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Scotland as could not be resisted.* The same sysTREATMENT OF LUNATICS.

tem is pursued at Hanwell, and indeed spectators It may be gratifying, as an appendix to a former have often observed that the behaviour of the insane paper, to observe that the great modern secret of during public worship is such as need not fear a commanagement in insanity is gentle and kind treatment, parison with that of the most sane congregation occupation, and amusement, and last, though not wherever assembled. least, religious and moral instruction for all who are The writer of this paper has known cases in which able to bear it. If the boasted advance of our age in the highest possible comfort has been administered knowledge had stopped short of the poor lunatic, who by the chaplain, both in health and sickness, to the was least able to take care of himself, we should have poor patient, whose gratitude has been expressed less ground for mutual congratulation; but thanks to down to the latest opportunity. Indeed, when we the Christian benevolence of the wealthy and the in- consider how frequently it happens that much wan. fluential, the sorrowful sighing of the most pitiable of dering will appear on a given subject, while on all “prisoners” has at length come before us, and much others the mind will preserve its tone, it would neither has been done by the scientific and the pious, to in- be philosophic nor Christian to withhold a remedy of (rease his comfort and to hasten his cure.

God's own providing, in those cases where no parti. 1st. As to mild treatment.—The mind, whether in a cular reason for doing so is to be found. sound or unsound state, naturally revolts at oppres- If space would allow, it could be easily shown that sion and injustice; and the reason as well as experience so far from the common notion being true, that Reli. of mankind should have taught them earlier, that all gion makes men mad, the want of Religion has often constraint or correction beyond what is clearly neces- been a main source of madness. Whatever excites sary, should be studiously avoided in the treatment of the passions strongly is not only injurious to the lunatics. Kind and cheering language, a compliance exercise of reason, but often suspends its operation with pardonable oddities, an endurance of provoking and produces its overthrow. Some, under the influlanguage, the suggestion of hope, whether of amendence of liquor, are in a state of temporary madness, ment or discharge, an attention to little wants and the friends of patients constantly assign drinking and even weaknesses, and an affectionate sympathy as the main, or the only cause of the malady. with the character and case of each individual, are In conclusion, let all be grateful that the treatment charms too potent to be resisted. Hence, a really of a malady which has not spared the sceptred good temper is indispensable in superintendents and monarch, and may be permitted, in the righteous servants of the insane, and the control of their own providence of God, to visit any of us, is now better passions becomes the first of duties; when patients understood than ever; and let all who are yet blessed see, however imperfectly, that real kindness alone with the unspeakable mercy of a sound understanding, dictates the necessary discipline, and feel that some be anxious above all things to "walk with God" in the interest is taken in their comfort, one half of the work constant use of that Divine Revelation which he has is done.

been pleased to make of himself, and in humble 2dly. Occupation and Amusement—are of great im- prayer for the influence of his Holy Spirit that they portance, though their value has only been properly may be enabled to receive its doctrines, and obey its understood of late. Out of confinement, as well as in precepts; and let all who call themselves Christians it, idleness is the greatest evil of our nature ; it makes remember, that in proof of the Almighty having the man who is at liberty his own tormentor; while inseparably connected sin with suffering, and holiness employment will sweeten the dreariest hour of solitude with happiness, an illustrious layman has said that in a prison, and greatly increases the pleasure of “ whatever disunites man from God, separates man society under confinement. It was once the declara- from man." If then, all suffering and sorrow be a tion of a poor convict who was long shut up in a consequence of the Fall, who can doubt that madness dungeon, that he was for months supplied with the is so ? and where then, in addition to human means, means of fixing his attention and engaging his may we more properly look for aid than to Him who thoughts by watching the movements of a spider, the in the days of his flesh, especially remembered outonly tenant of his cell. We now find the females casts, and now declares that “whosoever will, may in every well conducted Lunatic Asylum, working, come." The power of using that will, and the sucress knitting, getting up the linen, mending, and reading which may attend its exercise, cannot be defined or suitable books; while the men are also engaged | limited by man, and can only be fully known by Him with books, garden work, tennis-ball, pumping “ who knoweth all things.”

