a lege tutors dispensed with his attendance on their Naturalist.

lectures, alleging, that he could employ his time to

greater advantage. He went through the Greek A SISTER'S LOVE

poets and historians with a pen in his hand, making When o'er my dark and wayward soul

remarks, and composing in imitation of his most adThe clouds of nameless Sorrow roll;

mired authors. When Hope no more her wreath will twine

His studies and researches as a lawyer were not conAnd Memory sits at Sorrow's shrine

fined to any one brauch of jurisprudence, but emNor aught to joy my soul can move,

braced the whole in its widest extent. He compared I muse upon a Sister's Love.

the doctrines and principles of ancient lawgivers, When, tir'd with study's graver toil,

with the later improvements effected in the science of I pant for sweet aflection's smile,

law ; collated the various codes of the different states And, sick with restless hopes of fame, Would half forego the panting aim ;

of Europe; and collected professional knowledige I drop the book, -and thought will rove,

wherever it could be acquired. While his multiplied To greet a Sister's priceless Love.

and important engagements required his daily attendWhen all the world seems cold and stern

ance in Calcutta, his usual residence was situated on And bids the bosom vainly yearn;

the banks of the Ganges, at the distance of five miles When Woman's heart is lightly chang',

from the court. To this spot he returned every evenAnd Friendship weeps o'er looks estrang'd; I turn from all the pangs I prove,

ing after sunset, and in the morning rose so early, as

to reach his apartments in the city by walking, at the To hail a Sister's changeless Love. And, oh, at shadowy close of even,

first appearance of the dawn. When quiet wings the soul to Heaven ;

This eminent man had studied eight languages criWhen the long toils of lingering day,

tically, eight others less accurately; and had examined And all its cares are swept away ;

twelve more, less perfectly. His poetic taste was Then-while my thoughts are rapt above

refined and elevated, and many of his translations Then, most I prize my Sister's Love.

and imitative pieces reflect on him great lustre. His CHAUNCEY HARE TOWNSEND

veneration of Christianity was early and profound,

and his admiration of the language and sentiments of SIR WILLIAM JONES,

the Holy Scriptures was ardent and unqualified.

He saw the light that beam'd around, and own'd
THE DISTINGUISHED ORIENTALIST.

It came from heaven.
The Life of Sir William Jones, by the enlightened

His last hours were peculiarly touching. His disLord Teignmouth, is an intelligent, affectionate, and just piece of composition, producing a pleasing im- ing of his decease, his medical attendants called on

order was an inflammation of the liver. On the mornpression on the mind. It is the production of an inti- | ing of his decease, his medical attendants called on mate friend, a man of superior mind, and of kindred Lord Teignmouth, and all repaired to the house of spirit. Sir William Jones must be the object of re

this distinguished scholar. He was lying on his bed, spectful veneration ; at his numerous attainments all

in a posture of meditation, and the only symptom of must wonder ; with his amiable and fine spirit, all, remaining life, was a slight motion at the heart, who can value what is lovely and excellent, must be which, after a few moments, ceased, and he expired delighted : and his diligence ought to induce unceas

without a pang or a groan. The monumental honours ing emulation.

paid to his memory, at Oxford and St. Paul's, were The portrait he has sketched of his mother, exhibits distinguished; but, as has been well remarked, the his own affectionate and filial disposition in a beautiful the contemplation of acquirements so extensive and

whole earth is the sepulchre of illustrious men,” and manner, and is quaintly, though strikingly, “She was virtuous, without blemish; generous, with-| splendid, of talent so uncommon, and of worth so out extravagance; frugal, but not a niggard ; cheerful, exalted, will induce the esteem and admiration of but not giddy; close, but not sullen ; ingenious, but every generation, even the most remote. not conceited ; spirited, but not passionate ; of her of mortality, but his character and genius are em

Sir William Jones was cut down early by the stroke company,

cautious; in her friendship, trusty ; to her balmed in our hearts, and many a noble minded, parents dutiful ; to her husband, ever faithful, loving, richly endowed youth, will derive vigour and encouand obedient.”

