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RIVERS OF AFRICA.
Locality.

Rise.
Places passed by.

Discharge.

Length in

Eny. Miles Namaqualand Batjouanas' Country Khing, Kingsland Plain, Table Moun. Atlantic, near C. 1090

tain, Bern's Krall, Cok's Krall, George

Voltas.

IV's Cataruct, Pella.
Congo ...... Lake Aquilunda,- Canga, Concobella, Esseno, Gonda Atlantic ... 1200

(supposed.)

Yonga, Voonda, Sonho.
Senegambia Hts. of Foota Jallon Toulou, Rumbde lala, Cacagne, Man. Atlantic

1300 gelli, Pisania, Contou, Kayee, Tende.

bar, Bathurst. Senegambia Hts. of Foota Jallon Laby, Poredaka, Teemboo, Kayee, Galam, Atlantic, near Isle 1480

Kougnem, Beldialo, Faribe, Fort Podor, St. Louis.

Manga, Serinpale, Bouxars. ... Nigritia .... Mountains of Loma Sankari, Yamina, Sego, Jenne, Timbuc. Gulf of Guinea, 1800

too, Katlo, Youri, Boussa, Funda, near Cape For

Benin.
Egypt and Abyssinia 1. Donga Mountains Halifaia, Goos, Mograt, Merawe, Don. Mediterranean, 3240
2. Sacala, in Abyssinia gola, Essouan, Edfou, Esneh,Ghennah, betw. Alexandria
Es-Siout, Minieh, Benisouef, Cairo.

and Damietta,

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mosa.

154' Nile....

more,

rence.

RIVERS OF AMERICA. 27's Susquehana ........ United States...... Cooper's Town, New Oswego, Harrisburgh, Columbia, Balti. Chesapeak Bay, 600 York.

between Elton and

Bellair. 3i's Colorado, or Mendoza La Plata.......... Andes.

Lake Grande, St. Miguel, El Bebeden, Atlantic

650

Doquelees. 5) St. Lawrence .... Canada

State of Onio, near Lakes Ere and Ontario; Kingstown, Gulf of St. Law- 1180
Fort St. Mary.

Isle St. Francis, Montreal, Lake St.

Peter, Quebec. 5) Ohio ... United States...... Alleghany Mounts. Pittsburgh, Steubenville, Cincinnati, Mississippi River, 1188

Louisville, Henderson.

at Cairo. 6. Bravo del Norte Mexico

... Sierra Verde ....

Albuquerque, Passo del Norte, Revilla, Gulf of Mexico.. 1400

Reinosa. 776 Oronoco .... Columbia Maquilada Mounts. Jake Ipava, Esmeralda, St. Barbara, St. Atlantic

1600 Fernando de Itabapo, St. Borja, Cay.

cara, Angostura. Indian Territory.... Rocky Mountains.. Forts Fork and Peace River: Slnve Lake, Arctic Sea, oppo- 1630

Forts Simpson, Norman, Good Hope. site Whale Isle. 1170 La Plata and Parana La Plata & Brazil.. Heights of Itambe.. Juricca, Barluranti, Guaira, Corrientes, Atlantic, between 2400

Cordova, Sta. Fe, Buenos Ayres, Mon. Capes St. Antonio
tevideo.

and Maria. 154 Maranon, or Amazon Brazil ... Heights of Cicacica La Paz, Zarata, Pueblo de los Reyes, St. Atlantic, opposite 3350

Joaquim, Nogueira, Obydos, Santarem, Isle Caviana,

Almeirim, Macapa. 17) Mississippi & Missouri United States...... Rocky Mountains.. Biddle Lake, St. Louis, New Madrid, Gulf of Mexico . 3760

Natchez, New Orléaus,

74! M'Kenzie

PRINCIPAL RIVERS OF EUROPE.
THE SHANNON.

easterly course through Montgomeryshire, receiving in its The Shannon, in Ireland, originates in a small lake, a way several rivulets, and reaches Shrewsbury, in Shropfew miles south of Sligo; and, soon afterwards, falls into shire : it then makes a bold sweep through the counties Lough Allen.

