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spot. The king having informed him of his state and of the temple will procure to those who visit it benefits the object of his visit, was answered by the tortoise, incalculable. To receive stripes from the Bramins apthat he well remembered the splendour of the ancient pointed to distribute the rice, is a work singularly metemple, but that age having impaired his memory, he ritorious. Indra, and all the gods, will visit the city; could not distinctly point out the spot where it had and Vishnu, who will reside there : the sand which stood; that Vishnu had long dwelt there, and that the sea shall deposit on the side facing the temple, other gods often visited the spot for recreation and shall be called gold dust; whoever shall die on that amusement; but that, owing to the neglect of the sand, shall assuredly go to the paradise of Vishnu." wonted sacrifices and offerings, he had returned to The monarch without delay set about the work ; his own paradise. The tortoise, however, informed he built the city, and erected the temple; and, in due the anxious monarch, that on the borders of another time, he saw the promised tree arrive on the shore. lake he would find an immortal raven, with feathers Having paid due adoration to the divine block, the white by age, and that from him he would attain king, with a hundred thousand men, bore the future complete satisfaction on the subject of his inquiry. idol in triumph to the city. The heavenly carpenter The king lost no time in proceeding on his journey; delayed not to arrive, and undertook the task of and having found the immortal bird, he inquired of sculpture, promising to complete the work in one him every particular regarding the holy shrine, and night, on condition that he was not interrupted, and its founders. The raven, deeply versed in ancient that no one should inspect him; a single glance of the history, related to the delighted sovereign the deeds eye, it was ann

nounced, would cause him immediately of his great ancestors, and especially the piety of him to disappear never to return. who obtained the favour of Vishnu's residence in the The sculptor of wood working in perfect silence, temple, which he had constructed for him of gold the king suspected that he had broken his engagelined with precious stones: he added, “ that time, ment; and, to assure himself on the point, softly which destroyed all things, had respected this magni- peeped through a crevice in the door, and saw with ficent edifice, which was only buried about ten miles delight that the workman was diligently performing below the surface of the earth: that after the disap- his task, and quickly withdrew. But Vishvakaram pearance of the temple, Vishnu, unwilling to quit the had perceived him, and instantly vanished, leaving mountain, his favourite abode, had changed himself the block with scarcely the rudest approach to the into a margosa tree (Malia Azadirachta, Lin.); but intended form. The king, nevertheless, considering the holy hermit, Markandia, perceiving that the tree the imperfect image to be divine, paid homage, and gave no shade, breathed upon it, and reduced part of gave to it his daughter in marriage. This absurd story it to ashes; but as the tree was necessarily immortal, is still believed, and this monstrous image continues part of it still remained.” Having communicated in the same form to this day, receiving adoration these important facts, the raven set out with the king under the title of Jagganátha, or lord of the world. to the spot where the temple was buried, and, remov

[To be continued.) ing the sand with his beak, exhibited to his royal com panion the golden shrine, and then re-covered it as


BOTANICAL topography, which treats of the stations The king now returned to Brahma to consult on as well as of the habitations of vegetables, is a subhis future proceedings, in order to awaken in the ject not wholly without interest and value. It is well minds of the people the devotion which he thought known that very different plants abound in different this place ought ever to inspire. The god advised soils; that some grow on land, and some in water; him to build a new temple on the same spot; but as that some like one, and some another situation. For the present age was so bad, it would not be safe that example, to take plants which are very closely allied, the material employed should be gold, as it would be the lichens are dry plants, and never grow under water; stolen piecemeal by the visiters; he might therefore the fuci are watery plants, and never grow out of water; construct it of brick. The name by which the god to and the same may be said of many other plants, some be worshipped was to be known, was that of Sri Jeo, of which are, as it were, the living boundaries of land or the Sacred Spirit; he was also to build a town near the temple: and Brahma further informed his worshipper, that when these works should be accomplished, Vishnu himself, in the form of the trunk of the partially-blasted tree, would appear on the seashore. “ This trunk,” said the god, “ thou wilt convey with pomp to the new temple. The carpenter of the gods, Vishvakarma, shall himself come and fashion it into the image of Vishnu. And thou wilt place by his side his sister Subaddra, and his brother Balarama; and thou wilt cause daily sacrifices to be offered to him, and thus ensure to thyself, and to all who shall follow thy example, entrance into the paradise, Vaikoonta. Since Vishnu will not be able to consume all the food which will be prepared for him, the remnants may be eaten by men for their purification, and the remission of their sins. Happy they who may attain the smallest particle! To give thee an idea of the value of these remnants, if by accident any fragments should fall on the earth, the gods would scramble for them, even though dogs had already devoured a part; or should an outcast draw from the mouth of a dog rice then devoted to Vishnu, and put it in the mouth of a