In his twelfth year, William, the son of this esti- ragement from his splendid excellences. mable woman, wrote out from recollection, the Tempest of Shakspeare—translated into verse several of The formation and steady pursuit of some particular plan of the Epistles of Ovid, all the Pastorals of Virgil—and life, has justly been considered as one of the most permanent composed a dramatic piece. His knowledge was not

sources of happiness.-Malthus. only acute and extensive, but most extraordinary. Nature has sown in man the seeds of knowledge, but they He learned the Arabic characters, and studied the must be cultivated to produce fruit.—Lord CollingwOUD.

T. W.

MANNERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. cows which produce the former, feed during summer The following extract from the Journal of Elizabeth in the shrubby pastures of Epping Forest, and the Woodville, before her marriage with Sir John Grey, is leaves of the trees, and numerous wild plants which copied from an ancient manuscript in Drummond there abound, are supposed to improve the flavour of Castle; it gives a curious picture of the habits of the the butter. It is brought to market in rolls from one great in former times. After the death of Sir John to two feet long, weighing a pound each. The CamGrey, she became, in 1465, the queen of Edward IV. bridgeshire butter is produced from cows that feed On the accession of Henry VII, who had married her one part of the year on chalky uplands, and the other daughter, she was confined in the nunnery of Ber on rich meadows or fens: it is made up into long mondsey, and died there, but was buried at Windsor. rolls like Epping butter, and generally salted or cured

“Monday, March 9. Rose at 4 o'clock, and helped before being brought to market; the London dealers, Catherine to milk the cows; Rachel, the other dairy- having washed it, and wrought the salt out of it, fremaid, having scalded her hand in so bad a manner quently sell it for Epping butter. the night before. Made a poultice for Rachel, and

The butter of Suffolk and Yorkshire is often sold gave Robin a penny to get her something comfortable for that of Cambridgeshire, to which it is little infefrom the apothecary's.

rior. Somersetshire butter is thought to equal that “ Six o'clock. The buttock of beef too much boiled, of Epping: it is brought to market in dishes conand the beer a little of the stalest. Memorandum : taining half a pound each ; out of which it is taken, To talk to cook about the first fault, and to mend the washed, and put into different forms, by the dealers of second myself by tapping a fresh barrel directly.

Bath and Bristol. Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire “ Seven o'clock. Went to walk with the lady, my butter is very good; it is made up in half pound mother, into the court-yard. Fed twenty-five men packs or prints, packed up in square baskets, and and women; chided Roger severely for expressing sent to the London market by waggon. The butter some ill will at attending us with broken meat.

of the mountains of Wales and Scotland, and the “Eight o'clock. Went into the paddock behind moors, commons, and heaths of England, is of excelthe house with my maid Dorothy, caught Thump, the lent quality when it is properly managed; and though little pony, myself, and rode a matter of six miles not equal in quantity, is superior to that produced by without saddle or bridle.

the richest meadows. “ Ten o'clock. Went to dinner. John Grey, a Considerable quantities of butter are made in Irecomely youth, but what is that to me? a virtuous maiden land, and it forms a prominent article in the exports should be entirely under the direction of her parents. of that country : it is inferior to that of England. John ate but little ; stole a great many tender looks Some of the best Irish butter brought to London, at me, and said, “Women never could be handsome after being washed and repacked, is sold as Dorsetin his opinion, who were not good tempered." I hope shire and Cambridge butter. my temper is not intolerable; nobody finds fault with

The salt butter of Holland is superior to that of it but Roger, and he is the most disorderly serving- every other country; large quantities of it are anman in our family. John Grey likes white teeth; nually exported. It forms about three-fourths of all my teeth are of a pretty good colour I think; and the foreign butter we import. my hair is as black as jet, though I say it; and John,

The production and consumption of butter in Great if I mistake not, is of the same opinion.