Here it seems to be lost; but it comes of Worcester and Gloucester, and, suddenly widening below out from the southern extremity, with an increase of Bristol, opens into the Bristol Channel. This river has more water, and passes successively, with similar advantages, of an original character than many others; for, though en through Loughs Esk and Ree, into which, also, several con- riched by other streams, it retains its name from the foun siderable rivers and brooks empty themselves. The Shan- tain-head till it enters the ocean, and is uninterrupted by non, thus increased, now becomes a noble river, and after lakes. It is remarkable for the impetuosity of its tide, which flowing through Lough Derg, where it receives fresh acces- sometimes rushes in, with a head of water, called a bore, at sions, it passes Limerick, and expands into a grand æstuary, a height of three or four feet, accompanied with an astou or arm of the sea, opening into the Atlantic Ocean. The ing noise. This is occasioned by the sudden contraction Shannon is, therefore, a collective stream, rather than an which the river gives, at its mouth, to the waters of the original river.

Atlantic, as they flow in.
THE THAMES.

THE SEINE. The same may be said of our Thames, which rises on The Seine, one of the most picturesque rivers in France, the south-eastern side of the Cotswold hills, in Gloucester- | is more indebted for magnitude to its tributary streams, shire, in which spring the four rivulets of the Lech, the than to the resources of its spring. All the rivers are Coln, the Chiron, and the Isis ; each of which is so small, considerable, and have their auxiliaries, the waters of which that a man may check its progress with his foot. The first fall into one common channel, called the Seine, from one of three fall into the Isis, by which name the river is known the lesser rivulets which contribute to the supply. till it has passed Abingdon, in Berkshire. By this time,

THE GARONNE. from the junction of several streams, some of them larger than itself, it becomes a broad river. At Dorchester, about Pyrenées, is a small stream, till joined by the Arriège, the

The Garonne, another river of France, issuing from the seven miles below Abingdon, it is joined by the Thame, a moderately broad stream formed by the union of many large river.

Tarn, the Aveiron, and the Lot; after which it becomes a rivulets in the centre of Buckinghamshire... This junction, the Dordogne : it then obtains the name of Gironde, and

Below Bordeaux, it is further increased hy though with a stream of less size, is fatal to the Isis, so far as its name is concerned; for, during the remainder of its pro- opens into a large æstuary of the Bay of Biscay. grees, it is known by the appellation of Thames, formed, as

THE RHÔNE. is believed, by a combination of the two titles Thame-Isis. The Rhône affords an instance of an auxiliary super From this point, it proceeds by a very circuitous course to seding its principal, and giving name to a river, to which, London, and thence, in a general easterly direction, to the naturally, it is tributary. From a vast mass of ice, in an North Sea, of which it forms a grand æstuary between the Alp, rising ten thousand feet above the level of the sea, Kentish and Essex coasts.

between the canton of Uri and the Valais, gushes the Rhône; THE SEVERN.

and as it rolls about 90 or 100 miles across Switzerland, its The Severn, another English river, and inferior to the waters are augmented by an almost infinite number of Thames only in local importance, is one of the most torrents and streams, from the adjacent mountains. A: extensive and rapid in the kingdom. Issuing from the length, it pours its vast volume of water into the lake of castern side of the Plynlimmon hills, it takes a north- I Geneva ; and re-issuing from the opposite extremity, the Cow's Mouth, situated among the perpetual snows of The Obi.

enters France. There it joins the Saône, and, according northern boundary of Switzerland, as far as Bas.e. It then to the direction of the two streams, the one flowing in nearly assumes a northerly course, forms a boundary between France a straight direction, from north to south, and the other join- and Baden, and reaches Mentz and Cologne, whence it proing it from the east, it ought to lose its name; but, being ceeds to Cleves, and enters the Netherlands, where it divides the most powerful, it retains its original appellation till it into several branches, each of which receives a particular enters the Mediterranean, by several mouths, a few miles denomination, and enters the North Sea at a different place, west of Marseilles.

but the name of the Rhine is lost. THE RHINE. The Rhine affords an instance of a large river losing its

