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PRICE ONE PENNY.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
This mysterious monument of antiquity, or as it has with a third laid over them as an impost. The been called the “Glory of Wiltshire," and the placing of the imposts is also varied, for they are not “Wonder of the West," is situated on Salisbury Plain, continued all round, as in the outward circle, but are about two miles directly west of Amesbury, and divided into pairs, thereby giving a greater lightness seven north of Salisbury.
to the work and breaking its uniformity ; neither are It is the general opinion of historians, that it was they, like those of the outer circle, parallel at top : an ancient temple of the Druids, the pagan priests of but they rise gradually in height from east to west.' Britain, or at any rate, that it was employed by them On examining the stones that have fallen down, we for the celebration of some of their mysteries.
perceive in those that formed the imposts, or crossSir Richard Colt Hoare, who holds this opinion, in pieces, deep cavities, or mortises ; and on the top of describing it, says, “This temple consists of two the upright blocks are corresponding projections, circles and two ovals : the two latter constituting the acting as tenons, and giving great solidity to the cell or sanctum. The outward circle, about 300 feet in work. The largest stones in the outer oval measure circumference, is composed of huge upright stones, 22 feet in length. bearing others over them, which form a kind of The whole mass of stone-work was surrounded by architrave. Though they evidently show the mark of a deep ditch, on the outside of which was an emtools, they are still irregular in their forms and sizes. bankment. From that part of the ruins where it is The height of the stones on each side of the entrance supposed the entrance was originally placed, a raised is a little more than 13 feet, and the breadth of one pathway is still to be seen, which, after running 7 feet, and of the other 6 feet 4 inches ; the impostover towards the north-east, the distance of 594 yards, them is about 2 feet 8 inches deep. The space between branches off to the south and north. the stones in this outer circle varies ; that between The plain in the neighbourhood of these ruins the entrance-stones is 5 feet, and rather wider than in possesses a very singular character, being covered the rest : this circle consisted originally of thirty with numerous barrows, that is, mounds of earth, stones, of which seventeen still remain standing. At which, on being opened, appear to have been places the distance of 8 feet 3 Inches from the inside of this of burial, from their containing bones of human outer circle, we find another, composed of smaller beings, and such relics as were usually buried in old stones, rude and irregular in their shapes.
times with the deceased. “We come now to the grandest part of our temple, Within a short distance, also, are two long level the cell, or sanctum : in forming which, the general pieces of ground, surrounded by a ditch and a bank, plan has been varied; for this inner temple represents with a long mound of earth crossing one end, bearing two-thirds of a large oval, within which is the same a great resemblance to the ancient Roman courses portion of a smaller oval. The large oval is formed for horse-racing. by five pair of trilithons, or two large upright stones, It may be worth while mentioning here, the opinion VOL. I.
of two authors who suppose it to have been built for
OF VALUE. a very different purpose; one assuming it to have been a temple dedicated to Apollo, and the other a heathen burial place.
Gold and Silver are the most convenient metals to Mr. Davies, who falls in with the first of these use as money, because they take up but ļittle roona ideas, supports his notion, by quoting a passage in in proportion to their value. Hence they are called the Greek historian, Diodorus Siculus, describing a the precious metals. round temple dedicated to Apollo, which Mr. Davies But why should Gold and Silver be of so much concludes to have been most likely our monument more value than Iron? For they are not nearly so of Stonehenge. The substance of the Grecian author useful. We should be very ill off without knives, is, “ among the writers of antiquity, Hecatæus, and and scissors, and spades, and hatchets ; and these some others, relate, that there is an island in the could not be made so well from any thing as from ocean, opposite to Celtic Gaul, and not inferior in iron : and silver or gold would make very bad tools size to Sicily ; lying towards the north, and inhabited indeed. by Hyperborei, who are so called because they live To understand this, you must remember that it is more remote from the north wind. The soil is ex not the most useful things that are of the most value. cellent and fertile ; and the harvest is made twice Nothing is more useful than air and water, without in the same year.
