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people,' and to follow the occupations of their fathers." stand, and struck with hammers. The annexed Though the infant schools are calculated to produce figure, which affords a curious example of this kind, the greatest amount of good in their application to the is taken from a manuscript of the fourteenth century : working classes, in whose character, indeed, they pro- it is intended as a representation of King David, and mise to effect a total revolution, yet nobody who has is affixed to one of his Psalms. witnessed their admirable effect in an early but not premature unfolding of the youthful mind, and in accustoming it to submit to discipline and authority, can fail to wish the same system practised in the education of every class. Its advantages awakened the attention of the higher ranks in Edinburgh, many of whom were anxious that their children should share in the benefits conferred on the children of the poor. Accordingly, a school for the children of the higher classes was established by Mr. Wilderspin in that city; and we have means of knowing, that it has gone on very successfully. It does not appear, however, that schools of this kind have as yet become

Parents, in the higher ranks, are still not sufficiently aware of the inestimable benefits of which, by their negligence in this respect, they are depriving their offspring.

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What varying sounds from yon grey pinnacles

Sweep o'er the ear, and claim the heart's reply!

Now the blithe peal of home festivity,
Natal or nuptial, in full concert swells:
Now the brisk chime, or voice of alter'd bells,

Speaks the due hour of social worship nigh:
And now the last stage of mortality
The deep dull toll with lingering warning tells.
How much of human life those sounds comprise ;

Birth, wedded love, God's service, and the tomb !
Heard not in vain, if thence kind feelings rise,

Such as befit our being, free from gloom Monastick,--pray'r that communes with the skies, And musings mindful of the final doom.

The arrival of kings, and great personages, was D. C. July, 1832. anciently greeted by ringing the church bells.

Ingulphus, Abbot of Croyland, who died about

1109, speaks of them as being well known in his HISTORY OF BELLS.

time, and says that “the first Abbot of Croyland (Abridged from FAULKNER'S History of Kensington.]

gave six bells to that monastery, that is to say, two The origin of church bells, is an interesting subject great ones, which he named Bartholomew and Beof enquiry. The ancients, as we learn from the direct ladine ; two of a middling size, called Turketullum and incidental mention of them, by the old historians and Beterine ; two small ones, denominated Pega and other writers, had bells for both sacred and pro- and Bega; he also caused the great bell to be made fane purposes. By Strabo we are told that market called Gudla, which was tuned to the other bells, and time was announced by their sound; and by Pliny, produced an admirable harmony not to be equalled that the tomb of an ancient king of Tuscany was in England.” hung round with bells. The hour of bathing was made The bells used in the monasteries were sometiines known in ancient Rome by the sound of a bell ; rung with ropes having brass or silver rings at the ends the night watchman carried one, and it served to call for the hand; they were anciently rung by the priests up the servants in great houses. Sheep had them themselves, afterwards by the servants, and sometied about their necks to frighten away wolves, or times by those incapable of other duties, as persons rather by way of amulet. In our own day this who were blind. custom, like many others, serves to remind us of for- In the flourishing days of Popery, bells were acmer times.

tually baptized, and anointed with the Chrism, or holy Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, is generally considered oil ! They were also exorcised and blessed by the as the first person who introduced bells into eccle- bishop, from a belief, that when these ceremonies had siastical service, about the year 400. And we are been performed, they had power to drive the devil out told by ancient historians, that in the year 610, the of the air, to calm tempests, and to keep away the Bishop of Orleans, being at Sens, then in a state of plague. The ritual for these ceremonies is contained siege, frightened away the besieging army by ringing in the Roman Pontifical, and is still used in Roman the bells of St. Stephen's church; which is a clear Catholic countries, where it is usual to give the bells proof that they were not at that time generally known the name of some saint, as was formerly done in in France.

