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While improving his own property, he added to the you stop when I called to you?” Why, sir,' said beauties of his favourite spot, and freely imparted to the man, “ don't you know that people can never his townsmen the advantages which he had provided hear when they are drinking ?" The next time Mr. for the enjoyment of the lovely scenery around him. Kyrle applied the bottle to his head, the man placed

The churchyard was planted with elins by Kyrle, himself opposite to him, and opened his mouth as if and a gate was erected by him leading to a field, bawling aloud, till Kyrle had finished. The draught called " The Prospect," from its commanding a noble ended, Kyrle asked, "Well, John, what did you say?" view of the rich scenery of the Wye. In times when “Ah, you see, sir,” said the man, “I was right; the art of conveying water by pipes, for the accom- nobody can hear when he is drinking." modation of all the dwellers in a town, was yet in its The passage which relates to the church of Ross infancy, a great benefit was conferred on the inha- is calculated to convey an erroneous notion of what bitants of Ross, by the skill and enterprise of Mr. was actually done by Mr. Kyrle. The line Kyrle, who made, in this field, an oval basin of con- Who taught that heaven-directed spire to rise; siderable extent, lined it with brick, and paved it with coupled with another,– stone, and caused the water to be forced into it

Who builds a church to God, and not to fame; by an engine from the river, and conveyed by under-has led many to suppose, that the church of Ross ground pipes to the public cocks in the streets.—

was built by Kyrle. The facts are as follows :When a more effectual mode of supply was introduced, the use of the fountain was abandoned, and from whatever point it be viewed, was at one time in

The elegant spire which ornaments the landscape the basin was filled up. This public work is recorded by the pret, in the architecture led him to discover. A parish meeting

a dangerous state, which Mr. Kyrle's knowledge of lines,

was convened at his special motion, and about fortyFrom the dry rock, who bade the waters flow ?

seven feet of the spire taken down and rebuilt, himNot to the skies, in useless columns tost,

self daily inspecting the work, and contributing, over Or in proud falls magnificently lost ; But clear and artless, pouring through the plain

and above the assessment, towards its speedy concluHealth to the sick, and solace to the swain.

sion. The great bell was given by Kyrle, who attended The next work noticed by Pope is a causeway,

when it was cast at Gloucester, and threw into the which was constructed through the exertions of Mr. melting pot his own large silver tankard, having first Kyrle, and paid for by a subscription, to which he drunk his favourite toast of "Church and King." largely contributed. It crossed the low ground be

Behold the market-house, with poor o'erspread;

The Man of Ross divides the weekly bread. tween the town and the bridge, on the high road to Hereford and Monmouth. This causeway has been

The distribution of the "weekly bread” at the since extended, and rendered permanent by the Com-market-house is a circumstance of peculiar interest missioners of Turnpikes, who have converted it into in the life of Kyrle. The donation of bread was fura spacious driving way, better adapted to the more

nished by a grant, renewed by successive lords of the frequent and rapid journeyings of modern times. manor, of certain tolls on all corn brought to market. The walk in the Clevefields above alluded to, was

The “ Man of Ross" acted as the lord's almoner. not only beautified with elms, his favourite tree, but Tradition reports, in homely language, that “ it would seats were placed at intervals, where the “weary tra

have done one's heart good to see how cheerful the veller" might“ repose," or the lover of fine scenery bution.” At length the toll

, thus voluntarily trans

old gentleman looked, while engaged in the distri.contemplate at his ease, the beauties before him. his work of planting or ornamenting, the “MAN OF

ferred to the poor at the will of each succeeding lord, Ross” was wont to go forth, with his spade on his

was claimed by the townsmen as their's of right. The shoulder, and a wooden bottle of liquor in his hand, question was referred to the Man of Ross by consent assisted by two or three, or sometimes more work of both parties; and he, preferring truth and justice men, according to the task to be performed. The before popularity and self-gratification, determined, bottle served his fellow-labourers as well as himself.

as the evidence compelled him to do, that the toll beOn one occasion, his companion so thoroughly enjoye:1 longed to the lord. So are pride and covetousness the draught, that he did not part with the bottle from found in communities as well as individuals. Unhis head till the last drop was drained. In vain did willing to acknowledge an obligation, lest they should the Man of Ross call aloud to him to stop his draught; be compelled to own a superiority in the giver, they the workman's thirst was too intense to listen. When endanger or lose the benefits which benevolence and he had done, Mr. Kyrle said, “ John, why did not liberality would bountifully bestow.