Tradition says, that Latona was which we could not live. Yet these are, in most born here, and therefore, Apollo is worshipped before places, of no value, in the proper sense of that word; any other deity; to him is also dedicated a remark- that is, no one will give any thing in exchange for able temple, of a round form,” &c.
them, because he can have them without. The Reverend James Ingram, in his “Inaugural In some places, indeed, water is scarce; and then Lecture on the utility of Saxon Literature," considers people are glad to buy it. You may read in Scripit to have been destined as a heathen burial-place, ture of many quarrels that arose about wells of and the oblong spaces adjoining, as the course on water ; because, in some of the Eastern countries, which the goods of the deceased were run for at the water is so scarce that a well is a very important time of the burial ; and this opinion, he thinks, is possession. But water is not more useful in those strengthened, from the circumstance of the vast places where people are glad to buy it, than it is number of barrows which abound in this part of the here, where, by the bounty of Providence, it is plain.
plentiful. It is the scarcity that gives it value : and In the year 1797, three of the stones which formed where iron is scarce, it is of great value. part of the oval in the centre, fell to the earth ; and Some islands which our ships have visited produce this appears to have been the only instance on record no iron; and the people there are glad to get a few of any alteration having taken place in these remains nails in exchange for a hog. But, in most countries, of antiquity.
iron, which is the most useful of all metals, is also, For whatever purpose it was erected, or whoever through the goodness of Providence, the most plentimay have been the architects, the immense labour ful. But still it is of some value ; because it must necessarily employed in bringing together the materials, be dug from the mines, and smelted in furnaces, and and the amazing mechanical power that must have wrought into tools, before we can make use of it. been used to raise the stones, some of which weigh If knives and nails were produced by nature readyupwards of 70 tons, to their proper situations, show, made, and could be picked up every where like that it could have been only constructed for some pebbles, they would be of no value, because every great national purpose, connected either with religion one might get them for nothing. But they would be or the government of the state.
just as useful as they are now. The author whose description we have quoted Scarcity alone, however, would not make a thing concludes his remarks in this manner :
valuable, if there were no reason why any one should “Such, indeed, is the general fascination imposed desire to possess it. There are some kinds of stones on all those who view Stonehenge, that no one can which are scarce, but of no value, because they have quit its precincts without feeling strong sensations of neither use nor beauty. You would not give any surprise and admiration.
The ignorant rustic will, thing in exchange for such a stone, not because you with a vacant stare, attribute it to some imaginary can easily get it, but because you have no wish for it. race of giants; and the antiquary, equally uninformed But a stone which is scarce and very beautiful, may as to its origin, will regret that its history is veiled in be of great value, though it is of no use but to make perpetual obscurity; the artist, on viewing these an ornament for the person. Such are diamonds, enormous masses, will wonder that art could thus and rubies, and many others. Many people will rival nature in magnificence and picturesque effect. work hard to earn money enough to buy, not only Even the most indifferent passenger over the plain food and necessary clothing, but also lace, and jewels, must be attracted by the solitary and magnificent and other articles of finery. appearance of these ruins; and all with one accord And they desire these things the more, because, will exclaim, “ How grand! How wonderful! How besides being beautiful to the eye, they are reckoned incomprehensible!”
a sign of wealth in the person who wears them. A
bunch of wild flowers will often be a prettier ornaAddison died at Kensington, in the house at present likes better to wear these last, to show that she can
ment than a fine riband, or a jewel ; but a woman inhabited by Lord Holland. Lord Warwick, a connexion of Addison's by marriage, was a young man of very
afford the cost of them; whereas the wild flowers irregular life, and perhaps of loose opinions. Addison, may be had for picking. for whom he did not want respect, had very diligently There is no harm in people's desiring to be well endeavoured to reclaim him; but his arguments and ex dressed according to their station in life ; but it is a postulations had no effect. One experiment, however, pity that so many should be fond of expensive finery remained to be tried ; when he found his life near its end, above their station, which often brings them to he directed the young lord to be called ; and when he desired, with great tenderness, to hear his last injunctions, poverty. And often they spend money on ornaments told him, “I have sent for you that you may see how a
which would be better laid out in buying good usefu Christian can die.". -Lives of the Poets.
