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from the scones. An Indian was seen following him, effects. It is impossible to contemplate the situation but with marks of fear, as he stopped two or three of this interesting race, now so entirely dependent times. At last, he struck the captain on the back of upon Britain, without an anxious wish that all posthe head with a club, and then hastily ran back. sible means should be taken by this country to
secure their future welfare.
The tanner, who has purchased the hides, separates the horns, and sells them to the makers of combs and lanterns. The horn consists of two parts ; an outward horny case, and an inward conical-shaped substance, somewhat between hardened hair and bone. The first process consists in separating these two parts, by means of a blow against a block of wood. The horny outside is then cut into three portions, by means of a frame-saw.
1. The lowest of these, next the root of the horn, after undergoing several processes, by which it is rendered flat, is made into combs.
2. The middle of the horn, after being flattened by heat, and its transparency improved by oil, is split into thin layers, and forms a substitute for glass in lanterns of the commonest kind.
3. The tip of the horn is used by the makers of knifehandles and of the tops of whips, and similar purposes.
4. The interior, or core of the horn, is boiled down in
water. A large quantity of fat rises to the surface: this is Captain Cook, R.N.
put aside, and sold to the makers of yellow soap. Captain Cook staggered a few paces, and then fell on
5. The liquid itself is used as a kind of glue, and is purhis hand and one knee, dropping his musket. Ano- chased by the cloth-dressers for stiffening: ther Indian now stabbed him in the neck with a 6. The bony substance, which remains behind, is ground dagger. He then fell into a pool of water, where down, and sold to the farmers for manure. others crowded upon him ; but still he struggled
Besides these various purposes to which the different violently with them, got up his head, and looked to
parts of the horn are applied, the chippings which arise in the boats, as if for assistance. One of them was not
comb-making are sold to the farmer for manure, at about
one shilling a bushel. In the first year after they are spread above five or six yards off; but such was the con- over the soil, they have comparatively little effect ; but fused and crowded state of the crew, that no assist- during the next four or five, their efficiency is considerable. ance could be given. The Indians again got him The shavings, which form the refuse of the lantern-maker, under, though he still continued to struggle, and
arc of a much thinner texture. A few of them are cut into once more got up his head : but, being quite spent,
various figures, and painted and used as toys; for they curl he turned towards the rock, as if to support himself up when placed in the palm of a warm hand. But the
greater part of these shavings are sold also for manure, which, by it, when a savage struck him, with a club, a blow
from their extremely thin and divided form, produces its full which probably put an end to his life, as he struggled effect upon the first crop.-BABBAGE on Manufactures, &c. no longer. The savages dragged his lifeless body up the rocks, and mangled it in the most shooking man
GRACE BEFORE DINNER. Some fragments of his remains were afterwards
Oh, Thou, who kindly dost provide recovered, and solemnly committed to the deep on
For every creature's want; the 21st of February, 1779.
We bless thee, God of Nature wide, This most lamentable occurrence produced the
For all thy mercies sent. impression, which long subsisted, that the inhabit
And may it please Thee, Heavenly Guide, ants of Owhyhee were a race of fierce and blood
May never worse be sent; thirsty barbarians ; but it has been discovered that,
But whether granted or denied,
Lord, bless us with content !though possessing that disregard of human life, which is always found to attend man in a state of
LONDON: nature, and which is a remarkable proof of our fallen
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PAKTS, state, the people of the Sandwich Islands (of which Owhyhee is the chief) are gentle, as well as intelli- JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. gent. The attack upon Cook was made in the belief Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvcnders in the Kingdom.
and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms that his intentions were hostile ; and his death oc- by ORR, Paternoster-row; BERGER, Holywell-street; DOUGLAS curred in the heat and violence of an affray, in which
Portman-street, Loudon ; blood was shed on both sides.
And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :--
Aberdeen, Brown & Co. Durham, Andrewg. Northampton, Birdsall. An astonishing change has taken place in these Bath, George.
Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Norwich, Muskett. islands since the days of Cook. They now present
Birmingham, Langbridge. Exeter, Penny & Co. Nottingham, Wright.
Bristol, Westley & Co. Glasgow, Griffin & Co. O.xford, Slatter. the aspect of a civilized community, with a regular
Bury, Lankester. Gloucester, Jew.
