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17th of that reign, says Lord Orford, at the marriage which these trials might be passed unhurt; particuof Prince Arthur, the brave young Vaux appeared larly with regard to the ordeal of boiling water we are in a gown of purple velyet, adorned with pieces of told, they used to rub their arm a long time with the gold so thick and massive, that exclusive of the silk spirit of vitriol and alum, together with the juice of and furs it was valued at a thousand pounds." an onion. We cannot vouch for the truth of this

In those days it not only required great bodily recipe. strength to support the weight of their cumbersome The trial by Bread was thus conducted. A piece armour, but their very luxury of apparel for the draw- of bread, or of cheese, was consecrated (how shocking room would be oppressive to modern limbs. ingly degrading was such superstition!) with a prayer,

In the following reign their dress was perhaps more desiring the Almighty that it might cause convulsions generally sumptuous. Shirts were embroidered with and paleness, and find no passage, if the man was gold. Gloves were lined with white velvet, and splen- guilty ; but might turn to health and nourishment if didly worked with embroidery and gold buttons, and he was innocent. This piece of bread, called the were perfumed.

corsned, or morsel of cursing, was then given to the In the time of Queen Mary the people were so suspected person. Our historians assure us, that partial to square toes that they were obliged to issue Godwin, Earl of Kent, in the reign of Edward the a proclamation that no person should wear shoes Confessor, abjuring the death of the king's brother, above six inches square at the toes. Was this custom appealed to his corsned, which stuck in his throat, one jot more absurd than the hoops of the last and killed him. Though this custom has been long century, or the enormous bonnets of the present? abolished, we are too often reminded of it by the very The wearing of great breeches in the reign of Queen unwarrantable language of inconsiderate people, in Elizabeth was carried to a most ridiculous excess. such phrases as "May this morsel be my last!"They used to stuff them out with wadding till they “ May this piece of bread choke me!” The superresembled woolsacks; and it is said that scaffolds stitious people who practised this mode of trial, were were erected in places of public resort on purpose for very particular in the making of this bread and cheese, these beaus.

The bread was to be of unleavened barley; and the cheese made of ewe's milk in the month of May; no

other of the twelvemonths having any power to detect TRIALS OF GUILT IN SUPERSTITIOUS AGES.

a criminal. Another most extraordinary trial, was It is melancholy to reflect on the strange trials to that of “the bleeding of a corpse.” If a person was which, in remoter ages, those suspected of guilt were murdered, it was said, that at the touch, or at the put. The Ordeal consisted of various kinds : walk- approach of the murderer, the blood would gush out ing blindfold amidst red-hot ploughshares, placed at of the body at various parts. This was once allowed unequal distances; passing through two fires ; hold- in England, and is still looked on, in some uncivilized ing in the hand a red-hot bar; plunging the hand parts, as a detection of the criminal. We trust such into boiling water ; challenging the accuser to single remains of credulity and superstition are rapidly passcombat; the swallowing a morsel of consecrated ing away, never to return. bread; the sinking or swimming in a river in the case These trials of ordeal were mostly of Saxon origin: of witchcraft, and various others :

the trial by battel, or single combat, was derived from “One cannot (says the learned and excellent Black- the Normans. Of that we will add a few words in a stone) but be astonished and surprised at the folly future number. and impiety of pronouncing a man guilty unless he was cleared by a miracle : and of expecting that all

MORNING TWILIGHT. the powers of nature should be suspended by an immediate interposition of providence to save the inno. cent whenever it was presumptuously required. And

Through the vales the breezes sigh ; yet in England, so late as King John's time, we find

Twilight opes her bashful eye;

Peeping from the east, she brings grants to the bishops and clergy to use the “ trial by

Dew-drops on her dusky wings: iron, fire, and water.” But though they used to pre

And the lark, with wak’ning lay, side at these trials, which were performed only in

Upsprings, the harbinger of day. churches, or in other consecrated ground; yet the

Now behold! the blushing sky Canon Law very early declared against trial by ordeal,

Tells the bridegroom sun is nigh; as the fabric of Satan : and it was abolished in Eng

Nature tunes her joyful lyre, land by Act of Parliament, or rather by an order of

And the trembling stars retire. the King in Council, in the reign of Henry the Third.