clothes and furniture, and in keeping them clean. A
mixture of finery with rägs and dirt is a most dis- cost that causes it to sell for a high price; but on the gusting sight.
contrary, it is its selling for a high price that causes You understand now, I hope, that whatever is of men to labour in procuring it. For instance, fishervalue must not only be desirable for its use, or beauty, men go out to sea, and toil hard in the wet and cold or some pleasure it affords, but also scarce; that is, to catch fish, because they can get a good price for so limited in supply, that it is not to be had for them; but if a fisherman should work hard all night, nothing. And of things which are desirable, those and catch but one small fish, while another had perare the most valuable which are the most limited in haps caught a thousand, by falling in with a shoal, supply; that is, the hardest to be got.
the first would not be able to sell his one fish for the This is the reason why silver and gold are of more same price as the other man's thousand, though it value than iron. If they had been of no use or would have cost him the same labour.
It has now beauty at all, no one would have ever desired them; and then happened that a salmon has leaped into a but being desirable, they are of greater value than boat by chance ; but though this has cost no labour, iron, because they are so much scarcer and harder it is not for that reason the less valuable. And if á to be got. They are found in but few places, and in man, in eating an oyster, should chance to meet with small quantities. Gold, in particular, is obtained a fine pearl, it would not sell for less than if he had chiefly in the form of dust, by laborious washing of been diving for it all day. the sand of certain streams. It costs only as much It is not, therefore, labour that makes things valu. in labour and other expenses to obtain about fifteen able, but their being valuable that makes them worth. pounds of silver, as to obtain one pound of gold; | labouring for. And God, having judged in his wisand this is the cause that one pound of gold will dom that it is not good for man to be idle, has so exchange for about fifteen pounds of silver.
appointed things by his Providence, that few of the But besides being desirable and being scarce, there things that are most desirable can be obtained withis one point more required, for a thing to have value; out labour. It is ordained for man to eat bread in or in other words, to be such, that something else the sweat of his face ; and almost all the necessaries, may be had in exchange for it. It must be some- comforts, and luxuries of life, are obtained by labour. thing that you can part with to another person. For
[Our next article of this series will émbrace the subject instance, health is very desirable, and is what every
of “Wages."] one cannot obtain ; and hence, we sometimes do
ARGUMENTS AGAINST PRIDE. speak of health as being of value; but this is not the strict use of the word value. For no one can
REMEMBER what thou wert before thy birth! Nothing. give his health to another in exchange for something in all thy life ?-A great sinner. What in all thy excel
What wert thou for many years after ? – Weakness. What else. Many a rich man would be glad to give a
lencies ?-A mere debtor to God, to thy parents, to the thousand pounds, or perhaps ten thousand pounds, in earth, to all the creatures. But we may, if we please, use exchange for the healthy constitution and strong the method of the Platonists, who reduce all the causes limbs of a poor labourer; and perhaps, the labourer and arguments for humility, which we can take from ourwould be glad to make such a bargain : but though selves, to these seven
heads. !. The spirit of man is light he might cut off his limbs, he could not make them
and troublesome. 2. His body is brutish and sickly. 3. He
is constant in his folly and error, and inconsistent in his another man's; he may throw away his health, as
manners and good purposes. 4. His labours are vain, inmany do, by intemperance; but he cannot transfer tricate, and endless. 5. His fortune is changeable, but it; that is, part with it to another person.
seldom pleasing, never perfect. 6. His wisdom comes not till he be ready to die, that is, till he be past using it.
7. His death is certain, always ready at the door, but never On these elementary points such questions as the far off. Upon these or the like meditations, if we dwell, or following may be usefully put to themselves by those frequently retire to them, we shall see nothing more reato whom the subject is new:
sonable than to be humble, and nothing more foolish than 1. Why is air not an article of value ?-Because, to be proud. -JEREMY TAYLOR. though it be very useful, it is to be had for nothing.
