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Ostrich, 99

Rein Deer, 141
Otter, 64

Religion, Bishop Jebb, 183
Owhylhee, 97

Leighton, 111

not seliish, Feltham, 34
Pain, on, Paley, 141

Religious belief, Sir Humphrey Davy,
Paley, on authority, 13!.; on grasses,

176; on happiness, 211; religious Religious man, South, 158

melancholy, 242; remark by, 119 Religious melancholy, Paley, 243
Paper, ancient marks in, 83

Remarkable facts, 96
Paper nautilus, 235

Remembrance, lines on, by Southey, 67
Paradoxical animals, 115

Remora, the, 237
Parish registers, 82

Rhinoceros, 224
Parke, Mungo, in the desert, 56 Rider not always wiser than his horse,
Pascal on the Christian Religion, 239 ; 172
remarks on, 26

Rivers, the principal, 202
Passions, Fuller, 83

Roberts, Departure of the Israelites, 33
Peak Cavern, 153

Rock samphire, 5
Penrhyn slate-quarry, 93

Roses, two, Flavel, 136
Pestilence at Athens, 117

Rose-tree, the, Burton, 40
Plague, the, at Eyam, Derbyshire, 129 Rules for employing time, 200
Planting, 140

Rushes, use of, 229
Pleasure of amusement and industry, Russian, lines from the, 149

Burton, 64
Plymouth breakwater, 167

Sadler, M. T. Esq., lines by, 223
Polar regions, 57

Sailor's funeral, 146
Popular calendar, 246

Salt, 151
Population of England and Wales, 6; Salt-mine, 94
and Scotland, 38

Sandwich Islands, Sunday at, 233
Post Office, General, account of, 210 Saturday evening, Bowring, 232
Practical Christianity, an anecdote, 141 Savoy Palace, 80
Prayer, remark on, by Henry III., 80 Scott on Death, 88
Jeremy Taylor's, 118

Scott, Sir Walter, on the Bible, 75
Lines on, 176

Scripture difficulties, Hales, 214
remarks on, by Taylor, 111, 215 Scripture, Sir W. Jones, 82
Pride, against, Jeremy Taylor, 187 Sea-Nettle, 243
Providence, dependence on, Cecil, 240 Secret of living always easy, 96
Psalms, book of, Hooker, 154

Selden's will, 214
Puma, 93

Seneca, remark by, 6
Puri Indians, 193

Shaftesbury on truth, 118
Pyramids of Egypt, 138

Sherlock, on intemperance, 218

Shooting swallows, cruelty of, 154
Quarles, on conscience, 48 ; on know. Sidney's, father's advice, 175
ledge, 61; lines by, 44

Sidney, Sir Philip, 148
Quicksilver mines, 36

Sin not weakened by age, South, 187

Sister's love, 70
Rainbow, lines on the, Campbell, 63 Skinner's Excursions, 87
Rain, lines on, 211

Sleeper, the, !19
Raleigh, remark by, 95

Snow, preservation of life under, 239
Reason, Warburton, 112

Social Worship, 179
Reilectious ou tuo study of Nature, 230

Solitude, lines on, by the Rev. W. True knowledge, 11

Jones, 3; answer to by G. H. True Story, 42
Glasse, 3

Trumpeter-bird, 77
South, extract from, 55

Truth, Shaftesbury, 118
South, Dr., on gratitude and ingrati. Tucker, on strong passions, 192

tude, 120; ingratitude, 213; in Turner, Bishop, Sunday at Sea, 46]
vestigation of truth, 171 ; religious Tyrol, summer's ramble in, extracte
man, 159; on sin, 187; remark
by, 188

Value, on, Parts I, and II., 186
Southey, extract from, 3; observations Vampire bat, 133

by, 71; lines by Remembrance, 67 Van Diemen's land, 35
Spanish robbers, 131

Vegetable fly-traps, 199
Spring, Bishop Hoadly, 173

Vegetable Titan, 91
Stage coaches in England, 96

Village church, 230
Steam coach, 133

Virtuous habits, 111
Steam engines in 1543, 30
St. Mary-le-Bow church, 140

Waes of war, Mc Neill, 51
Stonehenge, 185

Wager of battle, 68
Stork, white, 221

Wages, 222
St. Paul's cross and church, 234

Wall of China, 169
St. Pierre, anecdote by, 115

Walrus, 175
Success from small beginnings, 235 Warburton, on reason, 112; relia
Sucking-fish, 237