Him the east, in crimson drest, Fire ordeal was performed either by taking up in

Ushers, nature's welcome guest.

And the mountains of the west the hand unhurt, a piece of red-hot iron, of one, two,

Seem to list their azure heads, or three pounds weight; or else by walking blindfold

Jealous of the smile he sheds. and barefoot over nine red-hot ploughshares, laid

Glory, beaming from on high, lengthwise, at unequal distances; and if the party

Charms devotion's lifted eye; escaped unhurt, he was adjudged innocent ; but if it

Bliss, to which sluggards ne'er were born, happened otherwise, as without collusion it usually

Waits the attendant of the morn. did, he was then condemned guilty. Queen Emma, the mother of Edward the Confessor, when suspected, The fountain of content must spring up in the mind; .s mentioned to have cleared her character by this and he who has so little knowledge of human nature, latter method.

as to seek happiness by changing any thing but his Water Ordeal was performed either by plunging the own disposition, will waste his life in fruitless efforts, bare arm up to the elbow in boiling water, and es- and multiply the griefs which he purposes to remove. caping unhurt; or by casting the person suspected --Jon

SON. into a river or pond; and if he floated therein, without any action of swimming, it was deemed an evi- WHEN once infidelity can persuade men that they dence of his guilt; but if he sunk, he was acquitted. shall die like beasts, they will soon be brought to live It is said that secrets were known in those times, by like beasts also,-South,

BY MARY MARIA COLLING. A SERVANT GIRL.

under the protecting eye of that Providence, who has ANECDOTES OF ANIMALS.

condescended to call himself the stranger's friend. We know a doe, still alive, that was brought up from At this moment, painful as my reflexions were, the a little fawn with a dairy of cows; with them it goes extraordinary beauty of a small moss, in flower, irrea-field, and with them it returns to the yard. The sistibly caught my eye. I mention this to shew from dogs of the house take no notice of this deer, being what trifling circumstances the mind will sometimes used to her ; but if strange dogs come by, a chase derive consolation; for though the whole plant was ensues, while the master smiles to see his favourite not larger than the top of one of my fingers, I could securely leading her pursuers over hedge, or gate, or not contemplate the delicate conformation of the stile, till she returns to the cows, who, with fierce roots, leaves, &c., without admiration. Can that Being lowings and menacing homs, drive the assailants (thought I) who planted, watered, and brought të quite out of the pasture. Even great disparity of perfection, in this obscure part of the world, a thing kind and size does not always prevent social advances which appears of so small importance, look with unand mutual fellowship. For a very intelligent and concern upon the situation and sufferings of creatures observant person had assured me, that in the former formed after his own image? Surely not! Reflexions part of his life, keeping but one horse, he happened | like these could not allow me to despair: I started

1 also on a time to have but one solitary hen. These up, and disregarding both hunger and fatigue, tratwo incongruous animals spent much of their time velled forwards, assured that relief was at hand; and together in a lonely orchard, where they saw no crea I was not disappointed—in a short time I came to a ture but each other. By degrees an apparent regard small village." began to take place between these two sequestered individuals. The fowl would approach the quadru

THE LORD'S DAY. ped with notes of complacency, rubbing herself gently

Hail to the day, which He, who made the heaven,

Earth, and their armies, sanctified and blest, against his legs, while the horse would look down

Perpetual memory of the Maker's rest! with satisfaction, and move with the greatest caution Hail to the day, when He, by who was given and circumspection, lest he should trample on his New life to man, the tomb asunder riven, diminutive companion.

Arose! That day his Church hath still confest,

At once Creation's and Redemption's feast, THE EVENING PROCEEDINGS OF ROOKS, &c.