England. The first large bells are mentioned by Bede in the The exploded doctrine of the church of Rome con

Before that period the early British cerning bells is, that they have merit, and pray God Christians made use of wooden rattles to call the con- for the living and the dead ; secondly, that they progregation of the faithful together.

duce devotion in the hearts of the faithful. Handbells probably first appeared at religious pro- The dislike of evil spirits to bells is extremely well cessions, and were afterwards used by the secular i expressed by Wynken de Worde in the Golden Legend. musicians. The small bells were not always held in The passing bell was anciently rung for two purthe hand; they were sometimes suspended upon a poses, one to bespeak the prayers of all good Chris

year 680.


tian people for a soul just departing, the other to drive

A CHILD'S EVENING PRAYER, away the evil spirits who stood at the bed's foot, or about the house. Hence, perhaps, exclusive of the additional labour , was occasioned the high price de- [The following simple and beautiful lines were composed by

the great poet above-named, for the use of his daughter manded for tolling the greatest bell of the church, for when a child. A very little ingenuity will be sufficient to that being loudest, the evil spirits might go further off make such alterations as may be necessary to suit the to be clear of the sound.

prayer to the circumstances of every fireside.] Such was the general opinion respecting the efficacy

Ere on my bed my limbs I lay, of bells before the Reformation; but since that period

God grant me grace my prayers to say ;“ it has been the usual course in the Church of Eng

O God! preserve my mother dear

In strength and health for many a year ; land, and it is a very laudable one, that when any

And, O! preserve my father too, sick person lay drawing on, a bell should toll to give

And may I pay him reverence due, notice to the neighbours, that they might pray for the And may I my best thoughts employ dying party, which was commonly called a passing

To be my parents' hope and joy; bell, because the sick person was passing hence to

And 0! preserve my brothers both

From evil doings and from sloth, another world; and when his breath was expired, the

And may we always love each other, bell rung out, that the neighbours might cease their

Our friends, our father, and our mother :prayers, for that the party was dead.” It is now only

And still, O Lord, to me impart tolled after death.

An innocent and grateful heart, The saint's bell was not so called from the name of

That after my last sleep I may the saint that was inscribed on it, or of the church to

Awake to thy eternal day! Amen. which it belonged, but because it was always rung out when the priest came to that part of the service, ON THE BLACK PESTILENCE OF THE Sancte, Sancte, Sancte, Domine Deus Sabaoth ;" pur

FOURTEENTH CENTULLY. posely that those persons who could not come to church, might know in what a solemn office the con

Of all the great diseases, the remcinbrance of which gregation were, at that instant, engaged, and so, even

has been preserved to us by history, the black pestiin their absence, be once, at least, moved, “ to lift up lence of the fourteenth century is that which caused their hearts to Him that made them."

the greatest ravages. In some respects there exists an “Bells,” says Dr. Fuller, “are no effectual charm analogy between the discase of which we are speakagainst lightning. The frequent firing of abbey ing, and the Asiatic C'AOLERA. The name of "black churches, by lightning, confuteth the proud motto pestilence' seems to point out to us, in the scourge to commonly written on the bells in their steeples, which it was applicd, something similar to the discowherein each intitled itself to a six-fold efficacy, viz.

loration of those who have died of the Cholera. Indeed Men's death I tell, by dollfull knell,

many persons are of opinion, that the scourge, which Lightning and thunder, I break asunder,

in the present day has already swept off many On Sabbath all, to church I call,

millions, is only a new appearance of that which The sleepy head, I raise from bed,

prevailed in the fourteenth century. It is of importThe winds so fierce, I do disperse,

ance to ascertain whether this supposition is well Men's cruel rage, I do assuage.

founded. At all events, it is well to know the nature of that Whereas it appears that abbey steeples, though terrible instrument of death, which Divine Providence quilted with bells almost cap-à-piè, were not proof permitted to rage from the extremity of the east, to the against the sword of God's lightning. Yea, generally, western limits of the then known world. Professor when the heavens in tempests did strike fire, the Hecker, of Berlin, has just published a volume on this steeples of abbeys proved often their timber, whose subject, in which he attempts, not only to answer the frequent burnings portended their final destruction." question as to the sameness of the two diseases, but also