Britain is very great. The consumption in London “ Eleven o'clock. Rose from table, the company may be averaged at about one half pound per week all desirous of walking in the fields ; John Grey would for each individual, being at the rate of 26 lbs. a year ; lift me over every stile, and twice he squeezed my and supposing the population to amount to 1,450,000, hand with great vehemence. I cannot say I should the total annual consumption would be 37,700,000lbs., have any objection to John Grey; he plays at prison- or 16,830 tons : but to this may be added 4,000 tons, bars as well as any country gentleman, and he never for the butter required for the victualling of ships and misses church on sundays.

other purposes, making the total consumption, in Three o'clock. Poor Farmer Robinson's house round numbers, 21,000 tons, or 47,040,000lbs., which burnt down by an accidental fire. John Grey pro- at 10d. per lb. would be worth 1,960,0001. posed a subscription for the benefit of the farmer, and The average produce per cow of the butter dairies is gave no less than four pounds himself with this bene- estimated by Mr. Marshall at 168lbs. a year ; so that, volent intent. Memorandum : Never saw him look supposing we are nearly right in the above estimates, so handsome as at that moment.

about 280,000 cows will be required to produce an Four o'clock. Went to prayers.

adequate supply of butter for the London market. “ Six o'clock. Fed the hogs and poultry.

But the consumption of butter in London has some“ Seven o'clock. Supper on the table : delayed in times been estimated at 50,000 ton ; which would reconsequence of Farmer Robinson's misfortune. Me- quire for its supply upwards of 666,000 cows ! morandum : The goose-pie too much baked, and the pork roasted to rags.

RELIGION will always make the bitter waters of Marah “Nine o'clock. The company fast asleep ; these wholesome and palateable, but we must not think it contilate hours very disagreeable. Said my prayers a nually will turn water into wine, because it once did.

WARBURTON. second time, John Grey distracting my thoughts too much the first time. Fell asleep, and dreamed of John Grey"

No entertainment is so cheap as reading, nor any pleasure

so lasting.–LADY M. W. Montagu. USE OF BUTTER IN ENGLAND.

ANIMALS go rightly, according to the ends of their creation, BUTTER, as every one knows, is a fat substance, ob- when they are left to themselves; they follow their instinct tained from milk, or rather from cream, hy the pro- and are safe: but it is otherwise with man; the ways of life cess of churning.

are a labyrinth for him; his infancy does not stand more in Butter is very extensively used in this and most need of a mother's care, than his moral and intellectual faother northern countries : that of England and Hol- culties require to be nursed and fostered : and when these

are left to starve for want of nutriment, how infinitely more land is reckoned the best. In London, the butter of deplorable is his condition than that of the beasts who perish! Epping and Cambridge is in the highest repute: the l ---Souther.

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Sir Philip Sidney's days, so famous for men at armes, ON CARRIAGES.

it was then," says Aubrey, “held as great a disgrace WHEEL carriages for pleasure are generally supposed for a young gentleman to be seen riding in the streets to have first come into use in England in the reign of in a coach, as it would now for such a one to be seen Queen Elizabeth. But long before that time, car- in the streets in a petticoat and waistcoat! so much riages of some kind were used on state occasions, or is the fashion of the times altered.” for the conveyance of sick persons. Even in the time Sir Walter Scott says, that it is a tradition in Scotof the Saxons, a clumsy kind of car, upon four wheels, land, that chaises or chariots were first introduced was employed to carry great personages : and Stow into that country in 1745. Before that time, the notells us, that during Wat Tyler's insurrection in 1380, bility were accustomed to travel in vehicles somewhat Richard the Second“ being threatened by the rebels resembling Noah's Ark, and the gentry on horseback; of Kent, rode from the Tower of London to the Miles but in that memorable year, the Prince of Hesse apEnd; and with him his mother, because she was sick peared in a carriage of this description, “to the admiand weak, in a whirlicote," which is supposed to have ration of all Scotchmen, who regarded it as a coach cut been a sort of covered carriage. “Chariots covered, with in half.” Ladies therein," followed the litter in which Queen When we compare the clumsy things in which even Catharine was carried to her coronation with Henry our kings formerly rode, with the convenient and the Eighth. But Queen Elizabeth's is the first that elegant carriages of the present day, we cannot help is called a coach. In 1564, William Boonen, a Dutch- admiring the progress which our workmen have made man, became the Queen's coachman, and about this in this and every other branch of art, and hoping that time coaches were brought into general use in Eng. their skill may always find that encouragement which land. In 1588 Queen Elizabeth went from Somerset it so well deserves. House to Paul's Cross to hear return thanks on the de