Sign of a world call’d forth, a world forgiven. The evening proceedings and manœuvres of the rooks Welcome that day, the day of holy peace, are curious and amusing in the autumn. Just before The Lord's own day! to man's Creator owed, dusk they return in long strings from the foraging

And man's Redeemer; for the soul's increase

In sanctity, and sweet repose bestowed ; of the day, and rendezvous by thousands over Sel

Type of the rest when sin and care shall cease, borne-down, where they wheel round in the air, and

The rest remaining for the lov'd of God! D.C. sport and dive in a playful manner, all the while exerting their voices and making a loud cawing, which, An hour of solitude passed in sincere and earnest being blended and softened by the distance that we prayer, or the conflict with, and conquest over, a at the village are below them, makes a confused noise single passion or “ subtle bosom sin,” will teach us or chiding, or rather a pleasing murmur, very engag more of thought, will more effectually awaken the ing to the imagination, and not unlike the cry of a faculty, and form the habit of reflection, than a year's pack of hounds in hollow echoing woods, or the study in the schools without them. rushing of wind in tall trees, or the trembling of the A reflecting mind is not a flower that grows tide on a pebbly shore. When this ceremony is over, wild, or comes up of its own accord. The difwith the last gleam of day they retire for the night to ficulty is indeed greater than many, who mistake the deep beechen woods of Tisted and Ropley. We quick recollection for thought, are disposed to admit ; remember a little girl, who, as she was going to bed, but how much less than it would be, had we not been used to remark on such an occurrence, in the true born and bred in a Christian and Protestant land, spirit of physico-theology, that the rooks were saying very few of us are sufficiently aware. Truly may we, their prayers ; and yet this child was much too young and thankfully ought we to, exclaim with the psalmto be aware that the Scriptures have said of the Deity, ist : “The entrance of thy words giveth light; it that “he feedeth the ravens who call upon him.”

giveth understanding even to the simple.”—COLEWhite's Nat. Hist. of Selborne.

RIDGE's Aids to Reflection.

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MUNGO PARK IN THE DESERT.

It is a secret known to few, yet of no small use in the Mungo Park, during his travels in the interior of conduct of life, that when you fall into a man's conAfrica, was stripped and plundered by banditti, on

versation, the first thing you should consider is, leaving a village called Kooma. When the robbers whether he has a greater inclination to hear you, or

that had left him, almost naked and destitute, he tells us,

you

should hear him.-ADDISON. “I sat for some time looking around me with amaze

LONDON: ment and terror. Whichever way I turned, nothing

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND. appeared but danger and difficulty. I saw myself in

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom. the midst of a vast wilderness, in the depth of the

Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms by

W.S. ORR, Paternoster-Row; G. BERGER, Holywell-st., London, rainy season, naked and alone ; surrounded by savage

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :animals, and men still more savage. I was five hun Aberdeen.

.Brown and Co.

Wilson. George.

Lancashire and Bancks and Co. dred miles from the nearest European settlement. All

Birmingham .Langbridge.

Cheshire ...

ş these circumstances crowded at once upon my recol

Westley and Co. Leeds

Robinson.

Cambridge .Stevenson lection; and I confess that my spirits began to fail

.Thurnam.
Liverpool

Ilughes.
Chelmsford.
..Guy

Nencastle-on-Tyne, Finlay & ChulI considered my fate as certain, and that I had

ton; Empoo's. no alternative, but to lie down and perish. The in Derby

Wilkins and Son. Nottingham .Wright
.Curry Jun. & Co. Or ford

.Slaller. fluence of religion, however, aided and supported me.

Sheffield

.Ridge.
I reflected that no human prudence or foresight could

Edinburgh .Oliver and Boyd. Shrewsbury
Ertter.
.Penny and Co.

..Deighton. possibly have averted my present sufferings.

I was

Glasgow ...Griffin and Co indeed a stranger in a strange land, yet I was still C. RICHARDS, Printer, 100, St. Martin's Lane, Charing Cross,

Hull

Bath.

Manchesier.

Bristol

Leicester...

.Combe.

Carlisle

me.

Colchester

Swinborne & Co.

Dublin
Dundee

Shaw.

Eddowes

Worcester

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

THE POLAR REGIONS.