“It has anciently been reported," observes Lord to solve many others, relative to the influence produced Bacon, “and is still received, that extreme applauses by the great scourge of the middle age. We therefore and shouting of people assembled in multitudes, have select a few of the details collected by M. Hecker, for so rarified and broken the air, that birds flying over the information of our readers. have fallen down, the air not being able to support In the first place, the documents which he has brought them ; and it is believed by some, that great ringing together, prove that the black pestilence was in fact the of bells, in populous cities, hath chased away thunder, plague of the east, but with some additional features. and also dissipated pestilent air. All which may be Besides the swellings under the arm-pits, and in the also from the concussion of the air, and not from the groin, and the gangrenous tumours which characterize sound."

the plague, numerous black spots were observed over Ever since the introduction of bells, the English the whole surface of the body; the palate and tongue have been distinguished for their proficiency in the art were black, and, as it were, filled with blood; and the of ringing, and for their partiality to this amusement. patients were tormented with insatiable thirst. But

the most distinguishing and aggravated feature of the The following are the weights of the principal bells black pestilence, was the thorough alteration experiin Europe :

enced by the lungs. These organs were struck with Empress Anne's, Moscow

lbs. 432,000 Boris Godinuf's, ditto

a gangrenous inflammation, which was indicated by

288,000 Novogorod Great Bell


acute pains in the chest, spitting of blood, and such an Amboise Bell, Rouen


infection of the breath, that parents even fled from Vienna Bell, cast from Turkish cannon


their children. The disorder was communicated, not Erfurt, Prussian Saxony

30,000 only by contact with the infected patients, but also by Great Tom of Oxford

18,000 touching any thing which had belonged to them. It St. Paul's, London


was even imagined that the disorder was imparted by Ghent, Flanders

11,000 Great Tom of Lincoln

a glance or look-an error which may be ascribed

10,400 Worcester Great Bell


either to the extraordinary lustre of the eyes, or to the York ditto


belief in fascination which anciently prevailed. Gloucester ditto

6,000 The black pestilence did not advance westward by

the same route as the Cholera. Originating in Upper globe. The following are some of the remarkable Asia—as the Cholera also originated, (and it is also circumstances which he has collected from the hissaid, in China) the black pestilence descended towards tory of that time. the Caucasus and the Mediterranean Sea; and instead About the year 1333, numerous earthquakes and of entering Europe through Russia, it first spread over volcanic eruptions did much mischief in Upper Asia, the south, and after devastating the rest of Europe, it which in the year after successively appeared in Greece, entered that country. It followed the caravans, which Italy, France, and Germany. To these convulsions of came from China across Central Asia, until it reached the earth were added extraordinary inundations, which the shores of the Black Sea: thence it was conveyed drowned the harvests, and loaded the atmosphere by ships to Constantinople, the centre of commercial with moisture. These were succeeded by barren years, intercourse between Asia, Europe, and Africa. That scarcity, famine, and great mortality. Clouds of locapital was certainly the focus whence the pestilence custs invaded the plains of Europe, and covered them darted its poisonous rays in every direction, except with their dead bodies, which poisoned the air with towards Muscovy. In the year 1347 it reached Sicily, putrid exhalations. And lastly, dense mists, emitting some of the maritime cities of Italy, and Marseilles. a disagreeable smell, spread over whole countries, in In the following year, it spread from the European consequence of which the inhabitants were exposed to shores of the Mediterranean into the interior of the various accidents. continent. The northern part of Italy, France, Ger It will be readily admitted that facts like these must many, and England, were invaded by it in the same produce an injurious effect upon the health of the geyear; the northern kingdoms of Europe in 1349; nerations that were contemporary with them; but are and finally, Russia, in 1351,—that is to say, four they sufficient to account for the deadly malady which years after it reached Constantinople.