Plymouth, Nettleton. government, laws, and institutions : and, above all, Carlisle, Thurnam. Hull, Wilson.
Salisbury, Brodie & Co the Christian religion. Unhappily, however, the good Cheltenham, Lovesy:
Lancashire and Cheshire, Shrcusbury, Eddowes. they have derived from European intercourse has not
Chester, Seacomc; Ilard- Bancks & Co., Man Staffordshire Potteries,
Chichestor, Glover. (ing. chester. been unmixed with evil. They have learned European Colchester, Swinborno & Leeds, Robinson, Sunderland, Marwood. vices. Drunkenness, of which we have both taught
Derby, Wilkins & Son. Liverpool, Hughes. Worcester, Deighton. them the lesson, and supplied them the means, is Devonport, Byers. Macclesfield, Swinnerton. Yarmouth, Alexander.
Dublin, Curry Jun. & Co. Newcastle-on-Tyne, l'in York, Bellerby. prevalent among them, with its train of baleful
lay & Co.; Empson.
PRICE SIXPENCE, BY
Watts, Lane End.
contracted in many parts to little more than twelve LONDON BEFORE THE GREAT FIRE,
feet broad. Some of the richest citizens had not We have here presented to the reader a copy of merely their shops or stands, but their dwelling houses Ilollar's celebrated view of the vast metropolis of also, on this bridge, which, to use the words of NorEngland, such as it existed nearly two centuries den, who published a view of it about the year 1624, ago, before the Great Fire of 1666 had reduced its was “adorned with sumptuous buildings and statelie streets to heaps of mouldering ashes, and involved and beautiful houses on either side, inhabited by in one common ruin its churches, its palaces, and its wealthy citizens, and furnished with all manner of cottages. In this article it is our intention to per- trades, comparable in itself to a little city, whose form the office of a guide, pointing out, and giving a buildings are so artificially contrived, and so firmly brief account of some of the most interesting objects. combined as it seemeth more than an ordinary street;
Conspicuous above all other buildings, on the for it is as one continual vault or roof, except certain opposite bank of the river, stands the Cathedral Church void spaces reserved from buildings for the retire of of St. Paul, the largest and most magnificent in passengers from the danger of carts, cars, and droves England ; and, until the erection of St. Peter's at of cattle usually passing that way." In one of the Rome, the largest in the Christian world. In length houses on London-bridge lived in 1536 Sir William from east to west it measured 690 feet (190 more Hewitt, a cloth-worker, and afterwards Lord Mayor than the present St. Paul's), in breadth 130, and the of London; from a window overlooking the river, his height of the central tower was 260 feet. Above this infant and only daughter fell into the raging tide, tower once soared a magnificent spire, tapering in the from which she was saved by the courage and premost beautiful proportion, and 274 feet high, so that sence of mind of Edward Osborne, then her father's the entire elevation to the top of the weathercock ex- apprentice, who plunged after her and bore her in his ceeded 520 feet, being fifty feet more than the cele- arms to land. The infant became eventually heiress brated steeple of Strasburgh, and surpassing in height of all her father's estate, and was sought in marriage even the Great Pyramid. This spire was finished both by the wealthy of the city and the nobles of the A.D. 1222, partially burned by lightning A.D. 1444, court; but the reply of the grateful parent to all and entirely destroyed by fire in 1561; after which, applications was, “ Osborne saved her, and Osborne although several attempts were made, it was found shall have her.” They were accordingly, in due time, impracticable to raise the sums necessary to rebuild it. married ; the brave and fortunate apprentice lived to
The first Christian church erected upon this spot be himself Lord Mayor of London, and was the was built by Ethelbert, King of Kent, A.D. 619; the ancestor of a family which in a few generations edifice represented in the plate was the work of various attained to the highest dignity in the British peerage, periods, and exhibited in its details various styles of his great grandson being created Duke of Leeds. architecture, from the semicircular Norman arch of Hans Holbein, the painter, and John Bunyan, the the twelfth century to the Corinthian colonnade of the author of Pilgrim's Progress, both resided for some seventeenth. The western division, or nave, of the time in houses on London-bridge. church was commenced about the year 1100, but At the hither or southern end of the bridge is seen the eastern part was not finished before 1283 ; the an embattled gateway, with its towers and portcullis, repairs which decay or accident rendered necessary which formed the barrier between London and Southwere executed in the taste of the period which re- wark, and acquired the appellation of “Traytor's quired them, the last being the work of Inigo Jones, Gate," from its being the place where, according to
