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I first came to London, a female coming out of a In a former article we sought to correct à most mis- gin-shop ; but I have since repeatedly seen females taken opinion as to the unhealthiness of our climate with INFANts in their arms, to whom they appeared to by the most certain test—the length of life which have been giving some part of their liquor." . H. M. Englishmen enjoy beyond the inhabitants of other countries. We shall now proceed to show, from the ON THE FOOD OF THE ANCIENTS. . same good authority *, that the idle notion which too From what we read in the book of Genesis, it appears commonly prevails, of Englishmen being more disposed to suicide than foreigners, is equally unfounded. that the earliest food of man, was the production of With regard to the dreadful crime of self-murder, to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and

the earth ; for, out of the ground, made the Lord we may remark, that though there is unhappily much of evil and suffering in the world, too large a portion of good for food ;” and it is highly probable that before

The it is the consequence of our own vices ; and in cases

the Deluge, vegetable food was alone eaten. where suicide is the consequence of distress, and not his sons immediately after ; and in process of time,

first permission to eat flesh was given to Noah and of actual insanity, in how many instances has that distress been the fruit of idleness and extravagance? they learnt how to prepare it for eating, by various It is both sinful and foolish to impute so flagrant a

methods, as baking, boiling, &c., incidental notices of breach of God's laws to the climate, or the weather, which are scattered throughout the Sacred Volume. or to any similar cause, as it has been ascertained of food with the patriarchs and warriors of old ; and

Oxen, sheep, and swine, formed the chief articles that the English are, in fact, less disposed to commit suicide than the inhabitants of other countries, and in Isaiah xxv. an allusion is made to the ample prothat the month of November, which is proverbially vision at the ancient banquets. At periods when marked as the season for suicide in England, has, for particular honour was intended to be shown to a the last thirteen years, produced a less number than guest, the tenderest and best meat was slain. Thus,

when Abraham entertained the three angels," he ran the month of June.

We may take the population of London and West- and fetcht a calf tender and good, and he gave it to a minster at only 1,000,000 inhabitants, and as the sui- young man, and he hasted to dress it." And also, on cides annually committed in these cities are about the return of the prodigal but repentant son, the 100, they will be 10 in 100,000 persons ;

whereas at

kind-hearted and indulgent father ordered his serCopenhagen, of late years, the annual average has vants “to bring hither the fatted calf and kill it." been 100, in Berlin 34, and in Paris 49, annually, in illustrate the Inspired Writings. Accordingly, in

It is pleasing to find that the works of profane authors the same number of persons.

In the memorable year 1793, at Versailles, the Homer, the heroes whom he introduces, entertain fearful number of 1300 occurred. In 1806, the each other with exactly the same fare as is mentioned suicides in Rouen, in June and July alone, amounted in the bridal banquet, in Matthew xxii. 4. to 60. In the same year in Copenhagen there were

Garlick, leeks, onions, &c. appear to have been 300. Against these facts, we may state, that from considerable articles of food, as the Hebrews com1812 to 1824, the total number of suicides in the plained in the wilderness, that manna grew insipid; city of Westminster, properly called “ the centre of they longed for the leeks and onions of Egypt. dissipation for the whole empire,” was 290,; and that wholesome and nutritious, and has constituted the

Bread was, at a very early period, considered in nearly 152,000 persons insured at the Equitable Life Office in London, only 15 cases of suicide occurred principal part of human food in almost all countries. during 20 years.

The process of bread-making is frequently alluded to Before we close this article, let us observe that in the Scriptures. “And Abraham hastened into the imitation (a principle which, it is to be feared, is but tent unto Sarah, and said, Make ready quickly three too frequently the cause of other offences) seems to

measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes produce suicide ; and the long and laboured details upon the hearth.” From this passage, it would seem given in our newspapers, unhappily fix the attention bread. When the trade of a baker was introduced,

that the mistress of every family baked the supply of of unoccupied and ill-governed minds. After the trial is a subject on which the learned are divided. The of Madame Cornie, six cases occurred of persons fine meal of the ancients, we are to presume, was the seized with a desire to destroy their children. This four produced from wheat, but barley-bread was in fact should induce us neither to dwell ourselves upon such shocking statements, nor to put them into Lord and his Apostles had but five barley loaves and

common use, and John says, (vi. 9,) that our blessed hands where they are likely to do mischief.