shortly after manifested itself? In order to answer In France, the pestilence advanced by Avignon, at this question, we ought to know, at least, whether there that time the seat of the papacy. It broke out there is any constant proportion between the supposed in a frightful manner: many persons fell down sud- causes of the black pestilence, and the intensity of this denly, as if they had been struck by a thunderbolt. scourge in the different countries which it devastated. The patients rarely reached the third day: as soon as M. Hecker's opinion, however, does not differ from any one found himself affected with tumours, either in that entertained by many physicians who lived in the groin, or beneath the arms, he bade adieu to the those times. The faculty of Paris, which was conworld, and sought consolation only in the absolution sulted on that occasion, assigned a mist or fog as the granted to all the dying by Pope Clement VI, who ar- cause of the evil, and recommended the lighting of rogantly declared in a Bull, that God had given him fires with aromatic plants. A learned man of Padua, the empire of heaven and earth.

attributed the pest to an occult quality of the atmoIn England, the disorder was characterized, as it had sphere. A physician of Avignon, ascribed it (as been at Avignon, by an almost sudden mortality, con- some medical men in France in our day have done) sequent on the spitting of blood. The patients who to influences arising from the earth. In short, they exhibited this symptom sunk under the pestilence in knew at that time nearly as much as we do now, twelve hours, and rarely survived to the second day. concerning the real causes of this great pestilence; The malady spread rapidly throughout the country, and many doctors endeavoured to account for them and covered it with the dead. (Ireland, however, at by having recourse to astrology. that time, suffered very little.) On the north seas Nothing is more afflicting than the details which as previously on the Mediterranean, vessels were seen have been transmitted to us of the moral effects profloating at the pleasure of the winds, deprived of their duced by the black pestilence upon the generation whole crews, and carrying only corpses.

who witnessed it. There doubtless were some happy The following estimates, which may be relied on as exceptions ; but, among the majority, this scourge pretty correct, will give an idea of the losses sustained called forth only a manifestation of selfishness, freby the population of Europe at that time.

quently the most revolting, together with superstitious

Inhabitants. practices and fanatical excesses. Then, as we have reFlorence lost......... 60,000 | Strasburg

16,000 cently witnessed in France, the people began by Venice ............... 100,000 Basle....


ascribing to poison the almost sudden deaths which Marseilles (in 1 month) 56,000 Erfurth* (at least)... 16,000

The fanaticism of that

they witnessed. 50,000 | London (at least)... 100,000 Paris


age Avignon... 60,000 Norwich


their suspicions against the Jews, who were the

objects of general hatred, and whose riches moreAbout 200,000 country towns or villages were com- over excited the cupidity of their enemies. Europe pletely depopulated. At Paris, 500 patients died every then presented one of the most frightful spectacles day at the Hôtel-Dieu. Italy, we are informed, lost that can be conceived. The hapless Jews were seized, at least one half of her inhabitants. At Cairo, during tortured, condemned, and burnt; in most cases the the height of the pestilence, ten or twelve thousand people did not wait for a judicial sentence, but themdied daily. In Mohammedan countries, on the great selves massacred the Israelites. They were heaped roads, and in the caravanserais, nothing was seen but up by thousands in vast funeral piles. At Mayence, deserted corpses.

after a vain attempt at resistance, they shut themIf, notwithstanding all the progress made in the na- selves up in their quarters, to which they set fire, and tural sciences, the doctors of the nineteenth century twelve thousand perished ! Pursued by the people—by have failed in ascertaining what are the causes of the the magistrates, who ought to have protected them, Cholera, how much more reason have we to acknow- and by the feudal lords, these miserable strangers ledge our ignorance of the causes of the black pesti- found no asylum but in Lithuania, where Casimir the lence. M. Hecker, however, has found in the history Great granted them his protection. This circumof the fourteenth century some facts which he thinks stance accounts for the great numbers of Jews who may be applied to explain the causes of its appear are still found in Poland.