[From a paper in the Archæologia, by J. H. Markland, Esq.] struction of the Spanish Armada, in a coach presented to her by Henry Earl of Arundel

Of Time's CONTINUAL Speed.-In all the actions which a man performs, some part of his life passes. We die while doing that for which alone our sliding life was granted. Nay, though we do nothing, time keeps his constant pace, and fies as fast in idleness as in employment. Whether we play or labour, or sleep, or dance, or study, the sun posts on, and the sand runs.

An hour of vice is as long as an hour of virtue. But the difference between good and bad actions is infinite. Good actions, though they diminish our time here as well as bad actions, yet they lay up for us a happiness in eternity; and will recompense what they take away, by a plentiful return at last. When we trade with virtue, we do but buy pleasure with the expense of time. So it is not so much a consuming of time as an exchange. As a man sows his com, he is content to want it awhile, that he may, at the harvest,

receive it with advantage. But the bad deeds that we do Coach of Queen Elizabeth.

here, not only rob us of much time, but also bespeak a torThe cuts here given, copied from an old print, re- ment for hereafter ; and that, in such a life, that the greatest present her Majesty in her coach, followed by another pleasure we could there be crowned with, would be the very with her attendants. In the second carriage may be

act of dying. The one treasures up pleasure in everlasting noticed two odd-looking seats, which were called boots, I wish to pass away this life ill, which, to those that are ill,

life, the other provides torture in a death eternal. Why should where two of the officers sat, as the Lord Mayor's do is the best? If I must daily lessen it, it shall be by that, now, back to back.

which shall joy me with a future income. Time is like a ship which never anchors : while I am on board, I had better do those things that may profit me at my landing, than practice such as shall cause my commitment when I come ashore. Whatsoever I do, I would think what will become of it when it is done. If good, I will go on to finish it; if bad, I will either leave off where I am, or not undertake it at all. Vice, like an unthrift, sells away the inheritance, while it is but in reversion : but virtue, husbanding all things well, is a purchaser.-FELTHAM.

LONDON:
Coach of 'he Queen's Attendants.

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND. These coaches must have been clumsy uncomfort

Sold hy all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom. able machines. They had no springs; and the state

Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms by of the streets and roads must have made travelling in W.S. ORR, Paternoster-Row; G. BERGER, Holywell-st.; A. DOUGLAS,

27, Portman-st. Portman-sq. London, them any thing but easy. But fashion soon brought

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :them into such general use, that in 1607, Dekker com

A herdeen .......

Brown and Co. Hereford .. Watkins-Child.
..George.
Hull

Wilson. plains that “the wife of every citizen must be jolted Bath......

Birmingham ..Langbridge. Lancashire and Bancks and Co. now." And in 1636, there were 6,000 of them kept Bristol Westley and Co.

Cheshire

Manchester.
Cambridge
Stevenson
Leeds

Robinson. in London and the neighbourhood.

Carlisle
Thurnam.
Leicester.

Combe.

..Guy
At first they had only two horses, but afterwards Chelmsford..

Liverpool .Hughes.
Colchester

Swinborne & Co. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fiulay & Charl. the number was increased. In the reign of James Derby

Wilkins and Son.

ton; Empson. Dublin

..Curry Jun. & Co. Notlingham .Wright the First,“the stout old Earl of Northumberland, when

Dundee
.Shaw.
Oxford

Slatter.