Amongst the cluster of churches to the west, or the barbarous custom of former times, the heads of left hand, of St. Paul's may be distinguished, by four persons executed for high-treason, were exposed to little pinnacles at the corners, the square steeple of public view. Next beyond this is another turretted St. Bride's, Fleet-street, and immediately under it, building, elaborately constructed of timber; in the close on the banks of the Thames, is seen Baynard fifth arch from the Surrey side, as seen in the print, Castle, once the property of Robert Fitzwalter, Cas- but really in the seventh, was a drawbridge for the tellan and banner-bearer of London, and leader of convenience of the larger vessels passing upwards those barons who wrung the Great Charter of English towards Queenhithe; and, on the pier at the northern liberties from King John; afterwards the residence end of the drawbridge stood, “Nonsuch-House,” the of several princes of the House of York : in it Edward most curious and stately of all the buildings with IV. received the news of his being elected king by which the bridge was adorned. It is said to have the people assembled in St. John's field; and from been originally constructed in Holland, entirely of it Richard III. set forth to take possession of his timber, brought over to England in pieces, about usurped crown. Following the banks of the river 1580, and put together again on London-bridge, with westward, the Temple, Arundel-house, the Savoy, wooden pegs, not a single nail or other metal fastening and Durham-house, may successively be distinguished, being used throughout the whole fabric; in shape it until the view closes with Whitehall and the Royal was a long square, having its shorter sides looking over Palace. In the opposite direction, that is, on the the river, with square towers, surmounted by low right hand side of St. Paul's, the eye passes over the domes or kremlin spires at the corners; each front whole length of the city with its dense crowd of was ornamented with a profusion of transom casement steeples (amongst which the lofty spires of St. Lau- windows, with carved wooden galleries before them, rence Poultney, and St. Dunstan's in the East, are while richly-sculptured wooden panels and gilded the most conspicuous), until it rests on the Tower of columns were to be found in every part of it. London. On the hills in the back-ground are seen In the foreground of the print are several interesting the villages of Harrow, Hampstead, and Highgate. objects, of which the magnificent church of St. Mary
Perhaps the most curious, if not the most interest- Overy (now usually called St. Saviour's), the burialing, feature in the print, is the ancient London- place of the poet Gower, has alone survived the devasbridge, with its twenty narrow arches, covered, as until tations of time. To the left of the church stands the the middle of the last century it still continued to be, town palace of the Bishop of Winchester; further to with an almost continuous street of houses over- the left, three oval buildings are rendered remarkable hanging on each side the parapet walls, and affording by each having a flag-staff, with a flag flying, on the to passengers and traffic only a vaulted thoroughfare, roof; the furthest from the church is the Swan
Theatre; the next, the “Bear Garden," a place, as its COFFEE AND COFFEE-HOUSES. name imports, dedicated to the barbarous exhibition
Two centuries ago, our ancestors could little imagine of bear-baiting ; a sport, however, which, although that their descendants would be reduced to the necesnow banished by the progress of humanity and re-sity of sending to the East and West Indies for the finement from the amusements of even the lowest materials of a comfortable breakfast. It is observed classes of society, was little more than two centuries by Wood (Ath. Oxon. II. 1140) that while Nathaniel ago considered worthy the presence and patronage of Conopius, a Cretan baron, continued in Baliol ColMajesty itself. The last of these buildings, is the lege, in Oxford, which he left in 1648, he made the “Globe Theatre," the place where enraptured audi- drink for his own use, called coffee, and usually ences fostered the infant muse of SHAKESPEARE, drank it every morning, being the first coffee, as the and within whose walls were first produced those ancients of that house informed him, that was ever stupendous monuments of imagination and poetic drunk in Oxon. In the year 1650 we learn, from the genius which succeeding ages have united to admire, same author, (Life, 8vo. v. Index,)“ Jacob, a jew, but despaired to rival, or even imitate,
opened a coffee-house at the Angel, in the parish of
St. Peter in the East, Oxon, and there it was by some, ORIGIN OF SOME OF THE HOSPITALS OF
who delighted in novelties, drank. In 1654, Cinques LONDON,