The remaining lines refer to various private acts of charity, for which a man of Kyrle's noble disposition would find frequent opportunities in whatever part of the world he might be placed. The town of Ross could tell of many who, before and since his time, and at this day, clothe the naked, feed the hungry, instruct the ignorant, and teach the infant's tongue to praise the name of the Creator and Redeemer ; and so we hope can every town and every village in our native land ;-but such Christian love seeks not its own praise.

There is, however, one anecdote of Mr. Kyrle, which we are unwilling to omit, as it exhibits that noble confidence, which none but an honest man can feel or express towards his fellow-man. About a year after the death of the Man of Ross, a tradesman of the town came to his executor, and said privately to him, “Sir, I am come to pay you some money

that I owed to the late Mr. Kyrle." The executor John Kyrle's House.

declared he could find no entry of it in the accounts,

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“Why, sir," said the tradesman, " that I am aware In walking through a street in London, I saw a crowd of of. Mr. Kyrle said to me, when he lent me the mo

men, women, and children; they were hooting and laughing

at a woman, who, looking neither to the right hand nor to ney, that he did not think I should be able to repay

the left, passed through the midst of them in perfect silence. it in his lifetime, and that it was likely you might Upon approaching her, I saw that all this derision was want it before I could make it up; and so, said he, caused by her dress, which, equally unsuited to the weather I wont have any memorandum of it, besides what I and to her apparent rank in life, was from head to foot enwrite and give you with it; and do you pay my kins-tirely white. Her bonnet, her shawl, her very shoes, were man when you can ; and when you show him this white; and though all that she wore seemed of the coarsest paper, he will see that the money is right, and that materials, it was perfectly clean. As I walked past her, I

looked steadfastly in her face. She was very thin and pale, he is not to take interest.” Here the story stops. of a pleasing countenance, and totally unmoved by the claNo doubt our readers would wish to know, that the mour around her. I have since learned her story. The executor declined to receive what the tradesman young man to whom she was betrothed died on the bridalmight have withholden, without fear of human disco- day, when she and her companions were dressed to go to

Church. She lost her senses; and has ever since, to use very. Let us hope that he did so. The Man of Ross died a bachelor. At the time of her own words, been “expecting her bridegroom." Neither

insult nor privation of any kind can induce her to change his decease, he owed nothing, and there was no

her dress; she is alike insensible of her bereavement by money in his house. He was borne to the grave by death, and of the lapse of time. She is dressed for the his workmen and usual attendants, and amidst the bridal, and the bridegroom is at hand.”—THOUGHTS ON whole population of Ross.

LAUGHTER, by a Chancery Barrister. The spot of his interment was, by his express desire, at the feet of his dear friend, Dr. Charles NATIONAL AFFLICTIONS AND BLESSINGS. Whiting, a former vicar, a man of genuine piety and In the latter part of the reign of James the First, a number christian benevolence, who died in 1711, and whose of Psalms and Hymns were published, all written with the epitaph modestly records him as “the affectionate

true spirit of piety, and many recommending themselves but unworthy pastor of this church.”

as beautiful specimens of congregational devotion. The It is supposed

following, with its introduction, will hardly be regarded as that this excellent and amiable man was greatly

out of season at the present hour. In many parts of the instrumental in forming the character of the Man of kingdom its sentiments will be felt; and the praises offered Ross. To Dr. Whiting, the town is indebted for the centuries ago, will again be poured forth from many a establishment of an excellent Blue-Coat School, in grateful heart. 1709. Mr. Kyrle was not only an annual subscriber " FOR DELIVERANCE FROM A PUBLIC SICKNESS, to that institution, but when boys were to be appren- “ The pestilence and other public sicknesses are those ticed, he was generally concerned, and often put them

arrows of the Almighty, wherewith he punisheth public out at his own expense. He left 401. to the school. ) transgressions. This hymn, therefore, is to praise him when

he shall unslack the bow which was bent against us; and Several of his old workmen were legatees in his will. the longer he withholds his hand, the more constantly ought