He considers that it was principally caused While professing Christians thus avenged upon the by great commotions in the interior parts of the ancient people of God that chastisement with which

the same God had punished them, they, on the other • This city, which at that time was one of the most commercial places in Ger

hand, endeavoured to appease the divine displeasure,



magy, never recovered this blow.

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not by sincere repentance, whereby they forsook sin, we can little perceive, or, should some flash of light but by practices which cost the heart no sacrifice, spring up, and give us a momentary glimpse of naand which have no other effect but that of lulling the ture's hidden ways, immediate darkness closes round, conscience to sleep. Numerous companies of peni- and renders our ignorance more manifest. We see a tents spread over Europe, and among the processions wonderfully fabricated creature struggling from the which they made, those of the flagellants were par- cradle of its being, just perfected by the elaboration ticularly remarkable. Their name is celebrated in of months or years, and decorated with a vest of glothe history of those times for the disorders and crimes rious splendour; it spreads its wings to the light of which they committed.

heaven, and becomes the next moment, perhaps, with

all its marvellous construction, instinct and splendour, WHICH WAS THE GREATER FOOL? the prey of some wandering bird! and human wisdom In a sermon, preached by Bishop Hall, upon his and conjecture are humbled to the dust. That these eightieth birthday, he relates the following story. events are ordinations of supreme intelligence, for wise

“ There was a certain lord who kept a fool in his and good purposes, we are convinced. But we are blind house; as many a great man did in those days for beyond thought, as to secondary causes; and admiratheir pleasure: to whom this lord gave a staff, and tion, that pure source of intellectual pleasure, is almost charged him to keep it, till he should meet with one alone permitted to us. If we attempt to proceed bewho was a greater fool than himself ; and if he met yond this, we are generally lost in the mystery with with such a one, to deliver it over to him.

which the divine Architect has thought fit to surround “Not many years after, his lord fell sick; and in- his works; and perhaps our very aspirations after deed was sick unto death. His fool came to see him; knowledge increase in us a sense of our ignorance : and was told by his sick lord, that he must now every deep investigator into the works of nature can shortly leave him. “And whither wilt thou go?' said scarcely possess other than an humble mind.Journal the fool. “Into another world,' said the lord. 'And of a Naturalist. when wilt thou come again? within a month?'—'No.' 'Within a year?'—'No.'-—'When then?'—'Never.'

CAUSE AND EFFECT. 'Never! and what provision hast thou made for thy When the connection of events with each other is entertainment there whither thou goest?'— None at unknown, ignorance refers them to what is called all.' — No?' said the fool, 'none at all? Here, take Chance;" and superstition, which is ignorance in my staff then. Art thou going away for ever, and another form, to the immediate agency of some supehast taken no order, whence thou shalt never return? | rior malevolent or benevolent being: but philosophy take my staff, for I am not guilty of any such folly as endeavours to discover the foregoing link in the chain this.'

of events.

Near to the Hartz mountains in Germany, a giganTHE MYSTERIES OF CREATION.