Sunday at Sea, Bishop Turner, 46; Water-bottles of the East, 44

hymn by G. Wither, 119; remarks Waterloo-bridge, musings on, 119
on Judge Hale, 146; thought, Waters of three rivers, 1979
Townsend, 212

Water Spider. 223
Swallows, lines on, by Hayley, 151 Watson, Bishop, on equality, Ill
Sweet Pea, 173

Weeds, lines on, 143
Swithin's, St., day, 14

What is Time? Rev. J. Marsden, a

Wheat and other grain, consumpti
Table of Shew-bread, 215

of, 38
Tailor-bird, 172

Whichcote, Dr., on opinions, 239
Taylor, Rev. Isaac, account of Quick. Which was the greater fool ? Bil
silver mine, 37

Hall, 23
against pride, 187

White's Selborne, extract, 56
Jeremy, on the decline of Who is alone ? 91
manners, 96; lines by,


Wickliffe's chair, 16
nightly prayer, 118; on prayer, 14 Widow to her child, 227
Temper, command of, 219

Wild Sports of the East, Captal
Thorp-le-soken church, 221

Munie, extract, 12
Tigers, 189

Williams, Archbishop, on conversion
Time's speed, Feltham, 72

Tobacco, 85

Wisdom, rcmark on, 7
To-morrow, Drexelius, 135

Woman in White. 166
Townsend, C. H., lines by, 70

Wotton, Sir II., lines by, 152
Travelling in Spain, Washington Ir Wryneck, the, 67

ving, 10
Trials of guilt, 55

Yew-trees, in church-yards, 74


Agami heron, 149
Air Brahmin, 28
Allspice, 132
Arches, 78, 79

Rocking stone, 32
Ross, village of, 164
Rock samphire, 5

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Salt mine, 152
Savoy palace, ruins of, 30
Sea nettle, 244
Seren ages, 225
Sidney, Sir Philip, 143
Slate quarry, 93
Source of the Rhone, 254
Steam coach, 133
St. Mary-le-bow church, 140
Stonehenge, 183
Stork, white, 221
St. Paul's cross and church, 233
Sucking fish, 237
Sweet pea, 173
Tailor-bird, nest of, 172
Tequedama cataract, 253
Tiger, tortoise-shell, 189

white, 189
Tobacco, 85
Torture in India, 245
'Trumpeter bird, 77
Vampire bat, 133
Vegetable fly-trap, 199

Bamborough Castle, 216
Baobab tree, 157; blossom, 156
Beaver, 181
Belshazzar's feast, 105
Bemerton church, 220
Black-backed gull, 41
Black-lead mine, 24
Boscobel cottage, 96
Cathedral, plan of a, 107
Chamois Hunters, 45
Chapel Oak of Allonville, 109
Chimpanzé, 172
China, Wall of, 169
Coaches of Queen Elizabeth, 72
Collins, William, monument of, 196
Comets, 145
Convolvulus, 76, 77
Cook, Captain, 160
Cotton-tree, 228
Craigmillar Castle, 190
Crosby Hall, 89
Cross in Eyam church-yard, 131
Crypt of Norman church, 108
Cutile-fish, 232
David, King, 20
Death's-head moth, 69
Devil's Bridge, 254
Diazoma mediterranea, 136
Druidical idol, 73
Duns Scotus, 97
Egyptian prieste, 197
Elephant and lion, 12

Oak, Great Salcey, 9

Nannau, 49
Ostrich, 100
Otter, 64

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Wager of battle, 68
Walrus, 176
Water bottles of the cast, 44
Water spider, 223
White Conduit, 149
Wicklife's chair, 16
Wilberforce fiulb, 57
Wryneck, 68

Lantern-sly, 245
Llama, 84


Page 3, for Sir Wm. Jones, read the Rer. Wm. Jones,
l'age 81 To our statement in the account of New