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Wilberforce Falls Though the great geographical question, the existence in which he and others have embodied the results of of a north-west passage to India, has hitherto baffled their labours, are among the most delightful and vaevery attempt at its discovery, yet the enterprises to luable contributions which in our times have been which it has given birth have not been undertaken in made to the literature of England. vain. The recent expeditions, undertaken by order of Among these, none is entitled to a higher place the government of this country, have been attended than Captain Franklin's Narrative of his land journey with very important benefits. They have thrown

They have thrown to the shores of the Polar Sea. This expedition took great light on the geography of the Northern regions; place at the same time with the first voyage of Captain and no great enlargement of the bounds of science Parry; and it was fitted out by government in order has ever taken place without being productive of that it might co-operate with that navigator in exsubstantial advantages to mankind. Our whale fish- ploring the northern coast of America. Captain eries have already profited by our extended knowledge Franklin, accompanied by Dr. Richardson, and Messrs. of the Arctic seas ;-Captain Parry's plans for Back and Hood, two officers of the navy, left Engsecuring the health and comforts of his ship's com- land in 1819; and, after arriving at York Factory, panies will afford the most valuable lessons to every a station on the eastern side of Hudson's Bay, set succeeding commander who shall be engaged in ex- out on a land journey through the deserts and frozen ploring remote parts of the globe ; and the volumes lakes of the northern continent, which they crossed Vol. I.

8

in a westerly direction till they reached the mouth of hundred, but perhaps considerably more, for the the Copper Mine river, on the western coast. They narrowness of the chasm into which it fell prevented then embarked in two canoes, and made their way us from seeing its bottom, and we could merely discern eastward, along the northern shores of the continent the top of the spray far beneath our feet. The lower for nearly 600 miles, till they found it impossible to fall is divided into two, by an insulated column of proceed further; and, their canoes being destroyed, rock which rises about forty feet above it. The whole they returned by land to the Copper Mine river, from descent of the river at this place probably exceeds two whence they made their way home after an absence hundred and fifty feet. The rock is very fine sandof three years. Captain Parry, meanwhile, having stone. It has a smooth surface and a light red colour. entered Baffin's Bay, sailed westward along the nor- I have named these magnificent cascades ‘Wilberforce thern coast till his progress was stopped at Melville Falls,' as a tribute of my respect to that distinguished Island, a point at no great distance from that which philanthropist and christian. Messrs. Back and Hood Franklin reached from the opposite direction. But, took beautiful sketches of this majestic scene, though Parry afterwards made attempts, the barrier which are combined in the annexed plate.” between these two points remains impassable. The last attempt is that of Captain Ross, whose long ab

ON THE DUTIES AND ADVANTAGES OF sence gives rise to the most serious apprehensions for

SOCIETY. his safety. Captain Franklin's work is not surpassed (if indeed,

No. III.-ABUSES or BENEFIT SOCIETIES. it is equalled) by any book of voyages or travels BENEFIT Societies confer power upon their members, whatever. The hardships and dangers which he and and as any abuse of power is an evil

, the society may his companions underwent excite the deepest interest; prove to the members an injury instead of an advanwhile the energy with which they surmounted every tage. Let us see how this evil may arise ; because obstacle, and the undaunted courage with which they that will be the most certain way of arriving at the braved every danger, raise the warmest admiration. means of prevention. A great lesson of virtue is also contained in the pa- A Benefit Society being a mutual association for tience, and pious resignation, with which they bore raising money to be applied to certain purposes, which the most frightful calamities. The habitual influence purposes are commonly very praise-worthy, there are of religion, and its effects on the mind, are exhibited only the following ways in which it can, generally with a beautiful simplicity. We cannot resist the speaking, be injurious to the members. pleasure of transcribing the following passage, from First, the Society may hold its meetings in an inDr. Richardson's narrative, in which he describes the proper place. feelings of his small party, in the most dreadful cir- Secondly, it may admit improper members; or may cumstances that can be conceived :

be in the hands, or under the control, of improper “ Through the extreme kindness and forethought managers. of a lady, the party, previous to leaving London, had Thirdly, the funds may be insecure, improperly apbeen furnished with a small collection of religious plied, or not sufficient for the purposes set forth books, of which we still retained two or three of the to induce members to join the Society most portable; and they proved of incalculable bene- Fourthly, the meetings of the Society may be confit to us.