THE VOLGA. name before it reaches the ocean. it arises amidst The Volga, though commonly reckoned among the deserts of ice and snow, near the summit of the Alps, in the rivers of Asia, is in reality the longest river in Europe, and, Grisons' country, and being quickly joined by two other with the exception of the Danube, contains the largest streams, called the Middle and Upper Rhine, which descend volume of water. It originates in two small lakes, southfrom the same mountainous regions, from heights exceeding east of Lake Onega, among the Valdai mountains, and 6000 feet, the united waters work their way through the before it reaches Kasan, receives many secondary rivers. solitary valley of Rhinewald, sometimes flowing secretly Below that city, it is joined by the Kama, which brings beneath arches of perpetual ice, at others, descending with in the waters of a great extent of country. It then turns impetuosity over rocks of granite, and appearing to gain southward, and forms the boundary between Europe and new strength from every opposing obstacle. After quitting Asia, for nearly four hundred miles; after which, resuming the Rhinewald, and receiving various torrents, the Rhine its easterly direction, it enters Asia, and rolls its majestic vasses through the Lake of Constance, and forms the volume of waters, by many mouths, into the Caspian Sea.

PRINCIPAL RIVERS OF ASIA.
THE ENESEI.

to the westward. Like the Obi, it rises in the Great Altaian The Eneser, or Yenesei, consists of a series of streams, one chain; it passes through the Lake Zaizan, and enters Siberia of the least important of which gives name to the whole. about two hundred miles from its source. Numerous The Enesei, properly so called, rises among the Altai Moun- | tributary streams afterwards swell its waters; among which tains, in the high lands of Mongolia, and penetrating are the large rivers Issim and Tobol : so that when it joins between the hills, takes a northerly course through the the Obi, at Sainarova, it fully equals it in magnitude ; and, governments of Kholyvan and Tobolsk, to the Arctic Ocean. from its direction, seems naturally entitled to retain its During its course, which deviates but little from a straight name to its contluence with the ocean. line, it receives several rivers, more considerable than itself, THE YANG-TSE-KIANG, or SON OF THE SEA. besides some rivulets ; so that from being a mere brook, it Of the Chinese rivers, the Yang-tse-kiang, or Son of the becomes, at Eneseisk, a broad river. For this accession, it is Sea, deserves particular notice ; the grandeur of its stream mainly indebted to the Angara, which flows into it a few miles having struck all travellers. It originates in the Desert of above Eneseisk, and is, indeed, the stream by which the Cobi, whence it makes its way between the Kola Mountains, length of the river is measured, agreeably to the opinion of into Tibet, the eastern side of which it traverses, under many oriental writers, who, observing its superior extent the name of Kintcha-kiang, in a southerly direction, col and magnitude, say the Angara receives the Enesei, and lecting, in its way, the waters of many streams. On entering afterwards flows into the Arctic Sea. This river, the China, it is joined by the large river Yalong-kiang, and then Angara, rises on the south side of the Altai Mountains, or takes a circuitous course, nearly across the middle of the rather on the broad summits of that range, and, flowing in country, towards the west, receiving, as it rolls along, the a westerly direction till it finds a declivity, enters the pro- tribute of many rivers, and connecting itself with, or formvince of Irkoutsk, where it falls into the Lake Baikal, on ing, several lakes of considerable size. Its whole length is the south-east side. During this course, it receives the computed at 3290 miles; its average breadth is upwards of waters of two streams which issue from small lakes on the two miles; and its numerous tributary streams, in some south-west. From the north-west side of the Baikal Lake, instances, equal the Thames for magnitude. In its course out about fifty miles south of the confluence of the river through the central parts of China Proper, it waters several just described, flows out the Angara, which is considered cities; and, after passing Nankin, forms a kind of Delta, a continuation of the same stream; this takes a zig-zag and falls into the Yellow Sea, nearly one hundred and direction, receiving in its progress the waters of the adjoin- forty miles east of that city. ing high lands, and at length falls into the Enesei, above

THE GANGES. Eneseisk, where it loses its name. In the measurement of the Enesei, therefore, it must be remembered, that the length rivers of Asia, and the most sacred stream of the Hindoos,

The Ganges, one of the largest, though not the longest, of the Angara is included, and that from the place of its issues from an opening, called by the natives Gangoutri, or junction, the original river is neglected.