tic figure has, from time immemorial, occasionally apThe designs of supreme intelligence in the creation peared in the Heavens. It is indistinct, but always and preservation of the insect world, and the regula- resembles the form of a human being. Its appearance tions and appointments whereby their increase or de has ever been considered a certain indication of apcrease is maintained, and periodical appearance pre- proaching misfortune. It is called the Spectre of the scribed, are among the most perplexing considerations Brocken (the name of the hill). It has been seen by of natural history. That insects are kept in reserve many travellers. In speaking of it, M. Jordan says, for stated seasons of action, we know, being com- 'In the course of my repeated tours through the Hartz monly made the agents of Providence in his visitations mountains, I often, but in vain, ascended the Brocken, of mankind. The locust, the caterpillar, the palmer that I might see the spectre. At length, on a serene worm, the various family of blights, that poison in the morning, as the sun was just appearing above the horispring all the promise of the year, are insects. Mildew, zon, it stood before me, at a great distance, towards the indeed, is a vegetable; but the wire worm destroys opposite mountain. It seemed to be the gigantic figure the root, and strips the germs of the wheat, and of a man. It vanished in a moment.” In September 1796, hunger and famine ensue. Many of the coleopteræ the celebrated Abbé Haüy visited this country. He remove nuisances, others again incumbrances, and says, “After having ascended the mountain for thirty worms manure the soil; but these are trite and isolated times, I at last saw the spectre. It was just at sunrise cases in the profusion of the animal world; and left in the middle of the month of May, about four o'clock alone as we are in the desert of mere reason and con- in the morning. I saw distinctly a human figure of a jecture, there is no probability that much satisfactory monstrous size. The atmosphere was quite serene toelucidation will be obtained. They are not perhaps wards the east. In the south west a high wind carried important objects of enquiry ; but when we see the before it some light vapours which were scarcely conextraordinary care and attention, that has been bes-densed into clouds, and hung round the mountains

this part of creation, our astonishment is upon which the figure stood. I bowed: the colossal excited, and forces into action that inherent desire in figure repeated it. I paid my respects a second time, our minds to seek into hidden things. In some calm which was returned with the same civility. I 'then summer s evening ramble, we see the air filled with called the landlord of the inn, and having taken the sportive animated beings; the leaf, the branch, the same position which I had occupied before, we looked bark of the tree, every mossy bank, the pool, the ditch, towards the mountain, when we clearly saw two such all teeming with animated life, with a profusion, an colossal figures, which, after having repeated our comendless variety of existence; each creature pursuing pliment, by bending their bodies, vanished.” its own separate purpose in a settled course of action, Now for an explanation of this appearance. “When admitting of no deviation or substitution, to accomplish the rising sun throws his rays over the Brocken upon or promote some ordained object. Some appear oc- the body of a man standing opposite to fleecy clouds, cupied in seeking for the most appropriate stations let the beholder fix his eye steadily upon them, and in for their own necessities, and exerting stratagems and all probability he will see his own shadow extending wiles to secure the lives of themselves or their offspring the length of five or six hundred feet, at the distance against natural or possible injuries, with a forethought of about two miles from him." equivalent or superior to reason; others in some aim Dr. Arnot, in his work on Physics, says, “It hap

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pened once on board a ship sailing along the coast of masses are usually found in the form of a tree, the Brazil, 100 miles from land, that the persons walking trunk being of the finest quality, and the branches on deck, when passing a particular spot, heard most inferior to it. When taken out of the mine, the wad distinctly the sound of bells, varying as in human re- is sorted according to its various qualities, and the joicings. All on board listened and were convinced; best sent to London, where it is sold to the dealers but the phenomenon was mysterious and inexplicable. once a month. The pencil-makers of Keswick receive The different ideas which this would excite in the their supply from the metropolis, as the proprietors of minds of ignorance and intelligence, may be easily con- the article will not allow any to be sold till it has been ceived. Some months afterwards it was ascertained deposited in their own warehouse. that at the time of observation the bells of St. Salvador, In order to make pencils, the black lead is sawed on the Brazilian coast, had been ringing on the occa- into square slips, which are fitted into a groove made sion of a festival. The sound, therefore, favoured by in a piece of wood, and another slip of wood glued a gentle wind, had travelled over 100 miles of smooth over them. A soft wood, such as cedar, is usually water; and striking the wide spread sail of a ship, ren- employed for the purpose, that the pencil may be more dered concave by a gentle breeze, had been brought to easily cut. In the ever-pointed pencils, the lead a focus, and rendered perceptible."

is formed in the shape of small cylinders instead of B. MONTAGU's Selections. square slips.