Jobson, a jew and jacobite, borne near Mount LiIn the beginning of the year 1553, Dr. Nicholas banus, sold coffey in Oxon; and, in 1655, Arth. Ridley, Bishop of London, preached before King Tillyard, apothecary, sold coffey publicly in his house Edward, whose health was then rapidly declining, at against All Souls' Coll. This Coffey House continued Westminster. The subject he selected for his dis- till his Majestie's return and after, and then they becourse was Charity, in which he urged the King, in came more frequent, and had an excise set upon coffey." eloquent and moving language, to take care that a The author of the New View of London (1708, more effectual provision should be made for the poor. p. 80) found recorded “ that one James Farr, a This discourse produced so great an impression on barber, who kept the coffee-house which is now the the mind of the young king, that he sent for the Rainbow, by the Inner Temple Gate, (one of the first bishop ; and after commanding him to sit down, in England,) was, in the year 1657, presented by the thanked him much for his seasonable exhortation ; | Inquest of St. Dunstan's in the West, for making and and desired him to state, what, in his opinion, would selling a sort of liquor called coffee, as a great nuibe the most expedient plan to bring about so great sance and prejudice of the neighbourhood. And who and excellent a design. The good Bishop was much could then have thought London would ever have pleased to find the King thus graciously disposed, had near 3000 such nuisances, and that coffee would and, with tears of joy, told him that the London poor, have been (as now, 1708) so much drunk by the best on account of their numbers, required his more im- of quality and physicians.” mediate concern; he would, therefore, advise him to In the Kingdom's Intelligencer, a weekly paper, pubhave letters written to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen lished by authority, in 1662, are inserted four adverto take this affair into consideration, and to project a tisements, the last of which is as follows: scheme for the relief of the poor.
“At the coffee-house in Exchange Alley is sold, by The King, approving of this advice, allowed Bishop retail, the right coffee-powder, from 4s. to 6s. 8d. per Ridley to be furnished with such letters and instruc- pound, as in goodness; that pounded in a mortar at tions, which he accordingly conveyed to Sir R.Dobbs, 2s. per pound ; also that termed the East India berry then Lord Mayor. A meeting of the Aldermen and at 18d. per pound; and that termed the right Turkie Common Council was then held ; the Bishop having berry well garbled at 3s. per pound; the ungarbled been introduced for the purpose of guiding and as for lesse, with directions gratis how to make and use the sisting them in their deliberations. It was resolved
Likewise, there you may have chocolate, the that a general contribution should be set on foot ordinary pound boxes at 2s. 6d. per pound, the peramong the more wealthy citizens. The motion was fumed from 4s. to 10s. per pound; also sherbets readily received by the inhabitants of London ; men made in Turkie of lemons, roses, and violets persubscribed according to their ability, and books were fumed; and tea, or chaa, according to its goodness. kept in every Ward of the City, in which the sums For all which, if any gentlemen shall write or send, contributed were set down. These books were after they shall be sure of the best, as they shall order, and wards delivered, through the Lord Mayor, into the to avoid deceit, warranted under the house seal, viz. hands of the King's commissioners. In this scheme Morat the Great, &c. Further, all gentlemen, that for the relief of the poor, they were ranged under are customers and acquaintance are the next New three divisions : in the first were placed poor dis- Year's Day) invited at the signe of the Great Turk, tressed orphans : in the second, the sick and the at the new coffee-house in Exchange Alley, where lame: in the third, the lazy and sturdy vagabonds. coffee will be on free cost."
For the orphans, Christ's Hospital was provided, In the year 1665 appeared in 4to, a poem, with the where the children were properly fed and lodged, in- title of “ The Character of a Coffee House : wherein structed in a religious and virtuous manner, and qua- is contained a description of the persons usually frelified for some honest business. The Hospitals of quenting it, with their discourse and humors ; as also St. Thomas, in Southwark, and St. Bartholomew, in the admirable vertues of coffee. By an Eye and Ear Smithfield, were appointed for the diseased and lame: Witness.” It begins :and the King gave his palace of Bridewell, erected by
A coffee-house, the learned hold, Henry VIII., for licentious beggars and vagabonds,
It is a place where coffee's sold; who were there to receive due correction and be kept
This derivation cannot fail us, to hard labour. For the better endowment of these
For where ale's vended that's an alehouse. hospitals, the young monarch dissolved the hospital
That these houses soon became places of general which Henry VII. had founded in the Savoy for the
resort is evident :benefit of pilgrims and travellers, but which had be
Of some and all conditions, come worse than useless, being a harbour for thieves;
Even vintners, surgeons, and physicians, and he assigned this to the City of London for the
The blind, the deaf, and aged cripple, maintenance of the new foundations,
Do here resort, and coffee tipple,
View of Ross.