the Himalay chain, from whence it descends for a con The Obi presents a nearly similar instance of irregularity siderable distance among the mountains. This is the in the estimate of length, but in a contrary order. À | Bhagirathi, or most sacred branch of the Ganges; but small stream, called the Dschabekan, formed by the junc- the Dauli, being much longer, should be considered tion of the Sira and some other rivulets, which issue from the principal source. This river proceeds from the the Great Altai range, in Mongolia, passes, first by an immediate base of the highest part of the chain ; and from underground channel, and afterwards through an opening Hurdwar to Allahabad, where it receives the Jumna, its of the Lesser Altai Mountains, into the Altyn or Teletskoe width is from a mile to a mile and a quarter. After this Lake, from which, on the northern extremity, issues another junction, its course becomes more winding, and its bed river, called the Byia. These are considered as one and wider, from various rivers which flow into it so that its the same river, under different names. As it proceeds, it channel is sometimes three miles across, and frequently receives several other streams, and obtains the name of divided by islands. For about five hundred miles above its Obi, between Barnaul and Kholyvan. It then flows in a junction with the sea, its depth, when least, is about thirty serpentine direction towards the north and north-west, con- feet. Previously to entering the ocean, its breadth suddenly tinually increased by other rivers, till it meets the Irtisch, expands, and the current, from being rapid, becomes so which rivals it in magnitude ; but the Obi still preserves weak that it has not power to disperse the banks of mud and its name; though it is evident that the stream, from this sand at its mouth : hence a Delta is formed, which compoint, is a continuation of the Irtisch. After this junction, mences about two hundred miles in a direct line from the the river, which is now several miles in breadth, flows sea, or three hundred by the course of the stream ; and northward, with a curve towards the west, and forms the the western branch constitutes the Hooghly river, on the Sea of Obi, in the Arctic Ocean. Its whole length is esti- east bank of which stands Calcutta. Between the moun mated at 2180 miles, the greater part of which is navi- tains and the sea, the Ganges receives the waters of eleven gable. But this is not the river measured by geographers large rivers ; some of which are equal to the Rhine, and in their comparative scales of rivers : from its junction with none less than the Thames. Like other large rivers, in or the Irtisch, they abandon the Obi, and proceed with the near the torrid zone, the Ganges is subject to periodical former stream, which, at the point of union, is in a more floods, by which, in the latter end of July, all the lower direct line, though, above Tobolsk, it flows in nearly the parts of Bengal are overflowed for a hundred miles in width: samo direction as the Obi, at the distance of a few degrees the villages and trees only being seen above the water,

PRINCIPAL RIVERS OF AFRICA.
THE NILE.

reckoned seven of these outlets; but the only two of magi The Nile, as already stated, has two sovrces, at a great nitude remaining, are those of Rosetta and Damietta. distance from each other. The first of these is situated nearly in the centre of Abyssinia, and rises in a small

THE NIGER. spring near the market-place of Sacala. From this foun- The Niger is supposed, by Major Laing, to originate near tain issues a rivulet, which flows northward into the Lake the ninth parallel of north latitude, and about ten degrees of Dembea. From the opposite side of the lake issues a of west longitude, in a range of mountains called Lomah; river, supposed to be a continuation of the rivulet, which but Mr. Park considers its source to be in a spring near the flows at first in a southerly direction, but afterwards eleventh parallel of latitude, and fifth degree of longitude. sweeps to the north-west, under the name of Bahr el Azrek, It at first tlows towards the north, then, turning to the or Blue River, and was supposed by Bruce and others to be north-east, passes through Lake Dibbie, and reaches Timthe true Nile. On the other hand, at the distance of about burtoo. In this part, it is called by the natives Joliba. From seven hundred miles westward of the spring of Sacala, a Timbuctoo, under the name of Quôrra, it takes a south or river, called Bahr el Abiad, or White River, is formed by south-eastern course, passes Boussa, where Mr. Park, unthe confluence of several small streams, descending from the happily, lost his life, waters Funda, and, soon afterwards, Donga Mountains, and takes a north-easterly course, till according to Mr. Lander, divides into numerous streams, it meets the Bahr el Azrek. Their united waters constitute forming a Delta, of which the Benin river in the west, the Nile; and, notwithstanding Mr. Bruce's authority, a and the Rio del Rey in the east, are the boundaries; the preference is now given to the Abiad as the main stream. main stream issuing into the Gulf of Guinea, near Cape During its passage through Upper Egypt, the stream is con- Formosa. The course and termination of this River have fined between two ranges of mountains, with only a narrow long been subjects of specnlation : but the recent discoveries level space on each side ; but, in the lower part of the country, of the brothers Lander have thrown much new light on the the valley expands into the Delta, and the river divides into question, which, it is expected, will be greatly increased by several streams before it reaches the sea. The ancients the present expedition.