SIN NOT WEAKENED BY OLD AGE.-I know scarce ony 2. Why is some scarce kind of stone, that is of no
thing that calls for a more serious consideration from men use or beauty, not an article of value ?—Because, than this : for still they are apt to persuade themselves though it be not a thing that every one can get, no that old age shall do that for them, which in their present one desires to get it.
fulness of strength and youth, they have not the reason, nor
Whereas the case is 3. Why is a healthy constitution not an article of the heart to do for themselves. value ?-Because, though it be very desirable, and is directly the reverse; for nothing will grow weak with age,
but that which will at length die with age; which sin not what every one can get, it is not transferable- never does. The longer the blot continues, the deeper it that is, cannot be transferred, or parted with by one sinks. Vice, in retreating from the practice of men, retires person to another.
into their fancy-South. 4. Why is a spade an article of value ? — Because
THE COTTAGER'S SABBATH. it is, Ist, desirable, as being of use; 2ndly, limited in supply, that is, it is not what every one can have for
Ah! why should the thought of a world that is flying, nothing; and 3rdly, transferable, that is, one person
Encumber the pleasure of seasons like these ?
Or, why should the Sabbath be sullied with sighing, can part with it to another.
While Faith the bright things of Eternity sees ! 5. Why is a silver spoon of more value than a
Now let us repose from our care and our sorrow, spade ?-Because, though it be not more useful, it is Let all that is anxious and sad pass away; more limited in supply, or harder to be got, on ac- The rough cares of life lay aside till to-morrow, count of the difficulty of working the mines of silver. But let us be tranquil and happy to-day
When any thing that is desirable is to be had by Let us say to the world, should it tempt us to wander, labour, and is not to be had without labour, of course As Abraham said to his men on the plain ; we find men labouring to obtain it; and things that
There's the mountain of prayer, I am going up yonder,
And tarry you here, till I seek you again. are of very great value will usually be found to have cost very great labour. This has led some persons to
To-day on that mount we would seek for thy blessing,
O Spirit of Holiness, meet with us there. suppose that it is the labour which has been bestowed
Our hearts then will feel, thine high influence possessing on any thing that gives it value ; but this is quite a
The sweetness of praise and the fervour of prayer. mistake. It is not the labour which anv thing has | Homerton.
i proposed to him a journey to London." The earl accordingly provided a litter and two horses for him ; and, with some difficulty, in consequence of the crowds of people who pressed to see the old man, got him safe to London, where he was well entertained at his lordship's cost.
The following amusing anecdote is told of him.His three leases of 21 years each, making 63 years, being expired, he took his last lease of his landlord, Mr. John Porter, for his life, with which lease he lived more than fifty years. But he wished, for his wife's sake, to renew his lease for years, which his landlord would not consent to ; upon which Old Parr, who had been long blind, and was sitting in his chair by the fire, being told by his wife that young Mr. Porter, the landlord's son, was coming towards the house to call : “Is he so," said Parr, “I prithee, wife, lay a pin on the ground near my foot, or at my right toe," which she did ; and when young Mr. Porter came, the old man said, after the usual salu. tations, “ Wife, is not that a pin that lies at my foot ?" “Truly, husband," (quoth she, “it is a pin, indeed!" so she took it up, and Mr. Porter was amazed that the old man had recovered his sight again ; but it was quickly found to be “ a witty conceit, thereby to have him suppose him to be more lively than he was, because he hoped to have his lease renewed for his
wife's sake." LONGEVITY.-OLD PARR.