[The Rock Samphtre. Bramin, so great is the efficacy of that rice, that it and sea: thus, the Samphire (Crithmum Maritimum,) would instantly purify him from sin. The very sight I never grows but on the sea-shore, and yet it never


grows within reach of the waves,- that is to say, it is | planted his standard here, and by this sign they were never so near as to be wholly covered by the waters. assured that He had said to the wild waste of waters, It happened not long since, that a knowledge of this “ Hitherto shalt thou come, and no further.” Trust• fact was useful in a way and at a time when botanic ing, then, to the promise of this Angel of the Earth, knowledge might, beforehand, have been expected to they remained stationary during the remainder of be of little practical importance.

that dreadful, but then comparatively happy night; During a violent storm in November, 1821, a ves- and in the morning they were seen from the cliffs sel, passing through the English Channel, was driven above, and conveyed in safety to the shore.—BURon shore near Beachy Head; and the whole of the NETT's Introductory Lecture. crew being washed overboard, four escaped from the wreck, only to be delivered as they thought to a more

Samphire, or St. Peter's Wort, very probably derives its lingering and fearful, from its being a more gradual name Herbe de St. Pierre,' and hence, if such be the

English name, as etymologists contend, from the French and equally inevitable death; for, having in the dark- case, it would be more correctly written, according to Smith, ness of the night been cast upon the breakers, they Sampire, or, as degenerated from St. Pierre, san-pire. found, when they had climbed up the highest of these The botanical name Crithmum has been given to this low rocks, that the waves were rapidly encroaching on plant from the resemblance its seeds bear to grains of bartheir asylum ; and they doubted not, that when the ley, the crithe of the Greeks. tide should be at its height, the whole range would be entirely covered with water. The darkness of the

SINGULAR PROPERTIES OF THE FIGURE night prevented any thing being seen beyond the spot

9. upon which they stood, and this was continually decreasing by the successive encroachments of each MultiPLY 9 by itself, or by any other single figure, and advancing wave. The violence of the storm left no the two figures forming the product will, in each case, if hope that their feeble voices, even if raised to the added together, amount to 9: for example, 9 multiplied by uttermost, could be heard on shore; and they knew 9 is 81, and 8 and 1 added together make 9; so on with that amidst the howling of the blast their cries could the other figures. reach no other ear than that of God. What human added together, (viz. 45,) will also, if added together

The figures forming the amount of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, arm could give assistance in such a situation? even if make 9. their distresses were known, how vain were the help The amount of the several products or multiples of 9, (9, of man! The circle of their existence here seemed 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81,) namely 405, when divided gradually lessening before their eyes; their little span by 9, gives a quotient of 45, and the figures forming either of earth gradually contracting to their destruction :

the dividend or the quotient, added together, make 9. already they had climbed to the highest points, and the products of 9 multiplied by a single figure, as by 18, 27,

Multiply any row of figures either by 9, or by any one of already the furious waters followed them, flinging 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, or 81, and the sum of the figures of the over their devoted heads the foremost waves, as product added together will be divisible by 9. heralds of their speedily approaching dissolution. At Multiply the 9 digits in the following order, 1 2 3 4 5 this moment one of these wretched men, while they 6 7 8 9, by 9, or by any one of the products of 9 mentioned were debating whether they should not, in this extre

in the last paragraph, and the product will come out all in mity of ill, throw themselves upon the mercy of the

one figure, except the place of tens, which will be a 0, and

that figure will be the one which, multiplied into 9, supwaves, hoping to be cast upon some higher ground, plies the multiplier; that is, if you select 9 as the multias, even if they failed to reach it, a sudden would be plier, the product will be (except the place of tens) all ones; better than a lingering death——in this dire extremity, if you select 18, all twos; if 27, all threes, and so on. Omit one of these despairing creatures, to hold himself the 8 in the multiplicand, and the 0 will also vanish from more firmly to the rock, grasped a weed, which, even

the product, leaving it all ones, twos, threes, &c. as the case wet as it was, he well knew, as the lightning's sudden flash afforded a momentary glare, was not a fucus, but a root of Samphire; and he recollected that this THERE is not any benefit so glorious in itself, but it plant never grows under water. This then became may yet be exceedingly sweetened and improved by more than an olive branch of peace, a messenger of the manner of conferring it. The virtue, I know, mercy; by it they knew that He who alone can calm rests in the intent; the profit, in the judicious applithe raging of the seas, at whose voice alone the winds cation of the matter ; but the beauty and ornament of and the waves are still, had placed his landmark, had an obligation lies in the manner of it.—SENECA.

may be.