PRINCIPAL RIVERS OF AMERICA. In AMERICA, we meet with rivers exceeding in length any till then. The Uruguay is a noble river, and, though not that are known in the Old World ; but they mostly consist equal to either the Parana or Paraguay for length of course, of a series of streams, connected in succession with each which is about 1100 miles, surpasses both in the rapid acother, and ultimately finding their way to the sea by one cession of waters it receives, which makes it, near its con common channel.

fluence with the former, fully equal, if not superior, in THE ST. LAWRENCE.

breadth. From this, and other accumulations, the Plata The St. Lawrence is an instance of this kind : it was now forms anæstuary of fresh water, without parallel in the formerly considered as issuing from Lake Ontario ; from rest of the world for breadth and magnificence. The curwhich it runs a course of more than 600 miles, and empties rent flows into the sea in such quantities, and with such itself into the gulf called after itself. Bat it is now usual force, that its fresh water remains long unmixed with the to take into the account of its" length the Lakes Ontario briny waves of the ocean. At Buenos Ayres, which lies and Erie, with their connecting stream, and the river about 200 miles from its mouth, the river is about thirty Miame, which, rising near Fort St. Mary, in the state of miles broad; and at its mouth, between Capes St. Anthony Ohio, runs into the Erie, and is the reputed head of the St. and St. Maria, its breadth is not less than 170 miles. Lawrence. In this sense, the length is increased to up

The AMAZON, OR MARANON, wards of 1180 miles. The volume of water which it pours

The Amazon, or Maranon, was, till lately, esteemed the into the ocean is immense; for it is not less than ninety longest river, not only of America, but of the whole world miles wide at its mouth, and its channel, which is very recent discoveries, however, have transferred that honour deep, receives nearly all the rivers that have their to the Mississippi. It is, nevertheless, a magnificent river, sources in the extensive chain of mountains, called the and formed by the united waters of the Ucayale and the Land's Height, which separates the waters that fall into Tunguragua, aided by the Apurimac and its confluent Hudson's Bay from those that enter the Atlantic. Some streams. The Beni, or Paro, which rises among the moungeographers consider the lakes Huron, Michigan, and tains surrounding La Paz, in Upper Peru, and consists of Superior, with their connecting rivers, Détroit and St. the waters collected from various streams descending from Mary, as a continuation of the St. Lawrence, and thus the hills, is one of the head waters of the Ucayale, and the extend its length to upwards of 2000 miles.

origin of the Maranon. Among other accessories, it receives THE RIO DE LA PLATA.

the waters of the Tunguragua, which issues from a lake The Rio de la Plata, estimated by the vast body of in the Cordilleras of Lima, and by accessions from numerous water that it pours into the ocean, is one of the largest rivers, some of which are of considerable magnitude, be rivers in the world. It is a continuation of the Paraguay, comes a large river, known by the names of Maranon and which has its sources in numerous streams, rising among Orellana. After this it receives the Ucayale, besides other the Cordilleras of Brazil. Most of these streams are large rivers, which drain a considerable part of South themselves large rivers ; and the combined waters are often America ; so that at its entrance into the Atlantic it is 50 swollen by the periodical rains as to spread over the flat nearly 180 miles in breadth. The force with which this country to an extent of full three hundred miles; so that immense body of water is poured into the orean is manifested the canoes of the natives are navigated over the tops of the by its remaining unmixed with those of the sea, for a space of tallest trees. At Corrientes, after a splendid course of eighty leagues. Its banks are covered with forests, and its full 1300 miles, the Paraguay is joined by the Parana, a swellings from periodical rains frequently convert the ad great river, which, rising in Brazil, brings with it the jacent country into a fresh-water lake, several hundred contents of numerous streams which flow into it during a miles in extent. course of 1600 miles; so that at its junction with the Para

THE MISSISSIPPI. guay it is the larger of the two, and supersedes it as to The Mississippi is the common channel by which all the