The longevity of Thomas Parr seems to have deBy a wise provision of the great Author of our being, scended as an heir-loom to his posterity : as his son we are fond of life, and desirous, as far as we can, of lived to the age of 113, his grandson to 109, and his extending the short span allotted to us on earth. great grandson to 124! For this purpose, health, which forms a large ingre Perhaps the most extraordinary instance on record dient in human happiness, must be promoted ; and of liveliness such as is shown in the anecdote abave, whatever tends to health, tends also to old age. at an extreme old age, is that of the Countess of When, therefore, we meet with persons who have Desmond, who died 140 years old. Her death hapreached their eightieth or ninetieth year, or read of pened at the end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, it was those whose age has amounted to a hundred and up- said at the time," by a fever occasioned by a fall from
M. wards, it is no less instructive than interesting to a walnut-tree !" observe the means, which, under Providence, have A man should guard, in his youth, against sensuality; in led to their arriving at such an advanced period of his manhood, against faction, and in his old age, against life.
covetousness. Chinese Maxim. It will generally be found, on inquiry into such Bishop Cumberland, being told by some of his friends that he cases, that certain modes of living have been adopted, would wear himself out by intense application, replied, in the which may be called some of the conditions of lon
words of Bacon, “ It is better to wcar out, than to rust out." gevity; and the tables which have been given of the respective ages and residences of certain very aged A PRAYER WRITTEN IN SICKNESS, persons, with some sketch of their history, establish
BY BISHOP HEBER. this fact, with few exceptions. They have, almost
When sickness to my fainting soul, all, been born of healthy parents, and have been early
Her fearful form display'd accustomed to exercise, temperance and simplicity of
I to my secret chamber stole, food.
And humbly thus I pray'd. To these may be added, in the greater number of
If soften'd by the impending stroke instances, early rising, and a due regulation of those
My heart, O Lord ! will yield; passions which are bestowed on man for good and
In mercy thy decree revoke,
And let my wound be heal’d. wise ends; but which, when abused, invariably
But if from memory's tablet soon, hasten on his decay.
Ingratitude would tear With these remarks, which we trust may prove
The bounteous Giver and the boon, acceptable to some of our readers, we have prefaced a
Oh, hear not thou my pray'r! likeness and short account of the celebrated Thomas
Rather than bear that blackest stain Parr, or, as he is called, in a portrait of his own time;
Within my breast-I'd brave
The keenest throb of restless pain; “The old, old, very old man, of Winnington, in the
The terrors of the grave. parish of Alderbury, in Shropshire; who was born
If health's unmerited return in the reign of King Edward the Fourth, in the year
Should bless my future days, 1483. He lived 152 years, 9 months, and odd days,
Oh! may I from thy Spirit learn and departed this life at Westminster, November 15,
A daily song of praise. 1635."
But should I shortly hence depart, There is but little mentioned of his life; but, perhaps,
Or lingering, suffer still, the most remarkable incident in it was the occasion of
May that blest Spirit, Lord ! impart his being brought from his native village to London.
Submission to thy will. Thomas, earl of Arundel and Surrey, earl marshal Men are Atheistical, because they are first vicious, and of England, was visiting some manors which he held question the Truth of Christianity, because they hate the in Shropshire; and, hearing of Parr's great age, he practice of it.-SOUTH.
THE WHITE TIGER.
are sufficiently large and formidable to remove the The tribe to which the tiger belongs, is noted for skin from any part the animal may lick. containing within its ranks some of the most ferocious Hunting the Tiger is a favourite diversion of the of the animal creation. To the neighbouring species, great in the eastern parts of the world, and is always the Lion, has been attributed, on rather doubtful conducted with much pomp and ceremony. When the authority, a great degree of nobleness and generosity monarch, princes, or nobles, engage in this sport, they in the exercise of its formidable power; while, on
are usually mounted on Elephants, and their retinue, perhaps no better grounds, a character of the most consisting of hunters and soldiers, attend, some on unbounded and uncalled-for ferocity has been applied horseback and others on foot. Combats in enclosed to the less-favoured Tiger.
spaces between the Tiger and Lion, or Elephant, are also on some grand occasions the barbarous amusements of those Eastern nations; but as they consider the Elephant the most valuable of the two, so many precautions are taken to prevent its defeat, that the Tiger is in general the principal sufferer.
