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No. 9.

AUGUST 25,

EDUCATION

1832.

PRICE
ONE Penny.

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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It is the custom in the East for families to grind the be called tender and delicate ; take the mill-stones and corn and prepare the flour which they use at home. grind meal.The accompanying plate represents a Hindoo family The occupation of grinding the corn is generally engaged in this employment. The woman on the performed by women, though it is not unfrequently outside is cleansing the corn by pouring it on the committed to men, as will be seen by our print, which floor against the wind, which carries away the dust is copied from a drawing made on the spot, and puband light particles that have become mixed with it. lished as one of a series of engravings by an ingeni. The corn thus cleaned is poured, a few handfulls at a ous native artist at Madras. time, into the hollow at the top of the hand-mill, There is a remarkable passage in St. Matthew, which consist of two stones, about two feet and a half where our Saviour is pressing upon his disciples the in diameter, and six inches thick. A stout wooden necessity of being always in a state of preparation, as pivot connects the upper with the lower stone. The well for the signal calamities of this life—such as the corn that is poured in at the top falls in between the destruction which was to fall on Jerusalem-as for two stones, and the turning round of the upper stone the sudden coming of the Day of Judgment. He reduces it to flour, in which state it works out at the warns them to reflect on the certainty that what is rim, and falls on a cloth spread to receive it. The announced by God would come to pass; and not to flour is winnowed and sifted on the floor.

look for warnings which should give them time for The sort of corn-mill here represented is common individual preparation, for the world will be found in all parts of the East, and has been in use from engaged in its ordinary pursuits when such mighty the earliest ages. We find frequent mention of it in events occur—"For, as in the days that were before Scripture. The family mill was so essential to the the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying preparation of the daily food, that it was forbidden and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah enby the law of Moses to take in pledge “the upper or tered the ark, and knew not till the flood came, and the nether mill-stone ;” and the reason stated for this took them all away; so shall also the coming of the prohibition is, that he who should do so, taketh a Son of man be. Then shall two be in the field ; the man's life to pledge.” When Abimelech, after the one shall be taken and the other left ;-two women defeat of the Shechemites, attacked the town of Thebez, shall be grinding at the mill,—the one shall be taken and was about to set fire to the tower in which the and the other left." inhabitants had taken refuge, a brave woman de It is very remarkable that mills of a similar con. stroyed the oppressor by throwing on his head from struction are mentioned by Pennant as in use in the the wall a stone of the household mill.—The fall and highlands of Scotland and in the Hebrides, and are degradation of Babylon is thus foretold in the beau- called Querns. The description of their form, and tiful imagery of the inspired prophet Isaiah : “Come the manner of using them, differ in no material point down and sit in the dust, o virgin daughter of Ba- from what we have shown to be customary in the bylon—sit on the ground. There is no throne, o East. The introduction of a more expeditious and daughter of the Chaldeans; for thou shalt no more effectual machine, seems to have been opposed by the Vol. I.

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prejudices of the people for a long time, and Pennant were naturally spread, calculated to 'alarm and disaw the hand-mill in use in the Isle of Rum in 1769. spirit the people of this island. To prevent these mis

“The Quern or Bra,” he says, “is made in some chiefs, through a season of intense anxiety, the Guof the neighbouring counties on the mainland, and vernment had recourse to the expedient of publishing costs about fourteen shillings. This method of grind- real information. And (as Chalmers expresses it in ing is very tedious, for it employs two pair of hands his Life of Ruddiman) it may gratify our pride to be four hours to grind only a single bushel of corn. told that mankind are indebted to the wisdom of our Instead of a hair-sieve to sift the meal, the inhabitants Elizabeth, and the prudence of her minister, Burleigh, have here an ingenious substitute-a sheep-skin for the first Newspaper. The earliest gazette of this stretched round a hoop and bored with small holes kind was entitled The English Mercurie, which, by made with a hot iron."