P. water, battledoor and shuttlecock, or other healthful and harmless occupations. The bodily exercise so

* The last return at Bethlem gave a proportion of seventy

seven under religious instruction, out of two hundred and necessary to the health is thus provided for by pro- twenty then in the house. moting proper circulation, and assisting due secretion; while the mind is no longer suffered to prey upon I CANNOT but remember with thankfulness the benefit I itself for want of some external object; in this way, derived from the Lectures of Dr. Adam Marshall on both present comfort and future cure are found to be Human Anatomy. He was a man of strong mind, and eminently promoted.

had deeply studied the mathematical construction and laws. 3dly. As to Religious Instruction. The experience of of our bony fabric, and was never happier than when exall the asylums which have tried it, is, that under the plaining them. In the course which I attended, he was exercise of a wise discretion in the selection of cases, particularly scientific and eloquent on this subject. I re

member his devoting a whole lecture to display the proand of prudent caution in their management, religion found science that was visible in the formation of the double and morals are actual helps in the cure of insanity, hinges of our joints. Such was the effect of his demonas well as no small alleviations where a cure cannot strations, that our inquisitive friend, who had accompanied be effected. This is not an experiment of yesterday, me to his course with sceptical inclinations, suddenly exfor the judicious religious instruction of those who claimed, with great emphasis one day as we left his rooms, are recovering has been in use for a great number of his own body, can remain an Atheist." I felt as he did,

“A man must be a fool indeed, who, after duly studying years at Bethlem-hospital, under two successive chap- but had not been aware that his objecting mind was spon lains ; nor did that hospital adopt the plan till such taneously working itself into so important a conviction.accumulated evidence poured in from all England and Sacred sistarr of the World

We

NOCTURNAL FIGHT WITH A LION.-A number of lions Arabia the plains are seldom without salt ; and in are met with among the hills of California, and they are Africa this substance is so abundantly spread on the said to be very ferocious. A former commandant of Mexico, in the year 1821, was travelling near the Gulf of ground, that we may presume the dry and hot soil Molexe, and finding it impossible, from the lateness of the has some share in its formation. hour, to reach Loreto before the morning, he resolved upon

In many parts of the world we meet with lakes of sleeping in one of the valleys near the shore. His two salt water, whose bottoms are encrusted with layers sons, youths of sixteen and eighteen years of age, accom of salt. Mr. Barrow, in particular, notices these salt panied him. The father, being apprehensive of lions, lakes. He met with them to the east of the Cape of which he knew to be plentiful among the mountains, slept Good Hope, on the frontiers of the Caffry country, with a son on either side of him, charitably supposing that, and has given the following account of them. if one of these animals should approach the party during encamped on the verdant bank of a beautiful lake, in the night, he would certainly attack the person sleeping on the outside. About midnight, a wandering lion found out the midst of a wood of fruit-bearing plants. It was the retreat of the party, and, without his approach being of an oval form, about three miles in circumference. perceived, he leaped upon the father, in whose body he On the western side was a shelving bank of green inserted his teeth and claws, and with his mane and tail turf, and round the other parts of the basin the erect, proceeded forthwith to devour him. moved by the cries

and sufferings of their parent, grappled ground, rising more abruptly, and to a greater height, the lion manfully, who, finding his priz contested, be

was covered thickly with the same kind of plants as came furious: the combat was most bloody. After being had been observed to grow most commonly in the dreadfully lacerated, the two brave youths succeeded, with thickets of the adjoining country. The water was a simple knife, in killing their ferocious enemy, but, un- perfectly clear, but salt as brine. It was one of those happily for them, not soon enough to save their father; salt-water lakes, which abound in Southern Africa, and the afflicted boys were left to lament his death and where they are called zout-pans by the colonists. The their own severe wounds. They both, with difficulty, survived ; and are, I understand, still living in California,

one in question, it seems, is the most famous in the although dreadful objects,—the features of one of them colony, and is resorted to by the inhabitants from being nearly obliterated.-HARDY's Travels in Mexico. very distant parts, for the purpose of procuring salt

for their own consumption, or for sale. It is situated THE SWALLOWS.