We read portions of them to each other as verted to other and mischievous purposes. we lay in bed, in addition to the morning and evening I. As to the place of meeting. Attendance there service, and found that they inspired us on each pe- should consume as little time as possible ; it should hold rusal with so strong a sense of the omnipresence of out no encouragement to spend money; and should a beneficent God, that our situation, even in these have no enticements to dissipation. At the same tiine, wilds, appeared no longer destitute; and we con- it should admit of that freedom of meeting, and free versed, not only with calmness, but with cheerfulness, and friendly intercourse, promote sociality and imdetailing with unrestrained confidence the past events provement, and dispose men to help each other as of our lives, and dwelling with hope on our future well with deeds as with counsel. It is quite clear prospects.” During the whole of their perils, they that an alehouse is about the worst place at which were animated by the same spirit ; and their example such a society .can hold its meetings, although, in strikingly illustrates the observation, that the most cities and great towns, it is usual to meet at such heroic courage is that which is founded on true piety. houses. Even if there were nothing suspicious in

The Arctic regions abound in grand and sublime the connexion with the landlord, there are objections scenery. Few objects in nature can be more magni- enough to the place itself. To the young, who are ficent than the Falls of Wilberforce, in the Hood not encumbered with families, the ale-house is a place River; of which we subjoin a copy of the engraving of peculiar danger, and there should be no motive from CAPTAIN BACK's spirited drawing. They are to justify their going there. Their experience is less, thus described by Captain Franklin.

their passions warmer, and they have not the same “We pursued our voyage up the river, but the home feelings to draw them away as married men shoals and rapids in this part were so frequent, that have. But young men are the best members of we walked along the banks the whole day, and the Benefit Societies, and therefore care should be taken crews laboured hard in carrying the canoes thus that bad habits are not given them in return for their lightened over the shoals or dragging them up the contributions. rapids, yet our journey in a direct line was only about But the society is often a scheme of the landlord's, seven miles. In the evening we encamped at the got up, not for the sake of the ‘Benefit,' but of the lower end of a narrow chasm or rent in the rocks, custom which the meetings bring to the house; and through which the river flows for upwards of a mile. in these cases, whatever it may be in name, it is in The walls of this chasm are upwards of two hundred reality a nuisance. feet high, quite perpendicular, and in some places only In towns there may be some difficulty in avoiding a few yards apart. The river throws itself into it the evil of the public-house meetings, from the want over a rock, forming two magnificent and picturesque of other places; but the hiring of an apartment in a falls close to each other. The upper fall is about private house, though seemingly more costly, would sixty feet high, and the lower one at least one be cheaper in reality. At such a place, refreshments

gars,'

could be had as easily as at a public-house, and for and trades, in a well regulated society, should be like less money, while there would be no temptation to sit the colours into which the rain-drop separates the beyond that rational enjoyment of each other's soci- beams of the sun, when the bow of heaven is set in ety which is praiseworthy rather than blameable. the cloud.' The middle of the tints should be clear Dissipation is a very degrading and destructive vice; and bright, but they should so blend with each other, but cold-hearted selfishness is not the contrary virtue; that no observation can say where the one begins and it is the opposite vice.

the other ends; and the whole should be so tempered II. As to improper members and managers. There as to form, by their union, that pure white light which are two kinds of the former—those who enter the is the true glory of nature. It is the perfect union society merely for the personal benefit that they of all those variously tinted rays which produces that expect to derive from it, and those who are unruly in light by means of which we are enabled to see natutheir conduct. In as far as the age and bodily state ral objects in their true colours; and it is even so with of the parties are concerned, the rules of the society the varied classes of which a nation is composed. may, to a considerable extent, meet the

case ;

