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came, said, “ Are you there, Elizabeth Woodcock?" “Without knowing particulars," says Bishop Butler,-one, She replied, in a feeble, faint voice, “Dear John at least, of the soundest reasoners that have ever lived, Stittle, I know your voice, for God's sake help me I take upon me to assure all persons who think that they

have received indignities or injurious treatment, that they out." Stittle made his way through the snow ; she may depend upon it, as in a manner certain, that the

offence is not so great as they imagine."
We are too apt to forget our actual dependence on Provi-
dence for the circumstances of every instant. The most
trivial events may determine our state in the world. Turn-
ing up one street, instead of another, may bring us in com-
pany with a person whom we should not otherwise have met;
and this may lead to a train of other events which may de-
termine the happiness or misery of our lives. -CECIL.
One of the fathers saith, “ that there is but this difference
between the death of old men and young men; that old men
go to death, and death comes to young men. -Bacon.

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TIME.

THE DOUBTER'S QUESTION.
UNFATHOMABLE Sea! whose waves are years!

Ocean of Time! whose waters of deep woe
Are brackish with the salt of human tears!

Thou shoreless flood, which, in thy ebb and flow,
Claspest the limits of mortality !
And sick of prey, yet howling on for more,
Vomitest thy wrecks on its inhospitable shore !
Treacherous in calm, and terrible in storm,-

Who shall put forth on thee,
Unfathomable sea ?

P. B. S.
THE BELIEVERS ANSWER.
OCEAN of Time! There is ONE LORD, who sways

Alike thine issues, and th' unwearied tide,
Which, thy stern image, laving earth, decays

Man's works, as thou his race. In Him we bide
Thy scorn, thy desolation! Had not He,

Who to the wild brine spake, " Thy proud waves here Elizabeth Woodcock.

Be stayed !" in voice of mighty angel clear,

Scald e'en thy doom, and mark'd thy limits drear, eagerly grasped his hand and said, “I have been here

Fain might we shrink from thee, a long time." Yes," answered he, "since Saturday."

Unfathomable sea ! “Ay, Saturday week,” she replied, “I have heard

But thou, in whose dim confines hours of hours, the bells go two Sundays for church."

Ages of ages, wane ;-as Amazon, She was then taken home, and a most fatal treatment Nile, Ganges, mightiest waters that earth pours was she subjected to. They gave her strong liquors, In ocean's waste, to cold oblivion run,and applied poultices of stale beer and oatmeal boiled

E'en thou shalt melt into eternity ! together. The direct contrary to which, under

And when thy race is o'er, thy changes fled, Providence, would have restored her. She lost her

When the spoil'd waves and tombs resign their dead,

On a bright shore shall dwell blest myriads sped, toes; and lingered on till the following July, when

Which once put forth on thee, she died.

Unfathomable sea ! The following remarks deserve the serious atten

And He who trode th' impetuous foam ; whose word tion of every one :--they appear to be founded on

The swelling surge and wrathful tempest laid, the soundest principles. "The application of heat Whose hand, (th' all-guiding hand of Nature's Lord !) to the human body, after intense cold, is attended On the rough deep his fainting servant stayed, with the most dreadful consequences; it always

O'er thy lone billows shall my pilot be ! produces extreme pain, and, most frequently, either

Yes! though, when Death unfolds his shadowy realm,

Visions of awe this parting soul o'erwhelm, partial or general mortification of the parts to which

The cross, my heart's sure anchor, Faith, my helm, the heat is applied. Instead, therefore, of allowing

I will put forth on thee, persons who have thus suffered from frost or snow

Unfathomable sea !

T. P. O. to come near a fire, let the limbs be rubbed well

LONDON with snow, or, if snow cannot be procured, let them

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY Parts, be put into cold water, and afterwards rubbed with

PRICE SIXPEXCE, BY flannel for a considerable time; (the contrary, in JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. the case of Elizabeth Woodcock, having been nearly

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsrenders in the Kingdom. fatal.) Let the person be kept most cautiously from

Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms

by ORR, Paternoster-row ; BERGER, Holywell-street; DOUGLAS, taking too much or too nutritious food. Spirits

Portman-street, London ;

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :also, or wine, should, under no pretence whatever,

Durham, Andrews. Northampton, Birdsall. be given, without being weakened very much with Bath, George.

Ebinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Norwich, Muskett. water. Great attention must be paid to the state of Bristol, Westley & Co.; D. Glasgow, Grifin & Co.

Birmingham, Langbridge. Exeter, Penny & Co. Nottingham, Wright.

Orford, Slatter, the bowels. The use of opium and camphor is

Vickery.
Gloucester, Jew,

Paris, Bennis.
Bury, Lankester.

Hereford, Child. Plymouth, Nettleton. much to be recommended, though at first the opium Cambridge, Stevenson, Hull, Wilson.

Salisbury, Brolie & Cs. should be given in very small portions.”

Ipswich, Deck.

Sheffield, Ridge. Chelmsford, Guy.

Lancashire and Cheshire, Shrewsbury, Eddoves. The narrative ends with this remark. “We are Cheltenham, Lovesy.

Bancks & Co., Man Staffordshire Potteriet, Chester, Seacome; Harding. chester,

Watts, Lane End. sorry to add, that too free indulgence in spirituous Chichester, Glover.

Sunderland, Marwood. liquors is supposed to have been the cause, both of

Colchester, Swinborne &Co. Leicester, Combe. Whitby, Rodgers.

Derby, Wilkins & Son. Liverpool, Hughes. Worcester, Deighton. the accident which befel Elizabeth Woodcock, and Devonport, Byers. Macclesfield, Swinnerton. Yarmouth, Alexandet. its fatal consequences.-Gent. Mag.

Dublin, Curry Jun, & Cc. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fin-York, Bellerby.
Dundee, Shaw,

lay & Co.; Empson.

Aberdeen, Brown & Co,

Carlisle, Thurnam.

Leeds, Robinson.

THÈ

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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him. The Earl's eldest son, Hotspur, was to march OWEN GLENDOWER'S OAK.

with a large army from the north of England, and OWEN GLENDOWER's Oak is situated at Shelton, Glendower was to meet him with such forces as he distant about a mile from Shrewsbury, and by the could collect in Wales. side of the road leading from that town to Oswestry. As soon as the king was aware of these hostile It has its name from a tradition of Owen Glendower movements, he marched in all haste, to come up having mounted the tree to gain a view of the battle with Hotspur before he was joined by Glendower. of Shrewsbury. This battle was fought on the 20th The royal army entered Shrewsbury only a few hours of July, 1403, between the forces of Henry the before Hotspur arrived at the gates. This was on Fourth, then king of England, and those of Sir the 19th of July, and the king was anxious to give Henry Percy, commonly called Hotspur, eldest son battle without delay. Hotspur, however, did not feel of the Earl of Northumberland. Henry the Fourth himself strong enough for this, having not above had not been long on the throne, before he found fourteen thousand men in his army, whereas the king that he had many enemies ; among the most for- had nearly double that number. On the following midable of whom were the Earl of Northumberland, morning, the king's forces marched out of the town, and Owen Glendower, who was descended from the and succeeded in forcing Hotspur to an engagement, ancient sovereigns of Wales. These two persons of which the following interesting account is taken hecame *discontented with Henry's government, and from the History of Shrewsbury. formed a scheme for uniting together to dethrone The fight began by furious and repeated volleys VoL, I

31

of arrows from Hotspur's archers, whose ground and it must have been very mortifying to him to see greatly favoured that kind of warfare ; and they did the troops of his friend Hotspur totally defeated. great execution on the royal army. The king's bow- There is no difficulty in believing, from the present men were not wanting in return, and the battle raged appearance of the tree, that it is old enough to have with violence. Hotspur, with his associate, Douglas, been of a considerable size in the year 1403, or 429 bent on the king's destructiou, rushing through the years ago. Oaks are known to live to a much greater midst of the hostile arrows, pierced their way to the age than this ; and there are documents which prove spot on which he stood. Henry was thrice unhorsed, that the Shelton oak was a fine large tree some cenand would have been taken or slain, had he not been turies ago. It is still perfectly alive, and bears some defended and rescued by his own men: and the fortune hundreds of acorns every year, though it has great of the day would have been forthwith decided, if the marks of age, and is so hollow in the inside, that it Earl of March had not withdrawn him from the danger; seems to stand on little more than a circle of bark. for the royal standard-bearer was slain, his banner At least six or eight persons might stand within it. beaten down, and many of the chosen band appointed The dimensions are as follows :to guard it, were killed by these desperate assailants; The girth at bottom, close to the ground, is forty-four feet while the young Prince of Wales was wounded in three inches; at five feet from the ground, twenty-five feet the face by an arrow. In short, notwithstanding all one inch; at eight feet from the ground, twenty-seven feet the exertions of the royalists, victory seemed inclined four inches. Height of the tree, forty-one feet six