Edinburgh ..Oliver and Boyd. Sheffield he was got loose, hearing that the great favourite

..Ridge.
Exeler... ..Penny and Co.

Salisbury.

Broilie & Dowding Buckingham was drawn about with a coach and six

Glasgow

Grillin and Co. Shrewsbury .Eddowes.
Gloucester
Tew.
Worcester ....

Deighton, horses, thought he might very well have eight in his coach, with which he rode through the City of London,

TAE to the vulgar talk and admiration."

SUPPLEMENTARY NUMBER FOR AUGU

Wil ve ready on the 31st Instant. In general, however, it was thought disgraceful in those times for the male sex to ride in coaches. “In C. RICHARDS, Printer, 100, St. Martin's Lane, Charing Cross.

Saturday

GENERAL

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCÀTION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

SUPERSTITIONS OF THE DRUIDS.

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Gigantic Druidical Idol, as described by Cæsar: Tue Druids, or Priests of the Ancient Britons, are · favourites they demanded gifts and offerings from the said to have retained the belief of one supreme deluded multitude. The better to secure this revenue, God, all-wise, all mighty, and all merciful, from they made the people, at the beginning of winter, exwhom all things which have life proceed; though tinguish all their fires on one day, and kindle them they feigned that there were other gods beside Him again from the sacred fire of the Druids, which would in whom we live and move and have our being; make the house fortunate for the ensuing year; and Teutates, whom they called the father, and Taranis if any man came who had not paid his yearly dues, the thunderer, and Hesus the god of battles, and An- they refused to give him a spark, neither durst any draste the goddess of victory : Hu the mighty, by of his neighbours relieve him : nor might he himself whom it is believed that Noah, the second parent of procure fire by any other means, so that he and his the human race, was intended; Ceridwen, a goddess family were deprived of it till he had discharged the in whose rites the preservation of mankind in the ark uttermost of his debt. They erected also great stones, was figured; and Beal or Belinus,-for the Phenicians so cunningly fitted one upon another, that if the upper had introduced the worship of their Baal.

one were touched in a certain place, though only with By favour of these false gods, the Druids pretended a finger, it would rock; whereas no strength of man to foretell future events, and as their servants and might avail to move it if applied to any other part : VOL. I.

10

4

hither they led those who were accused of any crime, whistling over his work, and his hammer was often and, under pretence that the gods would, by this form heard tilĩ the “noon of night.” He thus obtained a good of trial, show the guilt or innocence of the party, reputation, and some of this world's goods. He soon directed him where to touch and make the proof : married a virtuous female, one whose kind disposition and thus, at their discretion, they either absolved the! added new joys to his existence, and whose busy neataccused, or made them appear guilty.

ness rendered pleasant and comfortable their little The misletoe, the seed whereof is eaten and voided | tenement. Time passed smoothly on, they were blessed by the birds, and thus conveyed from one tree to an- with the smiling pledges of their affection, and in a few other, they affected to hold in veneration. When it | years Tom was the possessor of a neat little cottage was discovered growing upon an oak, upon which and a piece of land. This they improved ; and it soon tree it is rarely to be found, the Druids went thither became the abode of plenty and joy.

with great solemnity, and all things were made ready occasionally walk down to an ale-house in the neigh

But Tom began to relax in his conduct, and would for sacrifice and for feasting.