The inferior pencils, hawked about at a cheap rate, are

made of the refuse of the mineral, stirred into melted BLACK LEAD MINE

sulphur. They may be detected by holding them to Few persons are, perhaps, aware, that there is only a candle, or to a red hot iron, when they yield a one mine of this kind in England. It is situated on the bluish flame, with a strong smell, resembling that of side of Seatallor Fell, a lofty mountain in Cumberland, burning brimston“. Pure black lead produces neither about eight miles south of Keswick. The view repre-smell nor fume, and suffers no apparent alteration in sents the house erected at the entrance for the resi- a moderate heat. dence of the overseer.

EGGS. The eggs of hens are those most commonly used as food; and form an article of very considerable importance in a commercial point of view. Vast quantities are brought from the country to London and other great towns Since the peace they have also been very largely imported from the Continent. At this moment, indeed, the trade in eggs forms a considerable branch of our commerce with France, and affords constant employment for a number of small vessels !

It appears from official statements, that the eggs imported from France amount to about 60,000,000 a year; and supposing them to cost, at an average, 4d. a doz. it follows that the people of the metropolis and

Brighton (for it is into them that they are almost all View of the Black Lead Mine, at Borroridale.

imported) pay the French above 83,0001. a year for The period when this mine was discovered is un- eggs; and supposing that the freight, importers' and known, but it was certainly worked previous to the retailers' profit, duty, &c. raise their price to the conseventeenth century, and has been occasionally open

sumer to 10d. a dozen, their total cost will be 213,0002, ever since. The mineral has also been found in Ayr

-The duty, in 1829, amounted to 22,1891. shire, Inverness-shire, and in foreign countries, but of

M'Culloch's Commercial Dictionary. a very inferior quality.

Various names have been given to the mineral found THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE here, but as many of them denote other substances,

AND EDUCATION, they do not appear very appropriate. It is called on In compliance with the recommendation contained in the the spot, wad, and in other places plumbago, or black Report read at the Special General Meeting of the Society

FOR PROMOTING CHRistian KNOWLEDGE, held on the 21st lead, though lead, properly so called, forms no part of May, have made arrangements for the publication of a of its composition. The terms black cawke and gra- Series of Works on Education, History, Biography, Natural phite have likewise been applied to it, though it is ac- | History, the Elements of the Sciences, &c. particulars of tually carbonate of iron, consisting of 90 parts of which will speedily be announced. charcoal and 10 of iron. It is principally used for the manufacture of pencils, great quantities of which I'he FIRST SUPPLEMENTARY NUMBER OF THE are made at Keswick ; but is also employed in mak.

SATURDAY MAGAZI ing crucibles, polishing iron, diminishing the friction will be ready for delivery with No. IV.; and on the 30th inst. will be published

Tue SATURDAY MAGAZINE FOR JULY, of machinery, &c.

price Sixpence, sewed in a Neat Wrapper, The mine was formerly worked only at intervals, a Being the FIRST of the MONTHLY PARTS, which will be regularly con: sufficient quantity being procured in a short time to tinued on the last day of each succeeding Month, so that Subscribers in all

parts of the Country may receive them with the Magazines, &c. from London, last for several years; but the market being consider 'by giving the necessary orders to their respective Booksellers. ably extended, and the difficulty of finding the mine

LONDON: ral increased, the working has lately been carried on more constantly.

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND. The wad is not found in veins, but in irregular

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdonı. masses, some of which weigh as much as four or five Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications upplied on wholesale terms by

W. S. ORR, Paternoster-Row; G. BERGER, Holywell-st., London, pounds. Many of these pieces are of little value, being And by the Publisher's Agents in all the principal places hard and gritty ; but those which are soft and of fine

throughout the Country. texture are worth several guineas a pound. These C. RICHARDS, Printer, 100, St. Martin's Lane, Charing Crosca

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