inches.

E. B. to favour the rebel army, who fought with renewed ardour, from an opinion, naturally derived from the overthrow of his standard, that the king himself had ERRORS RESPECTING RELIGIOUS fallen, and animated each other to the combat with

MELANCHOLY. cheering and redoubled shouts of Henry Percy, There exists a prejudice against religious seriousness, king ! Henry Percy, king. In this critical moment, arising from a notion that religion leads to gloom and the gallant Percy, raging through the adverse ranks melancholy. This notion, I am convinced, is a misin quest of his sovereign, fell by an unknown hand, take. Some persons are constitutionally subject to alone, and hemmed in by foes. The king lost no melancholy, which is as much a disease in them, as time to avail himself of this event. Straining his

the ague is a disease ; and it may happen that such voice to the utmost, he exclaimed aloud, Henry Percy men's melancholy shall fall upon religious ideas, as it is dead :' and the battle soon ended in the king gain. may upon any other subject which seizes their disteming a complete victory.

pered imagination. But this is not religion leading to " In the mean while, Owen Glendower had marched melancholy. Or it sometimes is the case that men with a large body of Welchmen to within a mile of

are brought to a sense of religion by calamity and Shrewsbury; and if the king had not been so rapid affliction, which produce at the same time depression in his movements, Glendower and Hotspur would of spirits. But neither here is religion the cause of probably have joined their forces. It was necessary, this distress or dejection, or to be blamed for it. however, that the Welch army should cross the These cases being excepted, the very reverse of what Severn, which, at this place, is a broad and rapid is alleged against religion is the truth. river. It happened, also, most unfortunately for

No man's spirits were ever hurt by doing his duty. Glendower, that the water was at this time exceed. On the contrary, one good action, one temptation ingly high. There is a ford at Shelton, by which, at resisted and overcome, one sacrifice of desire or inteother seasons, he would have been able to cross the rest purely for conscience' sake, will prove a cordial river, but now it was impossible. The bridges at for weak and low spirits beyond what either indul. Shrewsbury were commanded by the king; and he had nothing to do but to halt his army on the banks gence, or diversion, or company can do for them. And

a succession and course of such actions and seliof the Severn, though he could see Hotspur's forces denials, springing from a religious principle, and manquite plainly on the opposite side, and though he fully maintained, is the best possible course that can knew that the king was wishing to bring on a battle. be followed as a remedy for sinkings and oppressions The battle took place as we have related.

of this kind. “The place, where the fight was thickest, is about

Can it then be true, that religion leads to melanthree miles from Shrewsbury, and is still called choly? Occasions arise to every man living; to Battle-field; and King Henry built a handsome

many very severe as well as repeated occasions, in church there, which is still used as a parish church, which the hopes of religion are the only stay that is though great part of it is in ruins.”

left him. Godly men have that within them which The tradition of the country says, that Glendower cheers and comforts them in their saddest hours; mounted the large oak tree, of which we give an ungodly men have that which strikes their heart, like engraving, and that he saw from thence the battle of

a dagger, in its gayest moments. Godly men disShrewsbury. The story is most probably true. It

cover, what is very true, but what, by most men, is would be difficult to account for its being told by the found out too late, namely, that a good conscience, common people of the neighbourhood, if there was

and the hope of our Creator's final favour and acceptnot some truth in it. These people are not likely to have heard of Owen Glendower, or the battle of this world. Experience corresponds with the reason

ance, are the only solid happiness to be attained in Shrewsbury: and if Glendower really arrived at this of the thing. spot, and could not get over the river on account of