The personal appearance of Mr. Kyrle was agree- we to continue our public thanksgivings; for when we forable ; his dress, a plain suit of brown dittos, with a get to persevere in praising God for his mercies past, we King William's wig, according to the fashion of the usually revive those sins that will renew his judgments." day. Though he disliked large parties, his house

When thou would'st, Lord, afflict a land, was open to the reception of his friends, in the

Or scourge thy people that offend, genuine spirit of old-fashioned English hospitality.

Prompt to fulfil thy dread command, “He loved a long evening ; enjoyed a merry tale,

Thy creatures on Thee all attend,

And Thou to execute thy word, and always appeared discomposed when t'was time

Hast famine, sickness, fire, and sword. to part." His dishes were generally plain ; malt

And here among us, for our sin, liquor and cider were the only beverages introduced;

A sore disease hath lately reigned, there was no roast beef except on Christmas-day.

Whose fury so unstayed hath been, At his kitchen fire-place was a large block of wood,

It could by nothing be restrained ; for poor people to sit on; and a piece of boiled

But overthrew both weak and strong, beef and three pecks of flour, in bread, were given to

And took away both old and young. the poor every Sunday. The Man of Ross was a

To thee our cries we humbly sent, daily attendant at the service of the Parish Church,

Thy wonted pity, Lord, to prove ;

Our wicked ways we did repent, When the chiming of the bells began, all business

Thiy visitation to remove : ceased with him; he washed his hands and pro

And Thou, thine angel didst command ceeded to his pew. When the church was newly

To stay his wrath-inflicting hand. pewed, about twenty years after his death, the rec

For which thy love, in thankful wise, tor and parishioners resolved that Mr. Kyrle's seat

Both hearts and hands to thee we raise, should remain, as it does at this day, in its original

And in the stead of former cries, condition and style. A handsome tablet, with a bust

Do sing thee now a song of praise ; of the Man of Ross, has long since removed the

By whom the mercy yet we have

To escape the never-filled grave. stigma imputed in the concluding lines of Pope's eulogy of Kyrle.

After enumerating the many favours enjoyed by the The Man of Ross, then, it has been seen, was a

blessing of Providence in these islands, the sacred poet to

whom we have already been indebted, thus beautifully private gentleman of small fortune, with a talent conveys the sentiments of a pious and grateful heart. for architecture, and a taste for what is now termed For these, and for our grass, our corn, the picturesque, which he employed in the improve

For all that springs from blade or bough, ment and adorning of his town and neighbourhood. For all those blessings that adorn, Simple in his manners, he lavished no money on

Or wood, or field, this kingdom through: gaudy show or equipage. Faithful to his God, and

For all of these thy praise we sing, upright in his dealings with man ; intelligent, active,

And humbly, Lord, intreat thee, too,

That fruit to Thee, we forth may bring, and ingenious; he was confided in as a friend, as an

As unto us, thy creatures do. umpire, as a receiver and disposer of the subscriptions

So, in the sweet refreshing shade of others, whether to be employed in works for the

Of thy protection, sitting down, public good, or in relieving the wants of indigence Those gracious favours we have had,

We will relate to thy renown;

and age, .

Yea, other men, when we are gone,

Shall, for thy mercies, honour thee,
And far make known what thou hast done

To such as after them shall be.
A SACRED Song, in which our ancestors used to express
their thankfulness for a seasonable change, after their
alarm had been excited by continuance of bad weather.