London Bridge, that its smallest arches exceed
the largest of any other stone bridge in the
world, the words “ of the same form," should
have been added. The new bridge recently
erected orer the Dee, at Chester, and one or two
more, exceed !he span of the largest arch of Lon:
don Bridge, but are of a different forin. To cor-
respondents who have questioned the accuracy
of some dates in this article, we have to reply,
that the date assigned in it to the opening of
Westminster Bridge is perfectly correct; that
given to the laying the first stone of the South-
wark Bridge is a typographical error, as the
context of the phrase will show,

Page 104. In the account of the Middlesex Luna.

tic Asylum, after the statement that it was
built under the direction of Mr. Sibley, add,
"principally from the plans of Mr. William
Alderson, whose designs, were selected from
fifty-three others, by the Cominittee of Magis-
trates, and rewarded with the first premium of

Page 117, for Bishop Horne, read altered by Bishop

Horne from George Herbert.
Page 169, col. 2, twelve lines from the bottom, for

famed, read favoured.
Page 170. The “ Cockfighter's Garland." We are

requested to state, on the authority of a
highly respectable gentleman now living, that
the circumstance on which Cowper founded

this poem, is not only exaggerated, but in severe
respects falsified. The cock was thrown up
the fire, but immediately flew off unhurt; ara
so far from Mr. Ardesoif dying in the wa
described, he lived for a considerable time after
wards, and frequently expressed to our inform
ant and others, his bitter regret for the crue
deed. The article was, as stated, copied into
the Saturday Magazine from the

Humanity, and the conductors of that work wit
no doubt gladly avail themselves of the oppor
tunity afforded by this coatraddiction of putin

the truth npon record.
Page 231. Last line of second column. for Bisho

Hall, rend Bishop Horne

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INTRODUCTION. It was a favourite saying with a crabbed old Greek, | past times, so common in the mouths of men who set that--a Great Book is a Great Evil. He said this up their own age as the only one deserving of any before the grand invention of printing, when the regard, and their particular selves as the only persons making and reading of books, if not a great evil, was worthy of being consulted in it. We are not of those certainly a great trouble. The only mode in which a who despise the wisdom of their forefathers; but we book could then be published, was by hiring persons shall also show that we are alive to all the improveto write out copy after copy, upon long rolls of parchments of modern times, and ready to take every ment, or the coarse sort of paper which they called advantage of them. “To every thing there is a season, papyrus: and those who wished to read them, had to says the Preacher, and a time to every purpose under unrol the volume till they came to the place which the heaven ; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up they wanted. No wonder then that in those days that which is planted. Time was to plant : and books were but few, and knowledge was scarce. there never was a people whose forefathers planted There were not many who could afford to buy books, more deeply and judiciously in Church and in Stateand fewer still, perhaps, who could read them. Even for Literature and for Arms—than ours have done. the mighty and the noble were ignorant and unlet It is now time to pluck up, not the stately tree of tered, and the mass of the people were sunk in dark- their wisdom—long may it flourish, the glory of all ness and superstition. Nor did it seem possible, till true Englishmen!—but the thousands of suckers and the discovery of printing letters by means of moveable saplings around it; not to destroy, but to transplant, metal types, to bring the learning of the learned, and to graft, to disperse and to multiply the virtues of the the wisdom of the wise, within reach and possession ancient stock. Many a skilful hand is already emof all classes of the community.

ployed in this good work. We come to help all those After this most important discovery, which we owe who may like our manner of helping. Our recomto John Gutenberg, of Mayence, the reading as well mendation is the name of that venerable Society from as the making of books became so much more pleasant, the bosom of which we proceed, and our little Magathat readers and authors increased to a degree unknown zine will go forth every Saturday morning, like a in former ages

A vast number of books, upon all skilful gardener, to plant in every corner of the land, subjects, were written by men of masterly genius and within sight of every man's door, and within reach profound learning. There was no branch of knowledge of every man's arm, a tree of true knowledge, which which they did not cultivate and adorn ; and their growing out of the fear of God, will, under God's works, full of immense learning and deep research, - blessing, we doubt not, bring forth in due season the upon the knowledge and practice of our holy religion, fruits of honour and of power to the nation, and of upon history and philosophy, upon medicine and plenty and peace and truth to all our loving countrychemistry, upon geography and astronomy; in short, men. upon every thing connected with the advancement An old Latin poet, a very fashionable man in his and refinement of mankind,—have come down to us day, said that the most popular book would be that for our improvement and instruction.