Dr. Casper, who has collected many of the above two small fishes, on which to feed five thousand perfacts, attributes a large share of the increase in Ber- curdled milk), and many phrases expressive of the

The term cheese (implying, in the original, lin (where suicide prevails to an alarming extent) to methods of cooking, &c., are frequently met with. DRUNKENNESS. From 1812 to 18 a fourth of the whole number arose from this vice, and which may archs must noť be forgotten, and the Scriptures

The hospitality that characterized the ancient patribe attributed to the increase of liquor-shops in that city. The increase of drunkenness in England of be mentioned, that delightful picture of genuine pri

furnish many pleasing examples—among which may ate, amongst the working classes is, alas, too per- mitive manners recorded in Ĝenesis xviii., " and he septible. The following alarming fact was stated by the Bishop of London, in his evidence before the stood by them under the tree, and they did eat.” It House of Commons, on the observance of the Sabbath has been observed by a writer on Oriental manners, day. God grant that the same result as at Berlin of entertainment, hospitality was a virtue more pecu

that as there were, in the eastern countries, few houses may not be the consequence in London.

“ Between the time I first took the church of liarly seasonable and necessary there, than among us, Bishopsgate, and the time when I left it

, the increase especially as far as relates to the accommodation of of intemperance was most frightful. I never saw, when Job says, “ did not lodge in the street, but I opened

entire strangers on their travels. “The stranger,” * Elements of Medical Statistics, by Dr. F. Bisset my doors to the traveller." Hawkins, chap. xi.

Burder states, that the Hindoos extend the rights


of hospitality even to their enemies ; saying, “ The tree trary to their oath to observe the statutes of the does not withdraw its shade even from the wood college. It is also pleasing to remark in what mancutter."

ner both the president and the fellows conducted The following extract from Forbes's Oriental Memoirs their opposition. With the greatest firmness and shows that the inhabitants of the east still retain determination, there was, at the same time, an evimany of the patriarchal customs. Hospitality to dent reluctance to oppose themselves to the king's travellers prevails throughout Guzerat : a person authority :—there was a modesty of deportment and passing through the province, is presented, at the a decency of language, which showed that their reentrance of a village, with fruit, milk, butter, firewood, sistance sprung, not from passion nor from faction, and earthen pots for cookery: the women and chil- but from principle; and, as such, it should have dren offer him wreaths of flowers. Small bowers are been apparent to all good judges of human nature, constructed on convenient spots at a distance from a that it was more likely to be steady than if it had well or lake, where a person is maintained by the vented itself in violence. In the event, this aggresnearest villages, to take care of the water-jars, and sion of the king upon the privileges of the college supply all travellers gratis. There are particular vil was as unsuccessful as it was unwarrantable. It lages, where the inhabitants compel all travellers to excited a great dissatisfaction throughout the kingaccept of one day's provision ; whether they be many dom; and, coupled with other arbitrary acts, partior few, rich or poor, European or native, they must cularly the prosecution of the seven bishops for not refuse the proffered bounty."

refusing to read in their churches an illegal declaraDover.

H. I. tion, had a material effect in driving the ill-advised

monarch from his throne. Ar Calicut, in the East Indies, (whence the cotton-cloth called calico derives its name,) the price of labour is one

Hough was not only confirmed in his presidentship seventh of that in England; yet the market is supplied

of Magdalen College, but was appointed bishop of from British looms.BABBAGE.