authority, was “imprinted at London, by Christopher During the work the women used to sing songs, Barker, her Highnesse's Printer, 1588." sometimes of love, sometimes of praise of their ancient In the first of these newspapers, preserved in the heroes, whose deeds they rehearsed to slow and me- British Museum, under the date of July 26, 1588, is lancholy tunes. But Pennant observes that “singing the following notice: “Yesterday the Scots ambassaat the Quern was almost out of date since the intro- dor, being introduced by Sir Francis Walsingham, duction of water-mills. The laird can oblige his had a private audience of her Majesty, to whom he tenants, as in England, to make use of this more ex- delivered a letter from the king his master, [James peditious kind of grinding, and empowers his miller VI of Scotland, her successor on the throne of Eng. to search out and break any Querns he can find, as land] containing the most cordial assurances of his machines that defraud him of the toll.'

resolution to adhere to her Majesty's interests, and to

those of the Protestant religion." And it may not be ON THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF

here improper to take notice of a wise and spirited NEWSPAPERS.

saying of this young prince, [he was twenty-two) to

the queen’s minister at his court, viz. “That all the What a wide field of wonder and reflection does the favour he did expect from the Spaniards, was the present advanced state of the press open to an observ- courtesy of Polypheme to Ulysses, to be the last deing mind! In all its departments wonderful, in none voured.'I defy (observes Chalmers) the gazetteer is it more astonishing than in the circulation of its of the present day to give a more decorous account of Newspapers. Vehicles they are of all that can interest the introduction of a foreign minister. man as a moral and social being. In the lawful use of Burleigh's newspapers were all Extraordinary Gatheir mighty power, capable of being ranked among zettes, published from time to time, as that profound the great benefactors of mankind—the friends of reli- statesman wished to inform or terrify the people. The gion, liberty and order—the patrons of every improve- Mercuries were probably first printed in April, 1588, ment which can add to the substantial benefits, the when the Armada approached the shores of England. comforts, the ornaments of civilized life,-sources of After the Spanish ships had been dispersed, these daily information and innocent amusement, to every Extraordinary Gazettes seldom appeared. On Nov. rank of society. In the wanton, profligate, and corrupt 24, 1588, the Mercurie informed the people that “ the abuse of the same power, instruments of tyranny, op- solemn thanksgiving for the successes against the pression, moral, political, and religious degradation, Spanish Armada was this day strictly observed." confusion, and every evil work.

It has been confidently but ignorantly asserted, Such being their power for good and for ill, their that newspapers were invented by the French, in the history, their origin, their past and present circum- time of Richelieu, who gave Théophrast Redaunot a stances, can never be devoid of interest.

We lay patent for the Paris Gazette. But this was first pubbefore our readers some acknowledged facts connected lished in 1631. The dates demonstrate that the pleawith these points.

sures and benefits of a newspaper were enjoyed in For an Englishman not intimately acquainted with England more than forty years before the French the former history of his country, but who was now possessed any thing of the kind. approaching “ the age of man,” it would be very na- A newspaper had now gratified the curiosity of the tural to suppose, that, although he has observed news people, and the people would no longer be gratified papers to have increased prodigiously in size and without a newspaper, though the English Mercurie numbers within the last fifty years, yet that their pro- ceased when the occasion which gave it birth had gress was like that of our roads. He might reason- passed away. They were at first occasional, and af. ably suppose, that though fewer, less frequent, and terwards weekly. The title of the first was The smaller, -in every point unlike those of the present News of the Present Week. day,—still that they were in existence from time imme- During the civil wars the country was inundated morial. The invention of printing, indeed, might have with those occasional “ News.” Still they were more made the multiplication of copies infinitely more easy, of the character of pamphlets than newspapers. In still there is nothing of itself absurd, in supposing that 1665, the London Gazette was published, under the newspapers, like our historical records, might have title of the Oxford Gazette, it having been printed at circulated in England from the time of Alfred, and that University during a session of Parliament held before. *

there on account of the plague then raging in London. The fact, however, is strikingly the reverse. Nothing This was reprinted in London, in two small folio pages, of the kind had any name or any being in our coun- for the use of some merchants and gentlemen who try for more than five hundred years after the Norman desire the same.” From 1661 to 1688 no less than conquest. The origin of the first Gazette is very cu- seventy papers were published under different titles. rious, and interesting to every Englishman : and it From an advertisement in the Athenian Gazette, 1690, is this.