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13,089,336 Wales.

805,236 Scotland

2,365,807 Army and Navy. 277,017

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1700..5,475,000 1740..6,064,000 1780..7,953,000 1811..10,502,500

10..5,2410,000 50..6,467,000 90..8,675,000 21..12,218,500 20..5,565,000 60..6,736,000 1801..9,168,000 31 .. 14,594,500 30..5,796,000 70..7,428,000


1801.... . 1811..... 1821..... 1831 Number of Persons . 1,652,400 1,865,900 2,135,300 2,365,807

| Edinburgh, City of, in 1831 .. 162,403

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Totais ..

674,350 / 676,250 / 900,000 1,050,000



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Method is the very hinge of business; and there is considered to be very inferior to the productions of
no method without punctuality. Punctuality pro-Greece and Rome. A more correct name for them, how-
motes the peace and good temper of a family. The ever, though one not so frequently employed, is the
calmness of mind which it produces is another ad- English style, because buildings of this kind were first
vantage of punctuality. A man without punctuality introduced in England, and no other country can
is always in a hurry; he has no time to speak to you, boast finer specimens than are still remaining here.
because he is going elsewhere ; and when he gets there, Before the introduction of the English or pointed
he is too late for his business; or he must hurry away arch, the circular or rounded arch was in use; and a
to another before he can finish it. Punctuality gives few very beautiful examples of this kind of building
weight to character. “Such a man has made an ap- still remain in different parts of the country. It is
pointment : then I know he will keep it.” And this called Saxon or Norman, from its having prevailed
begets punctuality in those with whom he lives ; for, during the reign of the Saxon and Norman kings in
like other virtues, it propagates itself. Servants and England. It commenced at the establishment of
children must be punctual, where the master of the Christianity among the Saxons, in the 6th century,
family is so. Appointments become debts. If I have and continued to about the year 1135, in the reign of
made an appointment with you, I owe you punc-king Stephen. The entrance to the Temple Church,
tuality, and I have no right to throw away your time, London; the Abbey Gate, Bristol; and the Church
even though I might my own. To be punctual is to of Romsey, in Hampshire, are in this style of architec-
do as we would be done by; for who likes to be kept ture. The doors in this style are sometimes quite
waiting ? Punctuality is the best of economy; for plain, and sometimes very richly carved.
what have we that is so precious as time? Punctuality
is part of piety towards God; for of what gift shall
we be called to give so strict account as of those hours
without which no other gift can be exercised at all.
Wisdom doth balance in her scales those true and
false pleasures which do equally invite the senses ;
and rejecting all such as have no solid value or lasting
refreshment, doth select and take to her bosom those
delights that, proving immortal, do seem to smell and
taste of that paradise from which they spring. Like
the wise husbandman, who taking the rough grain
which carries in its heart the bread to sustain life,
doth trample under foot the gay and idle flowers
which many times destroy it.-A. M.

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[Entrance to the Temple Church.] FAMILIAR REMARKS ON ARCHITECTURE, Between the reign of Stephen and that of Henry I.