which mixed up the useful with the agreeable. We Now all these great books are very curious, many shall make such a mixture in this Magazine. By the of them very useful, and some of them invaluable; yet side of the truly useful we shall place that which they are very seldom opened by any man now-a-days, ought alone to be truly agreeable, and we will do except to be dusted, although their names are from our best to make one reflect light upon the other. time to time to be found presiding over a modern Whether the information which we convey to our readwork, to the spirit of which they may perhaps be ers be given in the form of an essay or a tale, we shall altogether opposed. This neglect is partly owing to keep in mind our great object of combining innocent the circumstance that these books can rarely be met amusement with sound instruction. We shall not with out of public libraries, where a man cannot sit relate ghost-stories, except to explain the delusions down comfortably to read them ; partly to their oc- from which impressions of the reality of such things casional perplexity of thought and uncouth manner have proceeded, and will often proceed ; we shall tell of speech ; and partly also to their size—to their no Newgate legends of murder and robbery, except being such very great books—which makes it a work sometimes to point out the horrible excesses and dismal of months, sometimes of years, to get quite through end to which a man may come, step by step, downsome of them. Nevertheless, they were not without wards, from the first dram he drank, the first oath he their effect on the world: many of the important swore, and the first Lord's day he profaned. But truths which they contain, have been preserved and then, on the other hand, we shall show forth some of illustrated in later writings, more portable in furm the wonderful things of Natural History; we shall and easy of digestion. And this improvement of recount the origin and progress of some of the greattheir labours we hope to extend to a greater degree est of human inventions, such as Navigation, Printing, than has ever yet been done.

the Telescope, Steam-Engines, and so on; we shall But this by the way—lest in offering to our readers remind our readers of remarkable events in the annals a very little book indeed, we should be taken to join of our own dear country, and of other great kingdoms in the abuse of the authors of sundry great books in on the continent; and we shall sometimes, as occasion Vol. I.




may serve, indulge ourselves with proving how take and fall; I thought it good and necessary, in sweetly the poets of England used to sing, and how the first place, to make a strong and sound head, or sweetly some of them yet live to sing. One way or bank, to rule and guide the course of the waters ; by another we hope to be popular in this Magazine, setting down this position, or firmament, namely, which comes out on the Saturday, when most men That all knowledge is to be limited by Religion, and to be have a pause from labor. We are not for interfering referred to use and action.” This is a very natural and with the family talk, or the friendly walk, much less striking similitude. Religion is the strong mound with the duties of the Sabbath, or the study of the and embankment, which confines the stream of huBible—and we trust every one of our readers has man knowledge within its proper channel, and guides

All these good things may be done and served, it along its intended course ; so as to fertilize and and yet there will be plenty of time for perusing beautify the country which it would otherwise inunthese few pages ; the reader shall never find in any date and lay waste. one of them a line which shall be contrary in its ten With this guard, or firmament, as Bacon terms it, dency to the improvement and the happiness of any we may admit, that knowledge is not only power, but member of his family.

also virtue and happiness; a help, that is to say, to Thus much to explain the character and object of virtue, and an instrument of happiness, as far as hapthis Magazine! We hope to give good proofs that piness is to be found in any of the pursuits or acquireour intentions are as honest as our means of perform- ments of our present imperfect state. Knowledge, ance are great, and we trust that after a fair trial our for instance, was a source of happiness to Newton and readers will not think our wood-cuts or our engrav to Locke, far more abundant than pleasure or ambiings the best part of our work. For the present we tion; and it was auxiliary to virtue, because it withsay Farewell !-and put an end to this somewhat drew their attention from objects of sensual enjoylengthy introduction.

ment. But then Newton and Locke were Christians, and referred their extraordinary powers of mind, as

well as the results of those powers, to the first ON THE RIGHT USE OF KNOWLEDGE.