Oxford, and afterwards, in succession, advanced to

the sees of Lichfield and Worcester. It is also said BISHOP HOUGH.

that he refused the archbishopric of Canterbury on Bishop Hough is one of those persons, who, how the death of Dr. Tenison. In his highest elevation, his ever loved and honoured in their own generation, mild and amiable virtues appeared happily combined might have been little known posterity, had not with the firmer qualities that first brought him into peculiar circumstances obliged him to act an import

distinction : and, eminent for almost every Christian ant and conspicuous part at a memorable period excellence, he was remarkable for none more than for of our history, and thus inseparably mixed his his boundless munificence. name with the great events of the day in which he He almost rebuilt, at his own cost, the episcopal lived. At the same time, the manner in which he residences at Eccleshall and Hartlebury; and one sustained his part, would show that the seeds of mag anecdote recorded of him is so pleasing, that it denanimity and patriotism exist in many an obscure serves to be given at length.—" He always kept a individual, and only require a favourable conjuncture thousand pounds in the house for unexpected occurof circumstances to call them into life and activity. rences, perhaps to pay his funeral expenses or lega

John Hough, the son of a citizen of London, was cies. One day, the collectors of one of the excellent born in 1651, and the first six-and-thirty years of his societies of this country came to him to apply for his life were passed in a state which gave little promise contribution. The bishop told his steward to give that his name would afterwards become illustrious in them Five Hundred Pounds. "The steward made history. But in the year 1687, James the Second was signs to his master, intimating that he did not know vigorously prosecuting his design to supplant the where to find so large a sum. He replied, You are Protestant faith in this kingdom; and, among other right, Harrison, I have not given enough : give the measures, was desirous of placing Roman Catholics gentlemen the Thousand Pounds; and you will find at the head of the several institutions of education it in such a place :—with which the old steward, throughout the country. He had succeeded in his though unwillingly, was forced to comply." Ile lived intention with respect to Christ Church and Univer- to his ninety-third year, in the continued possession sity Colleges in Oxford : and, when the presidentship of his faculties, reverenced and beloved by all for his of Magdalen, in the same university, became vacant, cheerfulness, his serenity of temper, his beneficence he sent to the fellows of the college a letter manda- to man, and his heartfelt and unaffected piety toward tory, requiring them to elect as their president An- | God. It has been said of him, “ His end was peace, tony Farmer, a Roman Catholic, who, besides being and he enjoyed tranquillity to the last. The casiness of a disreputable character, was not eligible according of his death seems to have been as much derived to their statutes. The fellows braved the king's re from the serenity of his mind, and his good consentment by rejecting his candidate, and, in his stead, science, as from his insensibly exhausted spirits; or elected the Rev. Mr. Hough, who is described as rather, from the concurrence of both: in scripture gentleman of liberality and firmness, who, by the language, he gently fell asleep." simplicity and purity of his moral character, by the

More brilliant characters than Bishop Hough may mildness of his disposition, and the happy tempera- easily be found ; but few appear more thoroughly to ment of his virtues, and many good qualities, had exemplify the workings of the true Christian spirit. given every reason to expect that he would be a dis He seems, too, by a singular felicity of manner, tinguished ornament to the college and to the whole though he had acted so prominent a part in public university.” It seems that the choice of the fellows affairs, to have lived without an enemy. Pope's could not have fallen on a fitter person.

lines are well known : The king, warmly resenting the refusal to obey his Such as on Hough's unsullied mitre shine, mandate, sent down commissioners to visit the col And beam, good Digby, from a soul like thine. lege, who expelled the refractory fellows, and forcibly He received, also, the panegyric of Lord Lyttelton possessed themselves of the president's lodgings. and of Hawkins Browne: and, in later days, Sir But Hough asserted his rights with intrepidity and Thomas Bernard has introduced Bishop Hough as dignity; and, of the twenty-eight fellows, only two the principal speaker in his excellent dialogue on the submitted to retain their fellowships by acting con comforts of old age; where he has made the good



Bas-Relief on the Monument of Bishop Hough, by Roubiliac. old prelate detail to Bishop Gibson and Lord Lyttel

CAROLINE. ton, the comforts that the aged may draw from the

I will be gay and courtly, recollection of a well-spent life, and from hopes full

And dance away the hours, of immortality; comforts, on which none were better

Music, and sport, and joy, shall dwell

Beneath my fáiry bowers; able than himself to speak from personal conviction

No heart shall ache with sadness and experience.

Within my laughing hall, There is a fine monument to Bishop Hough in

But the note of love and gladness Worcester Cathedral, by Roubiliac, of which we give

Re-echo to my call. an engraving.