III., the circular arch began to disappear; and before ALMOST every body occasionally travels from one the death of the latter monarch, gave way to the part of the country to another, and amongst the many pointed arch. At first the two arches were intermixed ; picturesque objects which attract the attention, none and the style was then called, semi-or half-Norman. are more conspicuous than the churches and cathe- Some suppose that the pointed arch was introduced drals in the villages or cities through which the tra- from the Saracens, by the Crusaders to the Holy veller passes in his route. Even those who are pre- Land, and from this circumstance, they call it the vented by circumstances from making these excursions, Saracenic arch; but the greater number of persons whose lot is cast in London, or in a country town, or imagine it to have arisen from the accidental crossing in a remote village, have generally in the neighbour- of several rounded arches with each other. That this hood of their residence one or more of those venerable will produce pointed arches of different widths and structures, which, whether considered in a religious or heights, according to the points where they cross each scientific point of view, call upon us for attention and other, may easily be shown by placing two hoops or admiration. When looking at any particular build rings across each other, allowing one point of the ing, it naturally occurs to us to inquire how long it hoops or rings to rest upon a floor or table. The has been standing on the spot where we now see it. crossings of the boughs of trees in an avenue, also If any one be at hand we ask the question, and per-afford a familiar illustration of the same fact. In the haps receive a satisfactory answer, though it is more Temple Church, the two arches may be found united, probable that the answer will be one expressing a and other specimens may be seen in the church of St. total ignorance of the subject. Most persons would, Cross, near Winchester, the ruins of Buildwas Abbey, no doubt, be glad to possess a few rules, by the know- Shropshire ; Fountains Abbey, Rievaulx Abbey, and ledge of which they might themselves be able to guess, Roche Abbey, in Yorkshire. within a few years, the age of the building they were When the circular arch totally disappeared, in 1220, surveying; and to supply these is the intention of the the Early English Style commenced. The windows of following remarks.

this style were at first very narrow in comparison with The doors and windows of old English churches, their height: they were called laneet-shaped, and were generally, have pointed arches; and from the shape considered very elegant: two or three were frequently of these arches, principally, though there are other seen together, connected by dripstones. In a short lesser distinctions, the age of the building may be time, however, the windows became wider, and divimost accurately learned, as they have varied in height sions and ornaments were introduced. Sometimes the and width from age to age. Buildings constructed same window was divided into several lights, and frewith arrhes of this description are usually called quently finished at the top by a light in the form of a Gothic, a name given to them originally as a term of lozenge, circle, trefoil, or other ornament. A specimen reproach, because they were supposed formerly to be of this style may be seen in the beautiful church of the remains of the architectural taste of the Goihs, and St, Saviour's, Southwark, which has lately been thrown

open to view by the improvements connected with the at Westminster; St. George's Chapel at Windsor; erection of the New London Bridge. The door of St. Wrexham Church, Denbighshire ; and the Chapel on Mary's, Lincoln, is also in this style.

the bridge at Wakefield, Yorkshire, are all of this character. Many small country churches are built in this style; and, their size not admitting of much ornament, they are distinguished from buildings of a later date, by mouldings running round their arches, and generally by a square head over the blunt pointed arch of the door. A peculiar ornament of this style is a flower of four leaves, called, from the family reigning at that period, the Tudor flower. Below is the entrance to St. Erasmus' Chapel, in Wesminster Abbey.

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[Door-way of St. Mary's, Lincoln.] About the year 1300, the architecture became more ornamental, and from this circumstance received the name of the Decorated English style, which is considered the most beautiful for ecclesiastical buildings. The windows of this style are very easily distinguished. they are large and wide, and are divided into several lights by mullions, which are upright or perpendicular narrow columns, branching out at the top into tracery of various forms, such as trefoils, circles, and

[Entrance to St. Erasmus' Chapel, Westminster.] other figures. York Cathedral affords a fine specimen From 1380, and during the reign of Henry VIII., of this sort of architecture, and there is a beautiful architecture became less pure in style, though, in some window of the same style in the south transept of cases very elaborate in its ornaments. An intermixChichester Cathedral. The west front of that of Ex- ture of styles was introduced, and hence the appellaeter is another specimen, and the door-way of Lincoln tion of the Debased style, the character of the archiCathedral is in this style.

tecture being inferior to that of former ages, and yearly becoming less worthy of admiration. Italian architecture was mingled with the different orders of English, and the latter were almost entirely lost sight of before the reign of Charles I. Of what is called the Debased style there are many specimens in the Col. leges both of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as in many country Churches, built about the same period.

There are many other characteristics by which a building of one period may be distinguished from that of another, even by a very casual observer; but in a hasty glance, the traveller will hardly, perhaps, have time to cast his eye upon more than one particular part of the structure. The arches of doors and windows are prominent objects, and are readily seized upon by the eye.




Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.
[Door-way of Lincoln Cathedral.]

Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms

by ORR, Paternoster-row ; BERGER, Holywell-street; DOUGLAS, The change from the Decorated to the Florid or

Portman-street, London ;
Perpendicular Style was very gradual. Ornament after

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :-
Aberdeen, Brown & Co. Durham, Andrews.

Northampton, Birdsall. ornament was added, till simplicity disappeared beneath Bath, George.

Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Norwich Muskett;Smith the extravagant additions; and about the year 1380, Bristol, Westley & Co.; D. Glasgow, Griffin & Co.