Source of Light and Truth, under a deep sense of KNOWLEDGE is power. This saying, which has been their own insufficiency, and of the limits which are so strikingly illustrated by the history of the last fifty set to the researches of the human mind. Newton, years, will no doubt be exemplified, in a still more the most original and patient and sagacious of inremarkable manner, by the changes which the next quirers into natural and mathematical truth, spoke ten or twenty years will produce in the state of so of himself, with reference to the secrets of God's ciety. Whether these changes will be for good or nature and designs, as a child playing with pebbles evil, must obviously depend upon the kind of know on the sea-shore. ledge which will be diffused through the mass of the We have said, that in the case of these eminent community, and the direction which shall be given to philosophers, knowledge was not only power, but it, in its application to the great purposes of life, virtue and happiness, because they were Christians. If it be true that knowledge is power, this necessa With Voltaire, and Hume, and Gibbon, it was rily follows: for that power, whatever it is, may be power; but it was not happiness, nor virtue; because for good or evil, It is a giant's strength, which it is it was not sanctified nor directed by Christian belief uxcellent to have, if it be used for the ends of virtue and principle. For surely that is not happiness, nor and happiness; but which may be employed to the the source of happiness, which is no preservative purposes of a tyrannous malice.

against the most miserable ambition, the most restIt is impossible that the cultivation of our natural less uneasiness under the world's opinion, and the faculties, even to the utmost pitch of advancement, most disquieting views of futurity. Consider the folcan be in itself wrong: for it is plain, from the very lowing argument; it is of a very plain and practical constitution of our nature, that they are given us to kind. If our religion be true, no kind of knowledge be improved ; and their improvement, when it is can be really beneficial which causes us to neglect really improvement, may be made equally conducive the study of God's word, or to undervalue and disreto our comfort and happiness, as inhabitants of this gard his laws. On the other hand, there is no kind material world, and to our preparation for a spiritual of knowledge, deserving of the name, with which state of being. If we are to enter hereafter into such religion interferes, either in its acquisition or right a state, it is so plain that no reasoning can make it employment. On the contrary, religion tends to preplainer, that to prepare for it is the main business of serve the mind in that tranquil and contented state our existence here; and therefore, such a cultivation which is necessary to the successful pursuit of every or employment of our faculties as thwarts and im- branch of useful knowledge; it teaches us to set a pedes, instead of secunding and advancing the work right value upon it when acquired, and to employ it of preparation, does not deserve the name of improve to the benefit of mankind. Moreover, it has an obment. Whercas nothing can be more worthy of man, vious tendency to secure to us even the present and as a thinking and moral creature, destined to advance temporal rewards of knowledge : for who, that is through successive steps to a higher and purer order looking out for an able instructor for his children, a of being, than the diligent exercise and quickening of trusty steward for his estate, or a skilful workman to his mind, and the enlargement of his knowledge, be employed about his premises, would not rather with reference and in subordination to the chief pur- have a religious man, upon whose principles he could pose of his existence.

rely, than an unbeliever, a scoffer, and a drunkard ? We hold therefore, that knowledge is really valuable, so that religion, which cannot in any case impede when it is made directly or indirectly serviceable to the acquirement of knowledge, nor interfere with its the ends of virtue; when it is sanctified in its posses- right application, enhances the value of it to its sion, and guided in its application, by religious prin possessor, with respect both to the inward compla. ciple and feeling. “Seeing,” says Lord Bacon," that cency which it affords him, and the present recomknowledge is of the number of those things which pense to which it leads. are to be accepted of with caution and distinction, While laying up in the storehouse of his memory being now to open a fountain, such as it is not easy the materials of useful knowledge, which it will be to discern where the issues and streams thereof will our object to provide for him, let our reader bear ile



mind, that there is something to be known above and | labours are, yet a brief gleam will occasionally lighten beyond the scope of unassisted human inquiry-some- the darksome path of the humble inquirer, and give thing which transcends the highest flight of human him a momentary glimpse of hidden truths. Let not, intellect, and is of greater importance than its most then, the idle and the ignorant scoff at him who desublime discoveries ; and that is, the knowledge of votes an unemployed hourGod, of His attributes, His purposes, and His laws;

No calling left, no duty broke, a knowledge, for which man must be indebted to God to investigate a moss, a fungus, a beetle, or a shell, in himself, who has revealed it to him in His written