At this point, according to some, both rivers rivers that have their rise in the immense valley between lose their name and, that of Rio de la Plata, or Plate the Rocky Mountains and the Alleghany chain, are carried River, is substituted, from the following occurrence: Se- to the ocean; and for the length of its course, added to the bastian Cabot, who first went up this river so far as quantity of water which it discharges, may be justly ranked the union of the Paraguay and Parana, entered the latter among the greatest rivers of the globe. The Mississippi channel, and, routing the natives, took from them a vast has its source in some lakes, among which the principal booty in gold and silver. Supposing, therefore, that these are the Red Cedar and Leech Lakes, and, following a very metals abounded in the neighbourhood, he gave the river winding channel, which receives continually fresh accessions its present name, which it retains, although experience has of water by the junction of numerous large rivers, falls into proved that it has no precious metals on its banks; the the Gulf of Mexico, by several outlets. Its length is about piate of which Cabot robbed the Indians having been 2400 miles; and in this sense it falls considerably short of brought from Peru. Notwithstanding this anecdote, most the Maranon : hence, in geographical works of some years writers continue the name of Parana to its junction with standing, the latter is spoken of as the longest river the Uruguay, and do not allow the Plata to commence in the world. But since the Missouri, which flows into it,

name.

and rivais it in breadth, has been explored, the length of instance of this kind with which the ancients were familiar, that river and its auxiliaries, the Yellowstone and Bighorn, was that of the Nile; and, being ignorant of the cause, are taken into the measurement, to the extent of 3700 miles; they looked upon it as a prodigy, for which they could not of which the Mississippi occupies only between 1300 and account. Subsequent discoveries have shown that a periodi1400; that is, from its junction, a little above the town of St. cal increase is common to many rivers, and that it is proLouis. The sources of the Missouri, the Yellowstone, and the duced by the rains and melted snows upon the mountains Bighorn, are within a few miles of each other, among the whence they derive their source. The inundations of the Rocky Mountains; and their united stream receives in its Nile, the most regular, if not the most extensive of any, are way several rivers, particularly the Platte and the Kansas. caused by the periodical rains, which descend on the mounAfter its junction with the latter, the Missouri becomes very tains in the interior of Africa, where it originates; the rains broad; and, pursuing its westerly direction, joins the commence in April ; the river begins to overflow in June; Mississippi, at the distance of 2400 miles from its source. is at its height in September; and returns within its banks It is subsequently enlarged by the Ohio, and the Rio Roxo, in October. The Ganges, the Indus, and the great rivers or Red River, both of considerable magnitude. After this, of Siam, in Asia; the Senegal, in Africa; the Oronoro, the Mississippi inclines to the south-east, and, dividing the Maranon, and Paraguay or La Plata, in South into several branches, makes its way to the Gulf of America, are all more or less subject to similar inundations; Mexico ; the main stream passing by New Orléans, and but at different times of the year, according to the promoting entering the Gulf 102 miles below that city. The Mississippi cause. Such as are swollen by rains, are usually highest in is subject to two rises in the year: one about January, winter, or immediately after the rainy season ; those which occasioned by periodical rains that fall towards the lower derive their increase from snow, which is in some places part of its course ; and the great flood, in summer, is pro- melted in spring, in others in summer, and in some duced by the melting of the ice in the upper part of the countries between both those seasons, have their inundations continent, where the Missouri and other tributary springs accordingly. The Tigris rises twice in the year: first, have their origin.

and most remarkably, in April, in consequence of the meltTHE ORONOCO.

ing of the snows in the mountains of Armenia ; secondly, The Oronoco is distinguished by its very singular and in November, through an accession from the periodical irregular course. It appears to be the outlet to most of rains. the rivers by which the territories of the present Republic of The most remarkable case of the rise and fall of a river Columbia are watered; the source of many of its waters is in Europe, is that of the Volga, which, in May and in the northern part of the great chain of the Cordilleras, June, is filled with water, and overflows its shelves and

and others arise from the high lands with which the eastern islands; though, at other times, it is so shallow as scarcely 'part of that country is covered. It enters the Atlantic by to afford navigation for loaded ships. many channels opposite to the island of Trinidad ; the most