Exeter, Penny & Co. Nottingham, Wright.

Orford, Slutter. the architecture became so overloaded and flowery,

Gloucester, Jew.

Paris, Bennis. that it obtained the title of Florid. This, by some

Bury, Lankester.

Hereford, Child. Plymouth, Nettleton. Cambridge, Stevenson, Hull, Wilson.

Silisbury, Brodie.& Co. persons, is called the Perpendicular Style, because the

Carlisle, Thurnam. Ipswich, Deck.

Sheffield, Ridge.
Chelmsford, Guy.

Lancashire and Cheshire, Shrewsbury, Eddow es, lines of division run in upright or perpendicular lines Cheltenham, Lovesy.

Bancks & Co., Man- Staffordshire Potteries, from top to bottom, which is not the case in any other

Chester, Seacome; Harding. chester.

Watts, Lane End. Chichester, Glover.

Leeds, Robinson. Sunderland, Marwooxcl. style. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, begun in

Colchester Swinborne & Co. Leicester, Combe. Warwick, Merridew.

Derby, Wilkins & Son. Liverpool, Hughes. Whitby, Rodgers. the reign of Henry VI., though not finished till some Devonport, Byers

Macclesfield, Swinnerton. Worcester, Deighton. time after; Gloucester Cathedral ; Henry VII.'s Chapel

Dublin, Curry Jun. & Co Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fin- Yarmouth, Alexander, Dundee, Shaw,

lay & Co: Empson. York, Bellerby,

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age, 1300


Circumference at the ground, 46 feet 10 inches,-at one yard bigb, 39 feet 10 inches.-

3. —-Estimated To the natural historian no subject is more interesting the wood-wards now consider oaks of three feet in than the still life memoirs of the vegetable world. He diameter as first rates, and regard those that exceed finds no retrospects more pleasing than those which four feet as monsters in size. Yet, notwithstanding relate to woodland scenes; no task more grateful all this rage for destruction ; notwithstanding the than a contemplation of those vast `inheritors of the fearful devastations which the last two centuries have earth,' which adorn and beautify our groves and lawns. witnessed, few civilized countries possess so many Among forest annals, no tree affords so many fond, chieftain wonder trees' as our own. Perhaps no so many grand memorials as the oak; no object landscape feature is more missed by Englishmen is more sublime than this stately plant; and yet, as abroad, especially when travelling through France, than Pontey truly says, 'even our mushrooms are tended those noble living monuments of past time, which with a nurse's care, while the oak, the pride of our like the woody patriarch here engraved, have given woods, the chief material of our navy, and conse- beauty to the land, and shelter to its inhabitants for quently the bulwark of our country, is (too often) many generations. This may probably be owing to left to thrive or rot by chance unheeded, if not for the prejudice against the use of coal as fuel, which gotten. So great, indeed, has been this apathy, so prevails so extensively abroad, and which leads to the extraordinary the perverseness, which has prevailed condemnation of trees for firewood, when their caon this subject, that the destruction of our forests has verned trunks no longer fear the axe nor dread being actually been regarded as a matter for exultation. converted into timber. In one of the returns from Suffolk to the Commis- But Time hastens to destroy even what man would sioners of Land Revenue, it is stated, that timber is spare ; and within our own recollection, and the lifedecreased in the woods and hedge-rows, as it ought time of our fathers, many of the most aged and veneto be ;' and in some of our agricultural reports, oak rable trees, such as the Nannau, the Magdalen, the is disparagingly mentioned as 'the weed of the country.' Fairlop, and others, have fallen beneath his scythe ; Happy is it for us who love to roam in woodland and more wait but the 'little sickle of a moment to scenery, that ‘on thousands of acres' the oak has been cut them from the roll of things that are.

Of some looked upon as the mere weed of the country : for it already gone we have preserved memorial sketches ; is owing principally to this, that many fragments of and of others that are going, we propose transferring our ancient woods have been suffered to escape the their figures to our pages : and we likewise design to ravages of improvement. The reckless system of ex- accompany this series of our most celebrated trees termination which has been pursued from age to with short historical accounts, such as can be collected age has indeed so grievously thinned our forest lands, either from written documents or oral traditions. that of many celebrated woods scarcely any thing but This is a point, however, on which there is in genethe name exists. And so great has been the havoc ral much obscurity attendant. Seldom until extraorcommitted among our largest and noblest trees, that I dinary for age or size, do forest trees excite particular

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