"ways of pleasantness and in paths of peace." They Word. To this source and treasury of truth let him continually recur, for the purpose of humbling intel- wise and worthy end, and may lead us by gentle steps

are al the formation of Supreme Intelligence, for a lectual pride by the view of his own sinfulness and and degrees to a faint notion of the powers of infinite weakness; and of withdrawing his mind from too wisdom. They have calmed and amused some of us fixed and exclusive a contemplation of secondary worms and reptiles, and possibly bettered us for our causes, to the First Great Cause of all things. him accustom himself to trace the Creator in His change to a new and more perfect order of being.

Journal of a Naturalist. creatures, to rise through Nature up to Nature's God, and to find, in the daily accumulating stores of know

TO SOLITUDE. ledge, not only the means of worldly advancement, nor merely a resource for his hours of leisure or retirement, but fresh materials of humility and thank

Thou world, tumultuous and rude, fulness. To a mind so disciplined, the pursuit of

Farewell; and welcome solitude ! information will be at once delightful and profitable;

Here straight the path to Heaven lies; and knowledge will be power, in the highest and no

Farewell, thou world of vanities!

Let nations and let princes rage, blest sense of the words,—the power of being and

Here lofty themes my thoughts engage; doing good.

The skies with hymns angelic ring;

With angels let me learn to sing ! ON THE STUDY OF NATURAL HISTORY.

Oh, here for ever may I dwell,

Far from the world's tumultuous swell, It is rather a subject of surprise that, in our general

Till Angels lift me to the skies, associations, and mixed societies, in times so highly

And bear my soul to Paradise. enlightened as the present, when many ancient pre

Oh, let me here, a hermit blest, judices are gradually Aitting away, as reason and

Enjoy a life of precious rest! science dawn on mankind, we should meet with so

ANSWER. few, comparatively speaking, who have any knowledge of, or take the least interest in, Natural His

Away with wishes fond and weak ! tory; or if the subject obtain a moment's considera

Why faint thy heart, and pale thy cheek ? tion, it has no abiding-place in the mind, being dis

Wilt thou the noble contest shun, missed as the fitting employ of children and inferior

Where virtue is by labour won ? capacities. But the natural historian is required to

Wilt thou, Christ's soldier, dare to please attend to something more than the vagaries of butter

Thyself, in idle, monkish ease! flies, and the spinnings of caterpillars. His study,

Is this a time to fold the hands considered apart from the various branches of science

And shut the eyes, when hostile bands which it embraces, is one of the most delightful occu

Rush to the fight: their banners wave,

And challenge, impiously brave, pations that can employ the attention of reasoning

With bitter taunts and haughty boasts, beings. And perhaps none of the amusements of

The armies of the Lord of Hosts ? human life are more satisfactory and dignified than

Through camps thy journey to the skies, the investigation and survey of the workings and ways

And not through groves and grottoes, lies. of Providence in this created world of wonders, filled

Lo! where thy Lord, his garments dyed

With blood, invites thee to his side! with his never-absent power. It occupies and elevates

Clothes thee with armour from above, the mind, is inexhaustible in supply, and, while it

And tells thee, with a look of love, furnishes meditation for the closet of the studious,

One short but desperate conflict o'er, gives to the reflections of the moralizing rambler, ad

The prize is bliss for evermore ! miration and delight, and is an engaging companion that will communicate an interest to every rural walk.

We need not live with the humble denizens of the I HAVE sat upon the shore, and waited for the graair, the tenants of the woods and hedges, or the dual approach of the sea, and save seen its dancing grasses of the field; but to pass them by in utter dis