on a plain of considerable elevation above the level of Ye gentle birds, that perch aloof,

the sea. The greatest part of the bottom of the lake And smooth your pinions on my roof,

was covered with one continued body of salt like a Preparing for departure hence,

sheet of ice, the crystals of which were so united that Ere Winter's angry threats commence;

it formed a solid mass as hard as rock. The margin, Like you, my soul would smooth her plume or shore, of the basin, was like the sandy beach of For longer flights beyond the tomb.

the sea-coast, with sand-stone and quartz pebbles May God, by whom is seen and heard

thirly scattered over it, some red, some purple, and Departing man and wand'ring bird,

others gray. Beyond the narrow belt of sand round In mercy mark me for His own,

the margin, the sheet of salt commenced with a thin And guide me to the land unknow 1 !-HAYLEY.

porous crust, increasing in thickness and solidity as

it advanced towards the middle of the lake. The salt SALT.

that is taken out for use is generally broken up with The varieties of this useful mineral are distinguished pick-axes, where it is about four or five inches thick, by the different situations in which they are found : which is at no great distance from the margin of the thus we have Sea-salt, Rock-salt, Lake-salt, and lake. The thickness in the middle is not known, a Fountain-salt; all possessing exactly the same pro- quantity of water generally remaining in that part. perties, and containing the same component parts. The dry south-easterly winds of summer agitating the To those who are unacquainted with the effect of water of the lake, produce on the margin a fine light chemical combinations, it will appear strange that a powdery salt, like fakes of snow. This is equally substance of such an agreeable flavour as salt should beautiful as the refined salt of England, and is much be composed of the most unpalatable materials ; but sought after by the women, who always commission this is really the case ; for salt is formed by the their husbands to bring home a quantity of snowy union of soda with marine acid, either of which, salt for the table. taken separately, is highly disagreeable.

“I caused a hole four feet in depth to be dug in the When salt is suffered to crystallize regularly, it sand, close to the edge of the water. The two firs takes the form of a cube, and, when broken, splits feet were through sand, like that of the sea-shore, in into thin plates. It is one of the most abundant which were mingled small shining crystals of salt. substances in nature, being distributed with a profu- The third foot was considerably harder and more sion in proportion to our wants, and found in some compact, and came up in flakes that required some state or other in every country of the world. The degree of force to break; and the last foot was so sea is the most abundant source of this mineral, since solid that the spade would scarcely pierce it; and it has been ascertained that one-thirtieth part of all | one-fifth part of the mass, at least, was pure salt in the great waters of the ocean is formed of salt. The crystals. The water now gushed in perfectly clear, quantity of salt, however, which the sea contains, is and as salt as brine." not the same in all climates. The proportion appears Salt springs are very numerous, and occur in most to increase from the poles in a regular progression, parts of the world. Those of our own country, siand to be greatest in quantity near the Equator. The tuated at Northwich, are well known for the great North Seas contain a sixty-fourth, those of Germany quantity of salt which is annually obtained from about a thirtieth, the Spanish Main a sixteenth, and them. The springs are from twenty to forty yards the ocean, within the Equator, from a twelfth to an below the surface of the earth, and the water is raised eighth part.

by a steam-engine, and conveyed through long In very hot countries, where the earth is dry and troughs to the brine-pits, where it is evaporated in sandy, it is not uncommon to find the surface covered large iron pans till the salt crystallizes. An immense with a crust of salt. This circumstance is mentioned quantity is collected in this way, no less than 45,000 by several travellers. In Persia very extensive plains tons being annually manufactured in the town of are said to be covered with a sort of fleecy salt. In Northwich.