MOTHER. Partly taken from the Life of BISHOP Hovou, by John Wilmot, Eso.

Oh, children! sad it makes my soul

To hear your playful strain ;

I cannot bear to chill your youth

With images of pain.
[From The Pearl-an American Annual for 1833. ]

Yet humbly take what God bestows,

And, like his own fair flowers,

Look up in sunshine with a smile,
I MEAN to be a soldier,

And gently bend in showers.
With uniform quite new;
I wish they'd let me have a drum,
And be a captain too;

The ideas, as well as children, of our youth, often die before
I would go amid the battle

us; and our minds represent to us those tombs to which With my broadsword in my hand,

we are approaching, where, though the brass and marble And hear the cannon rattle,

remain, yet the inscriptions are effaced by time, and the And the music all so grand.

imagery moulders away. The pictures drawn in our minds

are laid on in fading colours, and, if not sometimes re. MOTHER.

freshed, vanish and disappear.

My son ! my son ! what if that sword
Should strike a noble heart,

Incredulity is not wisdom, but the worst kind of folly
And bid some loving father

It is folly, because it causes ignorance and mistake, with From his little ones depart!

all the consequents of these ; and it is very bad, as being What comfort would your waving plumes accompanied with disingenuity, obstinacy, rudeness, un And brilliant dress bestow,

charitableness, and the like bad dispositions; from which When you thought upon his widow's tears, credulity itself, the other extreme sort of folly, is exempt. And her orphans' cry of woe!

I mean to be a president,

STRONG passions work wonders, when there is a greater
And rule each rising state

strength of reason to curb them.-TUCKER.
And hold my levees once a week
For all the gay and great.

Growth in grace manifests itself by a simplicity—that is,
I'll be a king, except a crown,

a greater naturalness of character. There will be more For that they won't allow;

usefulness and less noise ; more tenderness of conscience, And I'll find out what the tariff is,

and less scrupulosity; there will be more peace, more That puzzles me so now.

humility : when the full corn is in the ear, it bends down MOTHER.

because it is full. -CECIL.
My son! my son! the cares of state
Are thorns upon the breast,

There is no saying shocks me so much, as that which I
That ever pierce the good man's heart,

hear very often, that a man does not know how to pass his And rob him of his rest;

time. It would have been but ill spoken by Methusalem, The great and gay to him appear

in the nine hundred and sixty-ninth year of his life.

As trifling as the dust,
For he knows how little they are worth-
How faithless is their trust.


I mean to be a cottage girl,

And sit behind a rill,

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.
And morn and eve my pitcher there

Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terns
With purest water fill ;

by ORR, Paternoster-row'; BERGER, Holywell-street; DOUGLAS,

Portman-street, Loudon ;
And I'll train a lovely woodbine

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places:---
Around my cottage door,

Aberdeen, Brown & Co. Durham, Andrews. Northampton, Birdsall.
And welcome to my winter hearth

Bath, George.

Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Norwich, Muskett. The wandering and the poor.

Birmingham, Langbridge. Exeter, Penny & Co. Nottingham, Wright

Bristol, Westley & Co. Glasgow, Griffin & Co. O.xford, Slatter

Bury, Lankester. Gloucester, Jew.

Cambridge, Stevenson. Hereford, Child. Plymouth, Nettleton. Louisa, dear, a humble mind

Carlisle, Thurnam.

Salisbury, Broclie & Co. 'Tis beautiful to see;

Chelmsford, Guy. Ipswich, Deck.

Sheffield, Ridge.

Cheltenham, Lovesy. Lancashire and Cheshire, Shrewsbury, Eddowes, And you shall never hear a word

Chester, Seacome; Hard Bancks & Co., Man Staffordshire Petteries, To check that mind from me ;

Chichester, Glover. [ing.

Watts, Lane End. But ah! remember, pride may dwell

Colchester, Swinborne & Leeds, Robinson.

Leicester, Combe. IV hitby, Rodgers. Beneath the woodbine shade;

Derby, Wilkins & Son. Liverpool, Hughes. Worcester, Deighton. And discontent, a sullen guest,

Devunport, Byers. Macclesfield, Swinnerton. Yarmouth, Alexander,

Dublin, Curry Jun. & Co. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fin. York, Bellerty. The cottage heart invade.