waves and white surf, and admired that He who mearegard, is to neglect a large portion of rational plea- sured it with His hand had given to it such life and sure open to our view, which may edify and employ motion ; and I have lingered till its gentle waters many a passing hour, and, by easy steps, will often grew into mighty billows, and had well nigh swept me become the source whence flow contemplations of from my firmest footing. So have I seen a heedless the highest order. Young minds cannot, I should youth gazing with a too curious spirit upon the sweet conceive, be too strongly impressed with the simple motions and gentle approaches of an inviting pleasure, wonders of creation by which they are surrounded : till it has detained his eye and imprisoned his feet, in the race of life they may be passed by, the busi- and swelled upon his soul, and swept him to a swift ness of life may not admit attention to them, or the destruction.—Montagu's Dedication. unceasing cares of the world may smother early attainments; but they can never be injurious. They He whose heart is not excited upon the spot which will give a bias to a reasoning mind, and tend in some a martyr has sanctified by his sufferings, or at the after thoughtful, sobered hour, to comfort and to grave of one who has largely benefited mankind, must soothe. The little insights that we have obtained into be more inferior to the multitude in his moral, than Nature's works, are many of them the offspring of he can possibly be raised above them in his intellecscientific research ; and partial and uncertain as our tual nature.-SOUTHEY,

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View of the Temple of Jagganátha at Orissa. The celebrated temple of Jagganátha is situated in I was allowed an ample pension, and was continued the district of Cuttack, on the sea-coast of Orissa, a chief in authority over the temple of Jagganátha. province under the British Government of Bengal, Every Hindoo temple or place of pilgrimage has its in Lat. 19° 49' N., and Lon. 85° 54' E. The nominal marvellous legend or history, describing the circum. chiefship of the country in which the temple is situ- stances to which it owes its supposed holiness,—events ated, is in the Rajah of Khoorda, a small principa- generally dated in a former age of the world. The lity, the capital of which stands about 20 miles S. W. legend further pretends to contain an account of the of Cuttack. The aspect of the country on the sea- foundation of the first temple or shrine, the different coast is low, covered with wood, and totally flooded visits paid to it by their idol-gods and heroes, its disby the sea at spring-tides; and into this stoneless ex- covery and renewal in the present age, the marvels panse of swamp and forest the numerous rivers from which have resulted from its worship, and the benethe interior discharge their waters through many factions made to it by modern sovereigns. The last channels, as in the coasts of Bengal and Egypt. The part of the story is generally the only portion of these district has only three towns, deserving to be so lying legends which contains any real history. called, one of which, adjoining the temple, is called The legend of Jagganátha states that an ancient. Pooree, or “ The Town.”

king of Ootkala, the Hindoo name of Orissa, pressed Under the ancient Hindoo governments, the terri- down by the weight of his sins, addressed himself to tory of Cuttack appears to have been divided among Brahma, the idol-god whom he had chosen for his petty chiefs, having no regular head: one among peculiar divinity, for instruction as to what he could them was the Khoorda Rajah, the hereditary high- do that would obtain for him happiness in a future priest of Jagganátha and keeper of his wardrobe, who state of existence. Brahma, says the story, perprobably possessed considerable influence over the ceiving the sincerity of his sorrow and his piety, others.

directed him to make inquiry after a certain shrine The country was invaded at an early period by the built by his ancestors, which formerly stood by the Mahomedans, and was conquered by the Mahrattas side of a hill, and was made of massy gold, and was. in 1738, with whom it remained until conquered by the abode of Vishnu. It had been buried by the the English in 1803. Afterwards, on the expulsion sands thrown up by the sea. The worshipper was. of the Mahrattas, a settlement was made with the tri- further informed that, if he would restore the worship butary Rajahs, some of whom, however, though pro- of the temple, and renew the offerings which were forfessing submission, tendered no tribute; among these merly made there, he would ensure to himself a dwellwas the Khoorda Rajah, then a boy of 18, who laid ing of happiness after his death, and, by inducing this waste the adjoining country with fire and sword. A pretended god again to take up his abode on earth, British army was in consequence collected, which had would procure the same happiness to the human race. to conduct its operations in an almost impassable For more particular information of the spot where the country, and amidst difficulties aggravated by the temple stood, the king was referred to a tortoise, as old. sanctity of the Rajah's priestly character. At length as the world, which he would find near the hiil Nîla, the Rajah voluntarily surrendered his sacred person, Delighted with the wonderful intelligence, the king which was brought into camp, while the inhabitants set out to find his informant; and, on approaching a of the adjacent districts came forth and fell down be- lake under the hill, a prodigious tortoise approached fore him in humble adoration. On his surrender, he him, and asked him what he sought in that desert

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