it appears that the coffee-houses in London, were When the Spanish Armada was in the English then supplied with nine newspapers. In 1696, there Channel, during the year 1588, many false reports seems not to have been any daily paper, though it has

been said that the London Courant was published * Venice is entitled to the honour of having produced the first Gazetta ; and yet its jealous government, long after the invention daily. As early as the reign of Queen Anne, London of printing allowed it to be distributed only in manuscript, enjoyed the luxury of a newspaper every day, though,

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even in 1709, the Daily Courant was the only paper published every day, Sundays of course excepted.

THE WRYNECK. The rest were published three times a week, or less The Wryneck derives its name from its peculiar habit frequently. In 1724 the number was three daily, six of lengthening the neck, which at the same time it weekly, seven three times a week, three Halfpenny writhes from side to side with serpent-like bendings, Posts, published three times a week; and the London now pressing down the feathers so as to resemble Gazette twice a week.

the head of a snake, and again half-closing the eyes, In 1815, the number of newspapers in Great Britain swelling out the throat, and erecting its crest, when had risen to 252. Of these 55 were published in it presents an appearance at once singular and ludiLondon, 15 daily, and 40 periodically ; 122 in the country parts of England, 26 in Scotland, and 49 in Among our most interesting and attractive birds, Ireland.

this little harbinger of spring delights us, not by the The total number of these papers printed during splendour of its hues, but by the chasteness of its three months, ending April 1, 1815, was 5,890,621, colouring, and the delicate and singular way of its making the annual average 22,762,764.

markings, which, from their intricacy and irregularity In the year 1829, the number of the newspapers almost defy the imitations of the pencil. published in the Metropolis alone amounted to about Among our migratory or wandering birds the Wry18,000,000; in 1830 to nearly 20,000,000; and in neck is one of the earliest visitors ; arriving at the 1831, it was upwards of 22,000,000.

beginning of April, generally a few days before the cuckoo, (whose mate, from this circumstance, it has

been called) when his shrill unchanging note, pee pee REMEMBRANCE.

pee, rapidly reiterated, may be heard in our woods

and gardens. The places where this bird is found, The remembrance of youth is a sigh.-ALI

appear to be very limited; the midland counties being Man hath a weary pilgrimage

those to which it usually resorts in England. M. TemAs through the world he wends;

minck informs us that it is seldom found beyond On every stage from youth to age

Sweden, and is rare in Holland, occupying in preStill discontent attends :

ference the central portions of Europe. We are able With heaviness he casts his eye

to add to this information, by stating that it is abundUpon the road before, And still remembers with a sigh

ant in the Himalaya mountains in India, whence we The days that are no more.

have frequently received it as a common specimen of To school the little exile goes,

the birds of that range of hills, with others bearing Torn from his mother's arms,

equally a British character. What then shall soothe his earliest woes,

In manners, the Wryneck is shy and lonesome; When novelty hath lost its charms?

and were it not for its loud and well-known call, we Condemn'd to suffer through the day

should not often be aware of its presence; its quiet Restraints which no rewards repay, And cares where love has no concern,

habits leading it to close retirement, and its sober Hope lengthens as she counts the hours,

colour, which agrees with the brown bark of the trees, Before his wish'd return.

tending also to its concealment. From hard control and tyrant rules,

In confinement, however, or when wounded, this The unfeeling discipline of schools,

little bird manifests much boldness; hissing like a In thought he loves to roam;

snake, erecting its crest, and defending itself with And tears will struggle in his eye While he remembers with a sigh

great spirit.