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View of a Salt Mine. The only mines of rock-salt in England are those when this wonderful place is well lighted up, the nicar Northwich in Chester, discovered about a mile reflection of the torches from so many brilliant surfrom the town, in the year 1670. The beds of salt faces must have a very surprising effect. in these mines are found from 80 to 140 feet below

[Abridged from Wood's Zoography.] the surface of the earth. They vary in thickness, and lie in a waved direction. The first stratum, or

THE HAPPY MAN. bed, is from fifteen to twenty-one yards in thick

By SIR TENRY WOOTON, Provost of Eton, who died 1639, aged 72 ness, in appearance resembling brown sugar-candy,

How happy is he born or taught, perfectly solid, and so hard as to be broken with

That serveth not another's will;

Whose armour is his honest thought, great difficulty by iron picks and wedges. This part of the business, however, has lately been much acce

And simple truth his highest skill: lerated by gunpowder, with which the workmen

Whose passions not his masters are ;

Whose soul is still prepared for death; loosen and remove many tons together. Beneath this

Not tyd unto the world with care stratum is a bed of hard-stone, consisting of large veins

Of princes' ear, or vulgar breath : of flag, intermingled with some rock-salt, the whole

Who hath his life from rumours freed; from twenty-five to thirty-five yards in thickness.

Whose conscience is his strong retreat; Under this bed is a second stratum, or mine, of salt,

Whose state can neither flatterers feed, from five to six yards thick, many parts of it perfectly

· Nor ruin make oppressors great: white, and clear as crystal ; others brown; but all

Who envies none whom chance doth raise, less impure than the upper stratum. The whole mass

Or vice: who never understood of salt is covered by a bed of whitish clay, used in

How deepest wounds are given with praise,

Nor rules of state, but rules of gooil. the manufacture of Liverpool ware.

Who God doth late and early pray Rock-salt pits are sunk at a great expense, and are

More of his grace than gifts to lend; very uncertain in their duration; being frequently de

And entertains the harmless day stroyed by the brine springs bursting into them, and

With a well-chosen book, or friend. dissolving the pillars that support the roof; through

This man is freed from servile bands which the whole work falls in, leaving vast chasms

Of hope to rise, or fear to fall; in the surface of the earth. In forming a pit, a shaft,

Lord of himself, though not of lands, or eye, is sunk, similar to that of a coal pit, but more

. And having nothing, yet hath all. extensive. When the workmen have penetrated to the salt rock, and made a proper cavity, they leave a

LONDON

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NOMDERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS, sufficient substance of the rock (generally about

PRICE SIXPENCE, BY seven yards in thickness) to form a solid roof; and, JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. as they proceed, they hew pillars out of the rock to sus

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom. tain the roof, and then employ gunpowder to separate

Ilawkers and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms

by ORR, Paternoster-row; BERGER, Holywell-street; DOUGLAS, what they intend to raise. This is conveyed to the

Portman-street, London;

And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :--. surface in large craggy lumps, drawn up in capacious

Aberdeen, Brown & Co. Durham, Andrews. Northampton, Birdsall. baskets. The largest rock-salt pit now worked is in Bath, George.

Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Norwich, Muskett. the township of Wilton, near Northwich. This has

Birmingham, Langbridge. E.reter, Penny & Co. Nottingham, Wright.

Bristol, Westley & Co. Glasgow, Griffin & Co. Orford, Slatter. been excavated in a circular form, 108 yards in dia

Cumbridge, Stevenson,

Paris, Bennis.

Hereford, Child; Watkins Salisbury, Brodie & Co meter; its roof is supported by twenty-five pillars, Chelmsford, Guy. Hull, Wilson.

Sheffield, Ridge. each three yards wide at the front, four at the back,

Cheltenham, Lovesy. Lancashire and Cheshire,Shrewsbury, Eddowes.

Chester, Seacome; Hard- Bancks & Co., Man Staffordshire Potteries, and its sides extending six yards. Each pillar con

ing.

Watts, Lane End, Chichester, Glover. Leeds, Robinson.

Sunderland, Marwood. tains 294 solid yards of rock-salt; and the whole Colchester, Swinborne & Leicester, Combe. Whitby, Rodgers. area of the pit, which is fourteen yards hollow, in

Liverpool, Hughes. Worcester, Deighton.

Derby, Wilkins & Son. Macclesfield, Swinnerton. Yarmouth, Alexander. cludes 9160 superficial yards, being little less than Devonport, Byers. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fin York, Bellerby, two acres of land,

Dublin, Curry Jun. & Co. lay and Charlton;
We may casily conceive that

Dundee, Shaw

Empson,

Gloucester, Jew.

Carlisle, Thurnam.

chester.

Co.