volume, the “ Ariconensia," from which much of what A BENEVOLENT mind cannot find a more agreeable follows has been taken: or, if in search of some of object of contemplation, than the character of a man
the most exquisite of nature's scenery, the reader whose life is spent in acts of public and private good, should pass through the beautifully situated town done without any view to worldly advantage or to which Kyrle inhabited, he may yet hear from “ each fame. Foreigners who visit our country to study the lisping babe," and from the tongue of faltering age, character of its inhabitants, are struck with nothing the praises of him whose name they love, and whose so much as with the vast quantity of money, labour, memory they cherish and revere. and time, which are voluntarily bestowed on works
John Kerle was descended from a highly respectof public charity and utility, by persons who reap no able family, and was born in the parish of Dymock, other advantage from thus contributing to the good father married a sister of Waller, the poet, whose
in Gloucestershire, on his father's estate. His grandof others than the consciousness of discharging a high Christian, or moral
, or social duty. It may be mother was sister of John Hampden. He was a a question, whether the frequency of such examples gentleman commoner of Baliol College, Oxford, to has not led to their being overlooked amongst our- which he presented a handsome silver tankard on his selves, and to their real merit not being duly esti- admission. His father had purchased a house and a mated. Be that as it may, we feel no hesitation in few pieces of land at Ross, and here Mr. Kyrle chose asserting that there have been, and are in every to reside, adding to his property by repeated purcounty, and in almost every parish of this our noble chases, made after his fallages in Dymock Wood.
The title of “THE MAN OF Ross" was given to country, persons freely devoting the leisure, the substance, and the talents with which their Creator has him by a country friend, in his lifetime ; and Mr. blessed them, to the good of others who can make no Kyrle was highly pleased with the appellation, bereturn for the advantages so imparted to them. Our cause it conveyed a notion of plain honest dealing pages will be readily open to record particular in- and unaffected hospitality.” The principal addition stances of such merit, not only because we shall to his landed property was an estate, called the always rejoice to make the light of good works shine Cleve, consisting of fields that extend along the left before men, but because there is no argument by bank of the river, but raised considerably above its which mankind can be stimulated to be useful in level. Along the skirts of these fields, Mr. Kyrle their generation so powerful as the exhibition of what made a public walk, which still bears his name; he has actually been done, without extraordinary means planted it with elms, and continued the plantation or advantages, by the right use of what each may the graceful, ever-winding Wye. It is to this planta
down the steep sides of the bank, which overhang chance to possess.
The “ Man or Ross” has been immortalized by tion that Pope alludes in the lines our great poet, Pope ; but the lines which record his Who hung with woods the mountain's sultry brow? praise do not communicate enough. They are a sort but the poet either indulged in a bold license when of riddle, enumerating works great and expensive, he gave the title of “mountain ” to the Clevetield which they conclude by informing us were all exe- bank, or conceived that the well-wooded hill of Pencuted with an income of five hundred pounds a-year. yard, which forms a remarkable back-ground to the
A reader who should seek to understand the merits landscape, was part of Mr. Kyrle's property, which it of the Man of Ross by Pope's praise, would be apt, never was. when he arrived as the end, to“ give it up.” We shall, Mr. Kyrle's income has been pretty accurately stated therefore, here present a solution of the puzzle, illus at 5001. a-year. His favourite occupations were trating our little narrative, with a view of Ross, which building and planting, in which his skill and taste includes most of the spots alluded to by the poet, and were as freely exerted for the benefit of his friends with a drawing of Kyrle's house opposite the market as on his own improvements; he frequently planned place. If more ample information be desired, it may and superintended architectural works, for persons be found in Mr. Fosbrooke's elegant and entertaining who gladly availed themselves of his skill and taste,