EVANESCENT (or DISAPPEARING) RIVERS. southerly of these is the principal mouth, and full eighteen miles in width ; the navigation of all of them is extremely themselves, as it were, in the earth, either partially or

Some rivers suddenly disappear in their course; hiding dangerous. The course of the river, when it enters the sea, is so powerful, that it preserves the freshness of its waters altogether : in the former case, they re-appear at a distance for the distance of thirty-six miles from its mouth. The from the point of their immersion, as new rivers ; in the beauty and grandeur of its banks surpass all description. latter, they are lost entirely. Forests of the most superb verdure are crowded with mon

The Tigris, about twenty miles from its source, meets keys, and birds, of the most various and brilliant colours ;

with a mountainous ridge at Diglou; and, running under and sometimes immense plains form an horizon of sixty of it, flows out on the opposite side : after passing through ninety miles in extent.

the lake Erzen, it again disappears, and flows about It is subject to an annual inundation, which begins in eighteen miles underground, when it breaks out afresh. April, and ends in August, and sometimes extends for 600

In our own country, we have examples of this disappearing miles in length, and from sixty to ninety in width. Its and rising again of rivers, in the Mole, in Surrey, and the banks are but thinly inhabited, and its streams are much | Mole is lost soon after

it has passed by Box Hill, and re

small rivers Hamps and Manifold, in Derbyshire. The infested by the alligator, which grows there to an immense size.

appears a little before it reaches Leatherhead; the Hamps

has an underground passage of seven miles; and the TERMINATION OF Rivers.

Manifold, a similar course of five miles in extent. The sea is the general receiver of rivers ; but some are in- There are also some rivers of Normandy, which alternately tercepted in their course, and form lakes, which frequently lose themselves and re-appear: these are the Rille, the discharge their waters on the lowest side, or, in the form Ithon, the Aure, the Sap-André, and the Drôme. The first of cataracts, into the next valley, through which they three disappear gradually, and rise to sight again ; the continue their course to the ocean, or to some intervening Sap-André, after being drained of a considerable portion lake. In many cases, the superfluity of water is taken

of its water as it flows along, is suddenly lost; but off hy evaporation and absorption. When the basin of the afterwards re-appears : the Drôme, also, loses some of its lake is of sufficient capacity to allow a quantity of water

waters in its course, and ends by falling into a cavity, equal to what it receives to be taken away by absorption,

without being known to rise again. The Rille, the Ithon, or exhausted by evaporation, it becomes the final receptacle and the Aure, pass over a porous soil, composed of thick of the rivers which tow into it. Such is the case with the sand, not well compacted, which sinks suddenly down in rivers terminating in the Caspian and Aral lakes, or seas.

some places, and forms large holes: and when the water In some of the sandy plains of the torrid zone, the rivers

overflows the meadows, it frequently makes numerous divide off into different branches, which are gradually ex- cavities in them. hausted by the increased absorption and evaporation

The Drôme, after losing some of its water in its passage, caused by the heat of the climate.

vanishes near the pit of Soucy, where it meets with a PERIODICAL RIVEKS.

kind of subterraneous cavity, nearly twenty-five feet wide,

and more than fifteen deep, into which it enters, without Some rivers are much increased by frequent rains or

any perceptible motion, and never appears again. melted snows. In Peru and Chili, are small rivers which

In the vicinity of Paris, the river Jerre is lost in the same flow only during the day, because they are fed by the melt- | manner as the Rille. ing of the snow from the summit of the Andes, which takes place only while the sun shines upon them. In Hinroostan, and on both sides of the extreme parts of Africa, Our limits prevent us from completing this very inte users exist, which, though they flow both night and day, resting subject in one paper; we must therefore return to it, are, from the accession of snow-water, much greater by day in a future SUPPLEMENT, in which the Cataracts, Waterthan in the night. In these places, also, the rivers are falls, &c., to be described, will be illustrated by some beautinearly dry in the summer, but overflow their banks in the ful Engravings. rainy or winter season. INUNDATIONS OF RIVERS.

LONDON: All considerable rivers, and especially such as PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALY Parts, in the tropical climates, have their periodical overflowings,

PRICE SIXPENCE, BY which are, in some cases, to such an extent, that the ad- JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. jacent country is inundated many miles around. The only Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingilom

mise

THE

EDUCA

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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