I take upon me to say, that religious men are a flood, (of which facts there seems to be no doubt,) generally cheerful. If this be not observed, as might it is not at all unlikely that he mounted up into the be expected, supposing it to be true, it is because the tree. Battle-field church can now be seen very cheerfulness which religion inspires does not show plainly from the bank of the river. It is not much itself in noise, or in fits and starts of merriment, but more than three miles off ; and at the time the battle is calm and constant. Of this, the only true and was fought, the country was, perhaps, much more

valuable kind of cheerfulness, for all other kinds open than it is at present, and there were few hedges are hollow and unsatisfying, religious men possess tushut out the view; so that Glendower might easily not less, but a greater share than others. —Paley, have seen what was going on between the two armies;

NEW YEAR'S DAY.

of the pastry, a "fayre pye oringed." The money New Year's Day must always bring with it a mixed given on this occasion, amounts to 8281. 78. Od. ; the feeling to every reflecting mind. We are all grown jewels, trinkets, apparel, &c., not being valued 1. a year older, but how few of us can say, that they head was only a receiver of gifts

. There were heavy

We must not think, however, that the crowned are become either wiser or better? To

many, the past year may have been one of suffering or anxiety; and demands on the liberality of the reigning monarch; the difference of their situation, with what it was at

and as the presents of a king or queen must necesthe commencement of the year 1832, will press very sarily have been both more numerous and more forcibly upon their memory, when its anniversary costly than those of a subject, the tax upon the arrives. On the other hand, we must all be grateful royal bounty was very considerable. to Providence for being permitted to see even the

On the back of the list before quoted, appear opening of another year,—that we have thus had the New Year's Gifts presented by the queen in longer time allotted us for the correction of bad return; the whole of which consists of gilt plate : habits, and the further improvement of good ones.

to the Earl of Leicester, 132 ounces ; to the Earl of The prosperous will anticipate that it may bring Warwick, 106 ounces ; but to all the other earls, fresh accessions of happiness and enjoyment, while thirty and twenty ounces: to the Duchess of Somerthe unfortunate will cherish the hope that, with the

set (the only duchess), twenty-five ounces; to the old year, his distress may have an end, and that the countesses, fifty, forty, and twenty ounces; to the sunshine of the new year will dissipate the gloom and Archbishop of Canterbury forty-five ounces; to the darkness of the one that is past.

other prelates thirty-five, thirty, twenty, and fifteen The year did not always begin on the 1st of ounces; to Sir Christopher Hatton, Lord ChamberJanuary, but was considered as commencing on the lain, 400 ounces; to all her maids of honour and 25th of March*. This being the cause of great incon- gentlewomen of her household, as well those who venience (especially in carrying on a correspondence presented gifts, as those who did not, from twenty with foreigners), was remedied in this country, by an

to two ounces. Thus—to Mrs. Tomyšen, the dwarf, Act of Parliament passed in 1752, by which it was

two ounces; to the physicians thirteen, the apothecary enacted, that the 1st of January should be reckoned seven, the cook and serjeant of the pastry, five ounces. to be the first day of the year, and eleven days in that

Sum total, 4809 ounces of gilt plate. year succeeding the 2nd September (what would have

The following extracts from LoDGE's Illustrations been the 3rd being called the 14th,) were thrown out t. of British History (vol. ii.), are pleasing proofs of the

The Old Style still prevails in Muscovy, Denmark, interchange of kindness and good feeling, at this Holstein, Hamburg, Utrecht, Guilders, East Fries- period of the year, between a son and his father, and 'and, Geneva, and in all the Protestant principalities two of the noblemen of Queen Elizabeth's court : .n Germany, and cantons of Switzerland.