LORD! should the sun, the clouds, the rain,

The air and seasons, be
To us so froward and unkind,

As we are false to thee;
All fruits would quite away be burned,

Or lie in water drown'd,
Or blasted be, or overwhelmed,

Or chilled on the ground.
But, from our duty though we swerve,

Thou still dost mercy show,
And deign thy creatures to preserve,

That men might thankful grow:
Yea, though from day to day we sin,

And thy displeasure gain,
To cry no sooner we begin,

Than pity we obtain.
The weather now thou changed hast,

That put us late to fear,
And, when our hopes were almost past,

Then comfort did appear :
The Heaven the Earth's complaint hath heard,

They reconciled be,
And thou such weather hast prepared,

As we desired of Thee.
For which, with lifted hands and eyes,

To Thee we do repay,
The due and willing sacrifice

Of giving thanks to day ;
Because such offerings we should not

To render Thee be slow,
Nor let that mercy be forgot

Which Thou art pleased to show.

of the undertaking. The failure of a work of the same description which was executed by the French at Cherbourg—owing to the small size of the stones used in its construction, and the ill-judged form of the mound-showed, that to resist the force of the heavy sea that rolls in from the south-west, a very considerable slope would be necessary, and that great masses of stone, from one to ten tons each, would be required.

The quarries from which these were procured are situated at Overton, on the eastern shore of Catwater; they lie under a surface of about 25 acres, and were purchased from the Duke of Bedford, for ten thousand pounds. These quarries consist of one vast mass of compact close-grained marble, many specimens of which are beautifully variegated ; seams of clay, however, are interspersed through the rock, in which there are also large cavities, some empty and others partially filled with clay*.

These huge blocks of stone are conveyed from the quarries on trucks, along iron railways to the quays, and from thence into the holds of vessels, built expressly for the purposet. On their arrival over the line of the Breakwater, they are discharged from the trucks by means of what is called a typing-frame at the stern of the vessel, which falling like a trap-door, lets the stone into the sea. In this manner, a cargo of sixteen trucks, or eighty tons, may be discharged in the space of forty or fifty minutes.

The following sketch of the ground plan and section, will best explain the form and dimensions of this great national work.

中 Þ

Harbour

Side.

Sea Side.

Scale of

1000 Yards.

Low Water,

A

B

PLYMOUTH BREAKWATER.
DURING our late war with France, the want of a

500 secure and extensive anchorage in the entrance to

High Water. the Channel was much felt; the Sound at Plymouth, comprising the bays named Cawsand Bay, the Catwater, and Hamoaze, offered a suitable asylum to a great fleet returning from a cruize, and being one of the grand naval arsenals, could supply without delay The width of the section from A to B, is upwards of every thing requisite to enable it to put to sea again ; but unfortunately, this road being wholly open and feet. The first stone was sunk on the 12th of August,

250 feet; the total length of the Breakwater is 5100 exposed to the ocean and south-west wind, afforded,

1812, and on the 31st of March, 1813, the Break. in its natural state, no protection whatever during

water made its first appearance above the surface of those very storms which most frequently obliged our

the Sound at low water, spring-tide. At the conclufleets to seek an asylum in it. It has, therefore, frequently happened that they have been obliged to run had been deposited.

sion of the year 1816, upwards of one million tons into Torbay, which is perfectly sheltered from the

The whole of the work above the line of low-water south-west ; but this bay had also great inconve

mark has been some time finished, and this splendid niences : first, it is more to the east than Plymouth, which is an important circumstance, because when

• In one of these caverns in the solid rock, 15 feet wide, 45 feet long, and

12 feet deep, filled nearly with compact clay, were found imbedded fossil the west wind is constant, it is very difficult for ves- bones belonging to the Rhinoceros, being portions of the skeletons of three

different animals, all of them in the most perfect state of preservation, every sels to get out of the Channel by tacking ; for great

part of their surface being entire to a degrees that Sir Everard. Home says, fleets it is impossible. "hese serious inconveniences he had never observed in specimens of this kind before. The part of the

cavity in which these bones were found, was 70 feet below the surface of the having long shown the necessity of converting Ply- solid rock; 60 feet horizontally from the edge of the cliff, where Mr. Whidby, mouth into a safe harbour, government at length

who was associated with Mr. Rennie in the undertaking, began to work the

quarry, and 160 feet from the original edge by the side of the Catwater. resolved that something should be done, and various

Every side of the cavern was solid ; nor was there any external communi.