It breeds with us soon after its arrival, the female The comforts of his home.

selecting the hole of a tree, in which she lays her Youth comes; the toils and cares of life Torment the restless mind;

eggs, to the number of eight or nine, of an ivory Where shall the tired and harass'd heart

white. The young take after the plumage of the parent Its consolation find ?

birds, which shows scarcely any difference between Then is not youth, as fancy tells,

the two sexes. Life's summer prime of joy?

The food of the Wryneck, like that of the weakerAh no! for hopes too long delay'd,

billed Woodpeckers, consists of caterpillars and other And feelings blasted or betray'd, The fabled bliss destroy ;

insects, especially ants and their larvæ, to which it is And youth remembers with a sigh

very partial. In the manner of taking its food this The careless days of infancy.

little bird makes but little use of the bill itself; its Maturer manhood now arrives,

long hollow tongue, capable of being thrust out to a And other thoughts come on;

considerable distance, and made sticky by a proper But with the baseless hopes of youth

gland, being the chief instrument. This it inserts Its generous warmth is gone;

between the crevices of the bark, or among the loose Cold calculating cares succeed,

sandy earth of the ant-hill, thrusting it out and The timid thought, the wary deed,

withdrawing it so rapidly, with the insect sticking to The dull realities of truth; Back on the past he turns his eye,

it, as almost to deceive the eye. Remembering with an envious sigh

Leaving England in the early part of the autumn, The happy dreams of youth.

the Wryneck passes over to the southern districts of So reaches he the latter stage

Europe, and probably extends its journey to Asia, Of this our mortal pilgrimage,

where it finds a kindly climate, and food still abundant With feeble step and slow;

The prevailing colour of this elegant little bird New ills that latter stage await,

consists of different shades of brown, inclining to gray And old experience learns too late

on the head, the rump, and the tail, but of a bright That all is vanity below. Life's vain delusions are gone by,

chesnut on the larger wing-coverts and the first feaIts idle hopes are o'er,

thers; the whole beautifully varied with delicately Yet age remembers with a sigh

shaped markings of a deep brown, which give it a The days that are no more.

mottled appearance. Breast wood-brown, penciled SOUTIEY.

with slender cross tracings; belly dirty white, speck

case.

led with small dark triangular spots; bill yellowish of the bill is very short and pithy :-"Whereas brown ; eye-rings chesnut; feet and legs flesh-cu- appeals of murder, trcason, felony, or other offences, loured.

and the manner of proceeding therein, have been The annexed plate represents the male and female found oppressive ; and the Trial by Battel in any of their natural size; the latter in the act of leaving suit, is a mode of trial unfit to be used ; and it is exthe hole in the tree, in which we may suppose her to pedicnt that the same should be wholly abolished." have formed a nest.

Pepding this trial Mr. Kendall wrote a little work, the result of much research, on the subject.

This mode of trial was brought into England, among other Norman customs, by William the Con. queror. It was, like the rest, a presumptuous appeal to Providence, under an expectation that heaven would unquestionably give the victory to the innocent or injured party. The last trial by battel that was waged in the Court of Common Pleas, in Westminster, was in the 13th year of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1571, and was held in Tothill-Fields, Westminster. This trial by wager of battel was fought by not the parties themselves, in case of appeals of murder ; but by champions chosen by them, in a writ of right. Nearly the same ceremonies were observed in each

We must confine ourselves to the case of an appeal.

The person accused (of murder, for example) pleads The Wryneck.

Not guilty, and throws down his glove, and declares The above account of this curious little creature is he will defend the same by his body. The accuser

(called the appellant, as the other was the appellee) extracted from the first part of a work on the birds of takes up the glove, and replies, that he is ready to Europe, lately published by Mr. John Gould, from make good the appeal, body for body. Thereupon drawings made on stone, by himself and Mrs. Gould; the accused, taking the book in his right hand, and the figures of the birds are also reduced from their in his left the right hand of his antagonist

, swears original designs. This work is decidedly the most thus : “ Hear this, o man, whom I hold by the hand, splendid illustration of Ornithology, or the Science of who callest thyself John by the name of baptism, that Birds, that has yet made its appearance, and is pecu- I, who call myself Thomas by the name of baptism, liarly deserving of praise for the correctness of the did not feloniously murder thy father, William by colouring, and the natural positions in which the

name, nor am any way guilty of the said

felony. So objects it represents are drawn.

help me God and the Saints: and this I will defend

against thee by my body, as this Court shall award." WAGER OF BATTEL.