According to my riches, and the country I dwell in, and The New Style is used in all the dominions subject not to my desire, I send your lordship a new-year's gift : a to Great Britain ; in America, in Amsterdam, Rotter- pardon to name the other homely thing, a pair of Ross

cap § and a rundlet of perry; and I must require dam, Leyden, Haerlem, Middleburgh, Ghent, Brus-boots, which, if they be fit for your lordship, you may have sels, Brabant, and in other places in the Netherlands; as many as please you to appoint. I beseech Almighty also in France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Hungary, God to preserve your lordship many happy new-year's days, Poland, and in all the Popish principalities of Ger- that you may live as many and joyful years after them, as many, and cantons of Switzerland.

ever did any creature !-Goodrich Castle, 3rd Jan., 1576, In former days, heavy demands were made upon

Gilbert Talbot to his father, the Eurl of Shrewsbury

And for that I find warmth doth breed me some ease, the purse at this season ; and the Household Books supposing that the self-same things which are employed of our Kings and Queens contain notices of innu

towards me that way cannot be hurtful to your lordmerable offerings from different classes of their sub-ship, I have sent you a small rug by this bearer, to wrap jects : as a proof of which, the following list of new about your legs at times convenient; which your lordship year's gifts, presented to Queen Elizabeth, in 1584-5, must accept as I present it, and as though our country may amuse our readers. From this it appears that withall your lordship'shall receive a case of Hallomshire

wools were much finer, and our workmen more curious; and the peers, chief officers of state, and several of the whittles ||, being such fruits as my poor country affordeth Queen's household-servants, even down to her apo- with fame throughout this realm.—Handsworth, last of thecaries, master cook, serjeant of the pastry, &c., January, 1589. -The Earl of Shrewsbury, to Lord gave new year's gifts to the queen.

Burleigh.

H. M. These gifts consisted either of a sum of money, or

THE BELL-SHAPED SEA-NETTLE. jewels, trinkets, wearing apparel, &c. The largest

Medusa Campanulata. sum given by any of the temporal lords, was twenty pounds; but the Archbishop of Canterbury gave Whoever has been in the habit of walking on the forty pounds, and all the other spiritual lords, thirty,

sea shore, must have observed, when the tide has twenty, and ten pounds. Many of the temporal retired, a number of substances, lying on the sand, in lords and great officers, and most of the peeresses, appearance like masses of jelly ; in the summer seagave rich gowns, petticoats, kirtles, doublets, mantles, son they are extremely abundant, and in warmer some embroidered with pearls, garnets, &c.; brace- Archæologia, vol. i. lets, caskets studded with precious stones, and other

“The best caps were formerly made at Monmouth; but, on the oc

casion of a great plague happening in that town, the trade was removed toys. The queen's physician presents her with a box to Bewdley in Worcestershire, yet so that they are called Monmouth of foreign sweetmeats. Another physician with two Caps unto this day.”-Fuller's Worthies. In order to promote the pots, one of green ginger, the other of orange flowers. degree of a knight, should wear any hat or cap of velvet, under a

use of woollen caps, it was enacted, in 1565, that no man under the Her apothecary with a box of lozenges and a pot of penalty of ten shillings; and, in 1570, a further law was passed, conserves. Her master cook, with a “fayre marche - that every person above the age of seven years should wear, upon payne,” (a macaroon then in fashion ;) her serjeant pain of forfeiting daily three shillings and four pence, (excepts maids, climates are found of a very large size. These sub-| caught them with great eagerness; but I was too far stances, notwithstanding their appearance, will be off to ascertain what they were. They then, one by found on examination to be living bodies, and as per one, raised their joined hands over their heads, and fectly formed for all the purposes of their nature, as threw themselves down, with a force which must have any other part of the works of the great Creator. proved fatal, had not their fall been broken by some

the Sabbath and holydays, a cap of wool knit, made in England, on

ladies, lords, knights, gentlemen, mayors of cities, &c., and the See the article Years, in the Calendar, p. 247.

wardens of the Companies of London.) This provision continued † To expose the clamours which are too often idly raised against in force till 1597. the laws, that clever painter, Hogarth, alluded to the change of the || A whittle was a knife, which was sometimes woru suspended style, very happily, in one of his election pictures;--on a flag is by a cord to the girdle. Handsworth was situated about four miles written, “ Give us our eleven days :" as if every individual had been south of Sheffield, then, as now, famous for its cutlery, and espeactually robbed, by an Act of Parliament, of a portion of his life. cially for its knives.

means or other. The crowd was too dense to allow of my discovering how this was effected; but it is certain they were unhurt, as they immediately reascended, and performed the same ceremonies many times.