Dundee, Shaw.

lay & Co.; Empson.


Paris, Bennis.

Hull, Wilson.


Sunderland, Marwooch


No 25.


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24TH, 1832.

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which, as well as all their effects, they at our desire The level woody country to the north of the river bartered for trifles. We informed them of our intenParaiba, in Brazil, is inhabited by a tribe of Indians, tion of visiting them in the woods, early the next known by the name of Puris. The following ac morning, if they would receive us well. count of their mode of life in their native forests is “We had scarcely left the house the next day, when abridged from the Travels of Prince Maximilian, who the Indians were perceived coming out of the woods. visited Brazil about the year 1818.

We proceeded in their company back into the forest, Having sent a messenger into the woods to announce and as we advanced, we found the whole horde lying on his intention of visiting them, the Prince says, “ Five the grass. The group of naked brown figures presented men and three or four women, with their children, a most singular spectacle: men, women, and children, accepted the invitation to meet us. They were all were huddled together, and contemplated us with short,--not above five feet five inches high ; most of curious, but timid looks. They had all adorned themthem, the women as well as the men, were broad and selves as much as possible; a few of the men, by way strong-limbed ; they were all quite naked, except a of ornament, had the skins of monkeys fastened few, who wore handkerchiefs round their waists, or round their brows. Some of the women carried their short breeches, which they had obtained from the children by the help of bandages made of bark, Portuguese. Some had their heads entirely shorn ; which were fastened over the right shoulder, while others had their thick, coal-black hair, cut over the others bore theirs on their backs, with the assisteyes, and hanging down in matted locks behind. ance of a band that crossed the forehead; in this

In general, they have but little beard, which latter manner they generally carry their baskets of forms only a thin circle round the mouth, and hangs provision when they travel. A number of the men down about three inches below the chin. Round the and girls were much painted-they had red spots on neck, or across the breast and one shoulder, they the forehead and cheeks, and some had red stripes had rows of hard black berries strung together, in on the face; others black stripes lengthwise, and the middle of which, in front, was a number of the strokes running across, with dots between, on the eye-teeth of monkeys, ounces, cats, and other wild body. Many of the little children were marked all animals. They had other ornaments, which seemed over with spots like leopards. This painting seemed to have been formed of the thorns of some shrub. to be arbitrary and regulated by the taste of the inThe men carried in their hands long bows and arrows.dividual. The females, in general, fasten a bandage VOL. I.


of bass or cord tightly rouna the wrists and ancles, in reverence. Their skill was considered as something order, as they say, to make those parts small and divine, their persons were deemed sacred, their atelegant.

tendance was solicited by kings, and they were every “The bow of the Puris measures six feet and a half, where loaded with honours and rewards ; in short, and even more ; it is smooth, and made of the hard poets and their art were held among them in that tough dark-brown wood of a kind of palm. Their rude admiration which is ever shown by an ignorant arrows are six feet long, and made of a firm knotty people to such as excel them in intellectual accomreed, feathered at the lower end, with beautiful blue plishments. or red feathers, or with those of the peacock pheasant. When the Saxons were converted to Christianity,

“When our curiosity was satisfied, we requested the in proportion as letters prevailed among them, this savages to conduct us to their huts; the whole troop rude admiration began to abate, and poetry was went forward, and we followed on horseback. The no longer a peculiar profession. The poet and road led into a valley, and, at length, by a narrow the minstrel became two persons. Poetry was cultipath we reached the thickest part of the forest, and vated by men of letters indiscriminately, and many came suddenly on some huts belonging to these of the most popular rhymes were composed in people ; they are certainly some of the most simple the leisure and retirement of monasteries ; but the in the world. The sleeping-net, which is made of Minstrels continued a distinct order of men, and got bass, is suspended between two trunks of trees; to their livelihood by singing verses to the harp at the which, higher up, a pole is fastened across by means houses of the great. There they were still hospitably of a rope of a large kind of bind-weed, against which and respectfully received, and retained many honours large palm-leaves are placed in a slanting direction shown to their predecessors, the Bards and Scalds; on the windward side, and these are lined below with and, indeed, though some only recited the composithe leaves of the banana, &c. Near a small fire, on tions of others, many still composed songs themselves, the ground, lie a few gourd-shells, a little wax, various and all of them could probably invent a few stanzas