The appellant, observing the same form in act and JUDGE BLACKSTONE, after enumerating the other spe- deed, makes a similar oath, that his antagonist did cies of trial by ordeal, says: “The next which remains in murder his father, &c. force, though very rarely in use, owes its introduction among us to the princes of the Norman line; and that is the trial by battel, duel, or

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Baltex blocube.me Abrmarile Aaresingle combat.” It will be in the recollection of most of our readers, that in the year 1818 a very lively interest was excited through the whole of England, in consequence of an appeal being made to the Court of King's Bench to award this trial.—Mary Ashford was found drowned in a pit in a field, and Thornton was committed to take his trial for the murder. The Grand Jury found a true bill; but after a long and patient trial, the Petty Jury returned a verdict of ‘Not guilty. The country were very much divided on the subject; much

fac-simile of an Engraving of the time of Henry III. representing a Trial by Wager contradictory evidence was given on the trial, of Battle, with the names of the combatants, and a view of the gallows on which the

vanquishied party is hanging. especially as to time and distance. It is said that Mr. Justice Holroyd, who tried the case, was satisfied A piece of ground is then set out, of sixty feet with the verdict. The poor murdered girl's relation square, enclosed with lists, and on one side, a Court preferred an appeal which involved a solemn tender erected for the judges, and also a bar for the serof trial by a battle. It would be useless to dwell on jeants-at-law. When the court sits, which ought to the arguments used by the counsel on either side ; be at sun-rising, proclamation is made for the parties, the court decided in favour of the prisoner's claim to who are introduced by two knights, and are dressed trial by wager of battle, and the challenge was for- in a coat of armour, with red sandals, barelegged mally given, by throwing down a glove upon the floor from the knee downwards, bareheaded, and with bare of the court; but the combat did not take place, and arms to the elbows. The weapons allowed them are the prisoner escaped. In consequence of the revival only batons, or staves of an ell long, and a four-corof this barbarous practice on this occasion, a bill was nered leathern target. Next, an oath against sorcery brought into the House of Lords by Lord Tenterden, and enchantment, is to be taken by both parties, in and was passed into a law, by which all proceedings some such form as this :-"Hear this, ye justices, of this kind were abolished altogether. The preamble that I have this day neither eat, drank, nor have

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upon me neither boné, stone, ne grass, nor any en as a finger. This creature was formerly considered as chantment, sorcery, or witchcraft, whereby the law one of our rarest insects, and it was doubtful whether of God may be abased, or the law of the devil ex it were truly a native; but for the last twenty years, alted. So help me God." The battle is thus begun, from the profuse cultivation of the potato, it has beand the combatants are bound to fight till the stars come not very uncommon. Many insects are now appear in the evening. If the accused be so far certainly found in England, which former collectors, vanquished that he cannot or will not fight any indefatigable as they were, did not know that we poslonger, he shall be adjudged to be hanged imme sessed; while others again have been lost to us modiately; and then, as well as if he be killed fighting, derns. Some probably might be introduced with the Providence is deemed to have determined in favour numerous foreign plants recently imported, or this of the truth, and his blood shall be attainted. But if particular food may have tended to favour the increase he kills the appellant, or can maintain the fight till of those already existing; but how such a creature as the stars appear in the evening, he shall be acquitted. this could have been brought with any plant, is quite If the appellant becomes recreant, that is, yields, and beyond comprehension. We may import continental pronounces the horrible word craven, he shall lose his varieties of potatoes, but the Death's-head Moth we station and rights as a free and Jawful man, and be have never observed to have any connexion with the come infamous, and never admitted on a jury, or as a potato itself, or inclination for it. As certain soils will witness in a cause.