Saturday

ENERAL

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DUCATI

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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The Peak of Derbyshire, in which this stupendous At the first entrance, the spectator is surprised to cavern is situated, gives name to a large tract of find that a number of twine-makers have established hilly country in the county of Derby, between the their residence and manufactory within this tremenDerwent and the Dove, and is separated from Staf- dous gulf, and the combination of their rude appearfordshire by the last named river. This district is a ance and machines, with the sublime features of the region of bleak barren heights and long-extended natural scenery, impresses the mind with an indescribmoors, interspersed with deep valleys through which able emotion of awe. After proceeding about ninety many small streams take their course. The High feet, the roof becomes lower, and a gentle descent Peak is peculiarly liable to violent storms, during which conducts by a detached rock to the inner entrance, the rain descends in torrents, and frequently occa- where the blaze of the day wholly disappears, and sions great damage. The country abounds in mines all further researches must be pursued by torch-light. of lead, iron, coal and antimony.

The passage now becomes extremely confined, and On the summit of an almost inaccessible rock is the visiter is obliged to proceed about twenty yards seated the little town of Castleton, so called from in a stooping posture; but on his arrival at a spacious a very ancient castle, the ruins of which remain. From some of the ornaments still remaining in one of the walls, it is supposed to have been a Norman structure, and is said to have been built by William Peveril, the natural son of William the Conqueror. Its historical interest has been revived by Sir Walter Scott, in his novel of Peveril of the Peak ; but it was not, as might be inferred from that work, in the possession of the family of the Peverils, at so late a period as the Restoration. At the base of the huge rock on which stands this curious remnant of antiquity, is the mouth of the celebrated Peak Cavern, commonly called the Devil's Hole.

The entrance is situated in a gloomy recess, between two ranges of perpendicular rocks, having on the left, a rivulet, which issues from the cave, and pursues its foaming course over broken masses of limestone. A vast canopy of rock overhangs the mouth of this stupendous cavity, forming a low arch, 120 feet in width and 42 in height.

Interior of the Cavern.
VOL. I.

20

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opening called the Bell House, he is again enabled to this kind may be thought very good practice : put stand upright, and proceed without inconvenience to God Almighty did not make swallows that they might the brink of a piece of water, where a small boat is be put to death for amusement ør for praetice. Some ready to convey him to the interior of the cavern ; to birds do a great deal of harm to our fields and gardens; reach which, he has to pass beneath a massy rock, and to destroy them seems to be a matter of self-dewhich stoops to within twenty inches of the water. fence: but the poor swallow does us no harm at all : To perform this uncomfortable part of his journey, he there is reason to think that he is sent to do us good. has to extend himself on his back in the boat, with When he is darting through the air, and wheeling the dripping rock within a few inches of his face. round and round so swiftly that the eye can hardly

On landing on the opposite side, he finds himself follow him, he is catching flies, which are intended to in the second apartment, a spacious chamber, about be his food. Many thousands and millions of flies 220 feet long, 200 broad, and in some parts 120 feet are destroyed in this way: and if they were all suffered high ; but, from the want of light, neither the roof to live, they would in time cover the earth; and we nor the distant sides of this vast cave can be plainly should be as badly off as the Egyptians, when God discerned.

sent upon them the plague of Aies and other insects. Near the ending of a shallow stream, called the We ought to feel much obliged to the swallows for Second Water, is a jutting pile of rocks, called Roger lessening the number of these troublesome guests. Rain's House, from the circumstance of water con- We should also remember, that the swallows come tinually dripping from the crevices of the roof. to England to build their nests. They set about this After passing along a narrow passage, with occasionally very soon after their arrival; and when their young more spacious openings, he arrives at another large ones are strong enough to fly, they all leave the apartment, called the Chancel, where the rocks ap- country. It is hardly possible, therefore, to kill a pear much broken, and the sides are curiously covered swallow, without robbing some little birds of a father with stalactites*. Here the stranger is generally sur

or a mother. The female swallow leaves her nest on prised by an invisible concert, which bursts in dis- a summer's evening, and fills her beak with flies.cordant tones from the upper regions of the chasm ; But she does not catch them only for herself: she