, on

arrow-heads, some feathers, and provisions, such

as In the early ages, as is hinted above, this profession

bananas and other fruit. The bows and arrows stood was held in great reverence among the Saxon tribes, against a tree.

as well as among their Danish brethren. This ap" Fire is a prime necessary of life with all the Bra-pears from two remarkable facts in history, which zilian tribes, and they keep it burning during the show that the same arts of music and song were whole of the night, since owing to their want of equally admired among both nations. clothing they suffer severely from the cold, and it When our British king, the great Alfred, was deis also attended with the important advantage of sirous to learn the true situation of the Danish army, scaring off wild beasts.

which had invaded his realm, he assumed the dress “They are said to devour human flesh out of re- and character of a Minstrel ; and, taking his harp, venge, but as for their eating their own deceased and only one attendant, he went with the utmost relations as a token of affection, according to the security into the Danish camp. Though known to report of some early writers, no trace of such a be a Saxon, the character of a Minstrel procured him custom exists at present. They offered for sale large an hospitable reception: he was admitted to entertain balls of wax, which they collect when gathering wild the king at table, and stayed in the midst of the honey, and use in preparing their bows and arrows, enemy's camp long enough to plan that assault which and also in the manufacture of candles, which burn afterwards destroyed them. This was in the year 878. extremely well, and are made by wrapping a piece of About sixty years after, a Danish king made use cotton round a thin stick of wax, and then rolling of the same disguise to explore the camp of our king, the whole together. They set a high value on a Athelstan. With his harp in his hand, and dressed knife, which they fasten to a string round the neck, like a Minstrel, Anlaff, king of the Danes, went and allow to hang down upon the back; it frequently among the Saxon tents; and taking his stand near consists of only a piece of iron, which they whet on the king's pavilion, he began to play, and was immestones, and keep very sharp. If you give them a diately admitted. There he entertained Athelstan knife, they generally break off the handle, and make and his lords with his singing and his music; and another according to their own taste, putting the was at length dismissed with an honourable reward, blade between two pieces of wood, which they bind though from his songs he must have been known to together with a string.

be a Dane. Athelstan was saved from the conse“Some writers are disposed to deny to these Ame- quence of this stratagem by a soldier, who had can tribes all religious ideas, but among all that I observed Anlaff burying the money which had been visited I found evident proofs of the prevalence of given him, from some scruple of honour, or motive some religious belief. The savages of Brazil believe of superstition. in various powerful beings, the mightiest of whom Even so late as the reign of Edward the Second, they recognize in the thunder, by the name of Tupa or the Minstrels were easily admitted into the king's Tupan. Most of the Indians of South America have presence, as appears from a passage in Stow, which also a confused idea of a general Deluge."

also shows the splendour of their appearance.

the year 1316, Edward the Second solemnized his THE ANCIENT ENGLISH MINSTRELS,

Feast of Pentecost at Westminster, in the Great Hall: THE Minstrels seem to have been the genuine suc- where sitting royally at the table with his peers about cessors of the ancient Bards, who united the arts of him, there entered a woman adorned as Minstrel, poetry and music, and sung to tunes upon the harp, sitting on a great horse, trapped as Minstrels then verses and poems of their own composing. It is well used, who rode round about the tables, showing pasknown what respect was shown to these Bards by the time; and at length came up to the king's table, and Britons: and no less was paid to the northern Scalds, laid before him a letter, and forthwith turning her as they called their Bards, by most of the nations of horse, saluted every one, and departed.” The subject the Gothic race. Our Saxon ancestors, as well as of this letter was a remonstrance to the king on the their brethren, the ancient Danes, had been accus- favours heaped by him on his minions, to the neglect tomed to hold men of their profession in the highest of his knights and faithful servants,

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