cation through the rock in which it was imbedded; when, therefore, and in plans were proposed and discussed.

what manner these bones came into that situation, is among the secret and To Lord Grey, when at the head of the Naval

wonderful operations of Nature, which will probably never be revealed to Administration, the first contemplation of this great + Monsieur Dupin, the celebrated French engineer, gives an animated national work is due ; but to Mr. Yorke belongs the description of the working of these quarries, and thus concludes :

" The sight of the operations which I have just described, those enormous merit of having adopted the plan, and caused it to musses of marble which the quarry-men strike, with heavy strokes of their

hammers; and those aerial roads of flying bridges which serve for the rebe carried into execution, notwithstanding the fore

moral of the superstratum of earth; those lines of cranes all at work at the bodings of those who were hostile to it.

His own same moment; the trucks all in motion; the arrival, and the loading, and

the departure of the vessels ; all this forms one of the most imposing sights sound judgment, however, backed by the opinion of that can strike a friend to the great works of art. At fixed hours, the sound Mr. Rennie, (the celebrated engineer, under whose operations instantly cease on all sides, all becomes silence and solitude ;

of a bell is heard, in order to announce the blasting of the quarry, guidance Waterloo Bridge was erected,) gave him this universal silence renders still more imposing, the noise of the explosion,

the splitting of the rocks, their ponderous fall, and the prolonged sound of assurance of the propriety and of the successful issue

mankind.

'The

the echoes."

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l'iew of the Plymouth Breakwater, undertaking is proceeding steadily towards its com

EVENING. pletion.

How sweetly now do outward things The fitness of this immense mound for the pur

To tender thoughts give birth,

When evening's deep and holy calm pose for which it was intended, has been clearly

Broods o'er the tranquil earth. proved by the manner in which it has withstood the

Alas ! how often tender thoughts attacks of the sea during so many stormy winters ;

To sad thoughts are allied ! never, except in one instance, having had a stone

How often by the silent tear displaced during the most violent gales. The instance

Our joys are purified. alluded to, occurred on the night of the 19th of

Oh! that the peace which reigns withont January, 1817, when such a hurricane came on, as

Might also dwell within ! had not been remembered by the oldest inhabitant.

Oh! that my restless, wayward heart The waves rose six feet higher than the usual height

Might free itself from sin ! of spring-tides. The Jasper sloop-of-war, and the

Why is it, that year follows year,

And still in self-control Telegraph schooner, being at anchor without the

My heart is feeble as a child, cover of the Breakwater, were driven to the head of

Still passion rules my soul. the Sound, and lost; while a collier, heavily laden and

Alas! in vain I know the truth, under its cover, rode out the gale, and no damage

And love God's holy word : was sustained by any of the vessels in the Catwater.

In vain the surface of my heart After the hurricane was over, it was found that a

To gratitude is stirred. portion of the upper layer of the finished part, about

Still sin does in its embers live, 200 yards long, and 30 yards in width, had given way

Though quenched its fiercer fires; and been displaced ; the whole of the huge stones,

That sin whose everlasting taint

Still breeds impure desires. from two to five tons each, having been carried over

O Lord of Hosts, against my peace and deposited on the northern slope of the Break

What enemies are ranged ! water. It has now resisted the effects of fifteen other

Change thou my nature, Lord, and then winters, and still remains, and there is no doubt will

Shall I indeed be changed. for ages remain, a monument of the arts, worthy of

Come thou, and my corrupted heart the nation by which it has been constructed.

To holiness renew !
[Abridged from the Quarterly Review.]

Christ's servant am I, and in Him
Thy promises are true.

T. K. A.
MORNING.

LONDON: The God of mercy walks his round

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. From day to day, from year to year,

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom. And warns us each with awful sound,

Hawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms

by ORR, Paternoster-row; BERGER, Holywell-street; DOUGLAS, “No longer stand ye idle here.”

Portman-street, London ;

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :--Ye whose young cheeks are rosy bright,

Aberdeen, Brown & Co. Durham, Andrews. Northampton, Birdsall. Whose hands are strong, whose hearts are clear, Bath, George.

Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Norwich, Muskett. Waste not of youth the morning light,

Birmingham, Langbridge. E.reter, Penny & Co. Nottingham, Wright.

Bristol, Westley & Co. Glasgow, Griffin & Co.
Oh fools why stand ye idle here?

O.xford, Slatter.
Bury, Lankester. Gloucester, Jew.

Paris, Bennis.
And ye whose scanty locks of grey

Cambridge, Stevenson. Hereford, Child. Plymouth, Nettleton.
Carlisle, Thurnam, Hull, Wilson.

Salisbury, Brodie & Co. Foretel your latest travail near,

Chelmsford, Guy.
Ipswich, Deck.

Sheffield, Ridge. How fast declines your useless day,

Cheltenham, Lovesy. Lancashire and Cheshire, Shrewsbury, Eddowes.

Chester, Seacome; Hard- Bancks & Co., Man- Staffordshire Potteries, And stand ye yet so idle here?

Chichester, Glover. (ing.

Watts, Lane End.

Colchester, Swinborne & Leeds, Robinson. One hour remains, there is but one,

Sunderland, Marwood.

Leicester, Combe. Whitby, Rodgers. But many a grief and many a tear

Derby, Wilkins & Son. Liverpool, Hughes. Worcester, Deighton. Through endless ages, must atone

Devonport, Byers. Macclesfield, Swinnerton. Yarmouth, Alexander.

Dublin, Curry Jun. & Co. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fin-York, Bellerby, For moments lost and wasted here._HEBER.

Dundee, Shaw,

lay & Co.; Empson.

chester.

Co.

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.

was doubled, and even trebled, to make up the defiThis far-famed monument of antiquity extends along

ciency. the whole of the northern frontier of China, separat

In the year 1212 the Monguls forced the wall, ing that country from Tartary. Its computed length

made incursions as far as Pekin, and defeated is upward of 1500 miles ; in height it varies from

an army of 300,000 men. After many changes of twenty to twenty-five feet; while the thickness or destiny, the last Chinese emperor, Whey-tsong, being width is fifteen feet. Towers forty-eight feet high deserted by his people, and opposed by the Tartars, are erected at distances of one hundred yards from destroyed himself, along with his queen and daugheach other throughout its whole length.

ter; and the empire has been governed ever since by The country over which it passes is wild and hilly,

a Tartar monarch, though, by removing the seat of and in some places it is built on the steep sides of empire to Pekin, and by adopting the Chinese lanmountains between five and six thousand feet above guage, manners, and customs, Tartary seems rather the level of the sea; it surmounts their summits, and to be incorporated with China than the conqueror of again descends into the valleys; in crossing a river it. The state of preservation in which this great work it forms a ponderous arch; sometimes large tracts of remains, leads to the belief that it must have been boggy country opposed great obstacles to the pro- repaired several times since it was originally erected. gress of the architects, but all these difficulties were

ENGLAND. overcome by their perseverance, and the gigantic undertaking was completed in the space of five years. An Englishman has good ground for thankfulness in To accomplish this object the power of a despotic the happiness of his native land—England has indeed emperor was exerted, and every third man in the been famed, by God's blessing far, very far beyond kingdom forced to labour at the work till it was other nations. We do not here speak of her just and finished.

equal laws—the moderation of her government, or of A large mound of stone erected in the sea, in that well-regulated liberty, both in civil and religious the province of Pechelee, east of Pekin, formed the matters, of which the very poorest of her inhabitants foundation, or rather beginning of this mighty bul- partakes. Great and valuable as these blessings are, wark. It is said to have been erected about 2000 there are others attached to the soil and climate of years ago, by the first Chinese emperor of the family Great Britain, and we shall prove its superior healthiof Tzin, to check the inroads of the Tartars, who had ness, by a general comparison with other countries. continually harassed the inhabitants of the northern We are too ready to join with foreigners in the districts of China. In some spots where the natural abuse of our climate, but, variable as it certainly is, aspect of the country is weak, this wall of defence Charles II. spoke an undoubted truth when he said

Vol. I.

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