but it Every man must feel for himself, and for the class is not so easy to make regulations with respect to to which he belongs; and, within due limits, nothing character. Age is no objection ; for the payment can be more proper and praiseworthy; but it is not and the allowance may be equally settled for any merely by his love of himself, nor even by his attachage; though it should always be borne in mind ment to his class or his craft, that the value of a man that the younger the member enters, the better, both must be tried. The real standard of social man is for the society and for himself. The proper feeling his feeling toward the whole of the society in which he at the time of entry, is that the member is doing so lives, and to which he is indebted for civilization for for the benefit of others; and the feeling to be kept the means of supporting himself. up while he is in health is, that he is a steward for the The very object of a Benefit Society is to ensure the needy and the diseased; and that if he comes upon independence of the members; but they must not the fund through idleness or misconduct, he falls into mistake the kind of independence. It is not indethe lowest of all conditions—that of a beggar of beg- pendence of the rest of society which is the object, but

If that be made the general feeling of the so it is independence of the accidents and changes of ciety, there is little danger of greedy and lazy mem life; and the very fact that a man is more secure bers ; and calm neglect is by far the best means of against these by being a member of the Benefit Socicuring the turbulent.

ety, should teach him that he has a more general seImproper managers are more dangerous, as they curity in being a member of a civilized country, for it have more power.

It is generally unwise to have a is that which enables him to be a member of the other. lawyer as secretary: it is never necessary; and as the Great care should therefore be taken, that the Benesociety cannot, without paying more than it can afford, fit Society does not, in any way, degenerate into a have a lawyer of character, it is better not to have combination ; and though by means of it workmen one at all; for after the rules of the society have been may mutually benefit each other, they must be careapproved by the proper officer, there is no law wanted. ful that they do not make it a means of separation There are some lawyers who promote such societies between themselves and their employers.

The confor the sake of their fees as secretaries; and others, nexion between workman and employer is far more who do the common duty gratis, but contrive to pay important than any that can exist between one workthemselves, by encouraging law-suits about trifles. man and another, because the bread of the workman These should be avoided. It is a good rule never to depends upon it; and therefore, when workmen make employ a man in the profession by which he lives, use of any association as a means of combining without paying him for his services.

against their employers, they turn it from its natural Managers who are fond of spouting in public are and useful purpose, and make it an engine against generally bad managers. Where there is a great deal their own best interests. of speech, there is usually as great a lack, both To make the funds, or even the meetings of a Beof reflection and of action. Such parties convert the nefit Society serve for purposes of general excitement, society into an engine of their own false glory, and is still more unwise ; as that is making it a combinascheme for dinners and other assemblings, at which tion against society generally-a direct warfare upon that glory may be shown off.

that to which they owe everything they possess. III. The misapplication of the funds by the mana Such are some of the abuses to which Benefit So. gers may be guarded against by the vigilance of the cieties may be subject; they may be avoided by good society and the enactments of the law. The sufficiency sense and honesty of intention, and by the judicious of the funds, unless in very ordinary cases, may be countenance and help of those members who do not calculated from the common probabilities of life and personally need the assistance of the funds. We shall, health, and from what may arise out of the business on a future occasion, consider how these may proof the members.

mote the benevolent object of the Societies under conIV. The society may be turned to improper purposes. sideration, so as to make them blessings to the neEvery purpose, however praiseworthy it may be in it-cessitous, and bonds of union to society generally. self, is improper, if it be different from those expressly stated in the rules ; because, if necessary and consistent, it should be brought in by the lawful means.

EPHEMERA, OR DAY-FLIES. But there are supposable cases, where the funds may

“ The waters brought forth abundantly.”—Genesis. be applied to purposes absolutely bad—and yet the letter of the law not be absolutely broken.

It is in the small things of nature that we most strikTendencies of that kind may arise upon different ingly see the wonderful power of nature's God, and occasions,—those which more immediately strike us, how superior in kind his works are, to the most ingeare, the party feeling among a society, who are all, nious works of man. We estimate by weight and or nearly all, of the same rank and business; and measure ; and hence we associate strength with size, floating opinions during times of public excitement. and perfection with time spent in labour. We can

To guard against the first of these, it should be produce nothing but by the change of something that borne in mind that the different ranks, professions, I exists; and we can obtain no' motion, but by the ap

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