Two white bulls were fastened by their horns to the tree; the officiating, bourhood. This soon became a habit, and the habit priest ascended, and cut the mistletoe with a golden imperceptibly grew upon him, until, to the grief of all knife ; others stood below to receive it in a white who knew him, he became a constant lounger about woollen cloth, and it was carefully preserved, that the ale-house and skittle-ground, and going on from water wherein it had been steeped might be adminis- bad to worse, became an habitual drunkard. The tered to men, as an antidote against poison, and to inevitable consequences soon followed. He got into cattle, for the sake of making them fruitful. The sa- debt, and his creditors soon took possession of all he crifice was then performed. The best and most beau- had. His poor wife used all the arts of persuasion to tiful of the flocks and herds were selected for this reclaim him ; and she could not think of using him purpose. The victim was divided into three parts : harshly; she loved him even in his degradation, for one was consumed as a burnt offering ; he who made he had always been kind to her. Many an earnest the offering feasted upon another, with his friends ; petition did she prefer to Heaven for his reformation, and the third was the portion of the Druids. In this and often did she endeavour to work upon his paternal wise did they delude the people. But they had worse feelings. Over and over again he promised to reform, rites than these and were guilty of greater abomina- and at last wås as good as his word, for he was intions. They were notorious, above the priests of every duced to stay from the ale-house for three days toother idolatry, for the practice of pretended magic. gether. They made the people pass through fire, in honour of His anxious wife began to cherish hope of returning Beal; and they offered up the life of man in sacrifice, happiness. But a sudden cloud one day for a moment saying that when the victim was smitten with a sword, damped her joy. " Betsey,” said he, as he arose from they could discover events which were to come, by the his work, “give me that bottle." These words pierced manner in which he fell, and the flowing of his blood, her very heart, and seemed to sound the knell of all and the quivering of his body in the act of death. her cherished hopes; but she could not disobey him. When a chief was afflicted with sickness, thry sacri. He went out with his bottle, had it filled at the aleficed a human victim, because, they said, the conti- house, and on returning home, placed it in the winnuance of his life might be purchased, if another life dow immediately before him. Now,” said he, “I were offered up as its price ; and in like manner, men can face my enemy." With a resolution fixed upon were offered up when any calamity befel the people, overcoming his pernicious habits, he went earnestly and when they were about to engage in war. Naked to work, always having the bottle before him, but women, stained with the dark blue dye of woad, as never again touched it. Again he began to thrive, sisted at these bloody rites. On greater occasions, a and in a few years he was once more the owner of huge figure, in the rude likeness of man, was made his former delightful residence. of wicker-work, and filled with men : as many as were His children grew up, and are now respectable condemned to death for their offences were put into members of society, Old age came upon Tom, and it; but if these did not suffice to fill the image, the he always kept the bottle in the window, where he innocent were thrust in, and they surrounded it with had first put it; and often, when his head was silstraw and wood, and set fire to it, and consumed it, vered over with age, he would refer to his bottle, and with all whom it contained.

thank God that he had been able to overcome the vice Their domestic institutions were not less pernicious of drunkenness. He never permitted it to be removed than their idolatry. A wife was common to all the from that window while he lived; and there it remained kinsmen of her husband, a custom which prevented until after he had been consigned to his narrow home, all connubial love, and destroyed the natural affection between child and father ; for every man had as many wives as he had kinsmen, and no man knew his child, ON THE CUSTOM OF PLANTING YEW TREES nor did any child know its father. These were the

IN CHURCHYARDS. abominations of our British fathers after the light of

[From FAULKNER'S Histories of Fulham and Kensington.] the Patriarchs was lost among them, and before they The original design of planting these trees in churchreceived the light of the gospel.

yards, has given rise to much antiquarian discussion, [Abridged from SOUTAEY.]

They are said to have been originally planted either

to protect the church from storms, or to furnish the HOW TO FACE AN ENEMY.

parishioners with bows. The statute of 35 Edw. I, THOMAS P -, at the age of eighteen, was, by the which settles the property of trees in churchyards, death of his master, left alone in the world to gain a recites, that they were often planted to defend the livelihood as a shoemaker. He shouldered his kit, church from high winds, and the clergy were reand went from house to house, making up the farmer's quested to cut them down for the repairs of the chancel leather, or mending the children's shoes. At length a of the church whenever required. Several ancient goud old man, pleased with Tom's industry and steady laws were enacted for the encouragement of archery, habits, offered him a small building as a shop. Here which regulate many particulars relative to bows, but Tom applied himself to work, with persevering indus- it does not appear that any statute directed the cultitry and untiring' ardour. Early in the morning he was vation of the yew. Although the scarcity of bow

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