The Bengal Tiger, of which the White Tiger figured above is but a variety, is about four feet and upwards in height, and more than nine in length; and its strength is such, that when it has killed a deer, a horse, or even a buffalo, it carries off its prize with such ease, that it seems no impediment to its flight.
THE CLOUDED OR TORTOISESHELL TIGER is a native of Sumatra ; a specimen, about fourteen months old, measured nearly three feet in length, and
one foot four inches in height. Sir Stamford Raffles, The White Tiger.
in speaking of a younger specimen, has added the The native country of these creatures is central and following particulars respecting its manners. southern Asia, and the Asiatic islands; in Sumatra, in particular, the ravages of the Tiger are almost incredible, whole villages
being at times nearly depopulated by them; yet, from some superstitious prejudice, the natives can hardly be prevailed upon, by the offers even of large rewards, to endeavour to destroy them. The Tiger appears to prefer (when it has once partaken of it) the flesh of man to all other food, and in that case, will haunt the village or town that has been the scene of its depredations, until it is destroyed by the inhabitants ; it never again returns to its native forests, but lies concealed in the day-time in some
The Tortoiseshell Tiger. neighbouring jungle. In spite, however, of all that
“ While in a state of confinement, it was remarkable has been said of the savage nature of these animals, for good temper and playfulness: no domestic kitten it is very doubtful if they display more ferocity than
could be more so. On board the ship, there was a is absolutely necessary to furnish them with the means
small dog who used to play round the cage and with of supporting their existence, or of defending them
the animal, and it was amusing to observe the playselves against their enemies.
fulness and tenderness with which the latter came in The strength, the size, and the swiftness of the prey
contact with his inferior-sized companion. on which these tyrants of the jungle and the desert
“He never seemed to look on men or children as exist, require on the part of the latter superior power, prey, but as companions; and the natives assert that activity, and watchfulness : again, the ravages they when wild, they live principally on poultry, birds, and necessarily commit in the pursuit of their sustenance, small deer ; they are not found in numbers, and may has raised up enemies to them in every direction. be considered rather a rare animal even in the southern Man, in a state of nature and of civilization,—the enor
part of Sumatra. They are generally found in the mous dwellers in the forest, the Elephant and Rhino- vicinity of villages, and are not dreaded by the natives, ceros, -and, in addition to this, the enmity of even their own species, all combine to keep them in a except as far as they may destroy their poultry." continued state of excitation ; can it be wondered at, then, that armed as they are at all points with strength works, such as the columns of Palmyra, broken in the midst
If we look with wonder upon the great remains of human and courage, their acts should appear a cursory of the desert, the temples of Pæstum, beautiful in the observer as the result of an indiscriminate appetite for decay of twenty centuries, or the mutilated fragments of blood and destruction.
Greek sculpture in the Acropolis of Athens, or in our own The claws of all this tribe, that is, the Lion, Tiger, Museum, as proofs of the genius of artists, and the power Leopard, Panther, common Cat, &c., are retractile ; and riches of nations now past away; with how much that is, the animal has the power of withdrawing deeper feelings of admiration must we consider those grand them at pleasure into a hollow provided for that pur- globe ; continents broken into islands ; one land produced,
monuments of Nature, which mark the revolutions of the pose, in the substance of their feet; and by this means, another destroyed; the bottom of the ocean become a ferwhen not employed in seizing their prey, these for- tile soil ; whole races of animals extinct; and the bones midable weapons are preserved from injury. Even and exuviæ of one class, covered with the remains of anthe tongue, in the larger tribes, is no despicable means other, and upon the graves of past generations—the marble, of offence : in the Cat we feel its roughness, but if
a rocky tomb, as it were, of a former animated worldits construction was examined by means of a power
new generations rising, and order and harmony established,
and a system of life and beauty produced, as it were, out ful magnifying glass, we should perceive its whole of chaos and death; proving the infinite wisdom, power, surface covered with small sharp-pointed hooks, and goodness of the GREAT CAUSE OF ALL BEING !- SIR pointed backwards; and these, in the Lion and Tiger, H. PAVY.