yet,” says a respectable tourist, “ being unexpected, has some young children at home, and she is thinking and issuing from a quarter where no object can be of them all the time that she is gliding through the seen, in a place where all is still as death, and calcu- air after her prey. When she is returning to her lated to impress the imagination with solemn ideas, nest with her mouth full of food, she is suddenly it can seldom be heard without that mingled emotion struck with a shot, and down she drops to the ground, of awe and pleasure, astonishment and delight, which bleeding and dead. Her little ones go without their is one of the most interesting feelings of the mind.” supper for that night; they pass all the time in a sad At the conclusion of the strain, the choristers (con- and piteous chirping; and their father does not know sisting of eight or ten women and children) aré seen how to quiet them, when he finds himself in the nest ranged in a hollow of the rock, about fifty feet above without his partner. After a sleepless night, he sets the floor, with lighted torches in their hands.

out to catch some flies; but he does not know how After passing the Cellar, as it is called, and the to feed them as their mother did; and before the Halfway House, neither of which is particularly de- evening is over, he too is shot dead by some person who, serving of attention, the visiter proceeds beneath three is practising the art of shooting flying. The young ones natural arches to a vast concavity, which, from its now begin to suffer seriously from hunger: they open resemblance to a bell, is called the Great Tom of their little beaks, but no mother comes to put any Lincoln From this point, the vault gradually de- thing into them. They see the old birds

go

backwards scends, the cavity contracts, and at length leaves no and forwards to another nest which is close by, but more room than is sufficient for the passage of the their own turn never comes. At night they get very cold. stream, which continues to flow through a channel | Their mother used to cover them with her wings, and under ground. The entire length of this wonderful with the soft feathers of her breast; but now they cavern is 2250 feet, and its depth from the surface of have nothing to warm them. In the morning, two or the mountain about 620.

three of them are dead. The chirping becomes fainter A curious effect is produced by the explosion of a and fainter: no little heads are seen stretching out small quantity of gunpowder, wedged into the rock and asking for food: they shake and quiver against in the interior of this cave ; for the sound appears to each other at the bottom of the nest; and after a few roll along the roof and sides, like a tremendous and hours they all die of hunger.

E. B. continued peal of thunder. The effect of the light, on returning from these

THE BOOK OF PSALMS. dark recesses, is particularly impressive' ; and the What is there necessary for man to know, which the gradual illumination of the rocks with dim, golden, or

Psalms are not able to teach? They are, to beginners, an

easy and familiar introduction, a mighty augmentation of rather sulphureous, haze, which becomes brighter as all virtue and knowledge; in such as are entered before, a the entrance is approached, is said to exhibit one of the strong confirmation to the most perfect amongst others. most interesting scenes that ever employed the pencil Heroical magnanimity, exquisite justice, grave moderation, of an artist, or fixed the admiration of a spectator.

exact wisdom, repentance unfeigned, unwearied patience, • The water of many springs contains an acid, called carbonic acid, in sulli.

the mysteries of God, the sufferings of Christ, the terrors cient quantity to dissolve a part of the chalk and limestone over which it

of wrath, the comforts of grace, the works of Providence passes. Thus charged, the water, after passing through the pores of the rock, over this world, and the promised joys of that world which deposites the chalk in many curious forns, like icicles; these are called stalactiles. Water of this description possesses a petrifying property, and

is to come, all good necessarily to be either known, or done, objects steeped in it are said to become petrified, that is, converted into stone; or had,- this one celestial fountain yieldeth. Let there be though, in reality, they are only encrusted with the chalk which the water

any grief or disease incident to the soul of man, any wound

or sickness named, for which there is not in this treasure THE CRUELTY OF SHOOTING SWALLOWS.

house a present comfortable remedy at all times rearly to

be found ?-HOOKER. When I see boys or grown-up men amusing themselves on a summer's evening with shooting swallows, It is no sinall commendation to manage a little well. He I am willing to believe that they do not think of the

is a good waggoner that can turn in a little room. To live

well in abundance, is the praise of the estate, not of the misery which they are causing. To kill a swallow

person. I will study more how to give a good account o. flying may be a very diflicult thing; and shooting of my little, tha.. how to make it inore.-Bishop HALL.

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contains.

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