On the 10th, we were awakened before day-break, by the discordant sounds of native musical instruments, and immediately mounted our horses, and rode to the Meidân. As the morning advanced, we could see an immense crowd coming down the Chowringhee road, which was augmented by persons joining it from all the streets and lanes of the city. We entered the crowd, taking the precaution of making the saees walk close by my horse's head, who was frightened at the music, dancing, and glare of torches, accom. panied at intervals by the deep sound of the gong.

The double, double peal of the drum was there,
And the startling sound of the trumpet's blare,
And the gong, that seemed with its thunders dread

To stun the living, and waken the dead.
In the midst of this crowd, walked and danced the
miserable fanatics, torturing themselves in the most
horrible manner, and each surrounded by his own

particular band of admirers, with music and torches. The Bell-Shaped Sea Nettle.

Their countenances denoted suffering; but Their bodies are nearly transparent, and the different they evidently gloried in their patient endurance, and organs they enclose are faintly visible to the eye; probably were supported by the assurance that they their form is that of a saucer upside down, and the mouth, as may be seen by the engraving, is placed voluntarily, and without a groan, this agony.

were expiating the sins of the past year by suffering below. The outward edge of this body is furnished We had considerable difficulty in making our way with numerous arms, which gradually taper towards through the crowd; but when we had arrived at a the ends, where they appear like so many threads ; short distance from the scene of action, the sight with these arms, the creature is able to convey its

was beautifully picturesque, and forcibly reminded food to its mouth ; small fish, or any other animal

me of an English race-course : flags were flying in substance that comes within its reach, afford it the

every direction,-booths were erected with stages for means of subsistence.

dancing; the flowing white garments of the natives The indigestible parts of the food which are swallowed, are, after a time, returned by means of the well-dressed women ; and though, on a nearer ap

gave the impression of a numerous assemblage of mouth.

proach, their dingy complexions destroyed the illuMany varieties of the Medusa are phosphorescent; sion, yet the scene lost nothing of its beauty. I that is, they shine at night with a pale blue flame, like

never saw in England such a multitude collected tothat of phosphorus, and their appearance, when float-gether; but this is one of their most famous festivals, ng in large groups on the surface of the sea, on a

and the people had assembled from all the neighdark night, is extremely beautiful. Some species bouring villages. The noise of the music continued have the power of benumbing the hand, when touched, till about noon, when the devotees retired to heal their and have had the name of Sea-nettles applied to them. wounds. These are said to be dangerous, and occaThe appearance of many is peculiarly graceful and sionally to prove fatal. One of our servants, a elegant, when floating in their native element, from the delicate colours with which they are adorned. it seems that none of a higher sort practise these cruel.

Musalchee," or torch-bearer, of the lowest caste, (for The bodies of some among them are of a light azure ties,) ran about the house with a small spear through blue, the border surrounded with the appearance of his tongue, begging money from his fellow-servants; golden beads like a coronet, from which stream, in this man appeared stupefied with opium, which, I am every direction, delicate threads of a bright carmine told, is generally taken by these poor wretches, to colour ; in short, almost all those that are found in deaden their feelings; and the parts through which warmer climates have something pleasing either in the spears are thrust, are said form or colour. The annexed engraving is an enlarged for a considerable time, till numbness ensues.

be previously rubbed view of the object represented, its natural size being about one inch in width. It is an inhabitant of the nah, the part of the city where the trees for swinging

In the evening, the bishop walked to the BoitaconGreenland seas.

are erected: they are not suffered to be placed near HINDOO FESTIVALS.

the European residence. He arrived in time to be a spectator of the whole ceremony.

The victim was One of the Hindoo festivals in honour of the god-led, covered with flowers, and without any apparent dess Kali, commenced this evening. Near the river reluctance, to the foot of the tree ; hooks were then a crowd was assembled round a stage of bamboos, thrust through the muscles of his sides, which hc fifteen feet high, composed of two upright, and three endured without shrinking, and a broad bandage was horizontal poles ; which last were placed at about fastened round his waist, to prevent the hooks from five feet asunder. On this kind of ladder several being torn through by the weight of his body. He men mounted, with large bags, out of which they was then raised up, and was whirled round ; at first, threw down various articles to the by-standers, who the motion was slow, but by degrees was increased to

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