produce plants by exposure to the sun's rays, or by Women, priests, infants, all above the age of sixty, aid of peculiar manners, when no pre-existent root or the blind, the lame, peers of the realm ; and by germ could reasonably be supposed to exist ; so will special charter, because fighting seems to be foreign peculiar and long intervening seasons give birth to to their education and employment, all citizens of insects from causes not to be divined. We may, howLondon, were exempt from the trial by wager of bat ever, conclude, that we are indebted to some unusual tle.

circumstance for the introduction of this sphynx,By an act of Parliament we have seen that this and that its favourite food, the potato-plant, nousuperstitious, iniquitous, and impious procedure, has rished it to the increase of its species. been wholly abolished in England. Would that the no less iniquitous and impious mode of deciding quarrels by duel, which the president Montesquieu has with much ingenuity deduced from this ordeal, were banished from our country, and from the whole civilized world for ever! The time will probably come when duelling will be regarded as an act only of refined barbarism—as decidedly contrary to the law of God, to the law of man, to our reason and our best feelings, as murder itself.

T.

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ON AN HOUR-GLASS.

Death's

head Moth,
Mark! the golden grains that pass
Brightly through this channel'd glass,

Superstition has been particularly active in sug-
Measuring by their ceaseless fall,

gesting causes of alarm from the insect world ; and, Heaven's most precious gift to all!

where man should have seen only beauty and wisdom, Pauseless,till its sand be done

he has often found terror and dismay. The yellow See the shining current run,

and brown tailed moths, the death-watch, our snails, Till, its inward treasure shed, (Lo! another hour has filed!)

and many others, have all been the subjects of his Its task performed, its travail past,

fears; but the dread excited in England by the apLike mortal man, it rests at last.

pearance, noises, or increase of insects, are petty Yet let some hand invert its frame,

apprehensions when compared with the horror that And all its powers return the same

the presence of this acherontia occasions to some of For all the golden grains remain

the more fanciful and superstitious natives of northern To work their little hour again. But who shall turn the glass for man,

Europe, who are full of the wildest notions. A From which the golden current ran,

letter is now before me from a correspondent, in GerCollect again the precious sand

man Poland, where this insect is a common creature, Which Time has scattered with his hand,

and so abounded in 1824, that ny informer collected Bring back life's stream with vital power,

fifty of them in the potato-fields of his village, where And bid it run another hour?

they call them the “Death's-head Phantom,” the A thousand years of toil were vain

“Wandering Death-bird," &c. The markings on its To gather up a single grain!

back represent to these fertile imaginations the head THE DEATH'S-HEAD MOTH.

of a perfect skeleton, with the limb-bones crossed

beneath ; its cry becomes the voice of anguish--the Our extensive cultivation of the potato, furnishes us moaning of a child—the signal of grief ; it is regarded annually with several specimens of that fine animal, not as the creation of a benevolent Being, but the the Death's-head Moth (acherontia atropos): and in device of evil spirits—spirits, enemies to man-consome years I have had as many as eight brought me ceived and fabricated in the dark; and the very in the larva, or chrysalis state. Their changes are shining of its eyes is thought to represent the fiery very uncertain. I have had the larva change to a element whence it is supposed to have proceeded. chrysalis in July, and produce the moth in October ; Flying into their apartments in the evening, it at but generally the chrysalis remains unchanged till the times extinguishes the light, foretelling war, pestilence, ensuing summer. The larvæ, or caterpillars, “ strange hunger, death, to man and beast. We pity, rather ungainly beasts,” as some of our peasantry call them, than riuicule, these fears ; their consequences being excite constant attention when seen, by their extraor- painful anxiety of mind and suffering of body. Howdinary size and uncommon mien, with horns and tail, ever, it seems these vain imaginations are fitting away being not unusually five inches in length, and as thick before the light of reason and experience In Ger

J.M.

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